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Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835647


The emergence of drug resistance combined with limited success in the discovery of newer and effective antimicrobial chemotherapeutics poses a significant challenge to human and animal health. Nanoparticles may be an approach for effective drug development and delivery against infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Here we discuss nanoparticles therapeutics and nano-drug delivery against bacterial infections. The therapeutic efficacy of numerous kinds of nanoparticles including nanoantibiotics conjugates, small molecules capped nanoparticles, polymers stabilized nanoparticles, and biomolecules functionalized nanoparticles has been discussed. Moreover, nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems against bacterial infections have been described. Furthermore, the fundamental limitation of biocompatibility and biosafety of nanoparticles is also conferred. Finally, we propose potential future strategies of nanomaterials as antibacterials.

Antibiotics (Basel) ; 8(4)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600971


Infections due to multi-drug resistant bacteria are on the rise and there is an urgent need to develop new antibacterials. In this regard, a series of six functionally diverse new quinazolinone compounds were synthesized by a facile one-pot reaction of benzoic acid derivatives, trimethoxymethane and aniline derivatives. Three compounds of 3-aryl-8-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one, and 3-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyquinazolin4(3H)-one were prepared and tested against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Furthermore, we determined whether conjugation with silver nanoparticles improved the antibacterial efficacy of these quinazolinone derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), Zetasizer analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using bactericidal evaluation, effects were determined against selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of nanoconjugates on human cells were determined. The UV-vis spectrum of silver nanoparticles conjugated quinazolinone displayed surface plasmon resonance band in the range of 400-470 nm, and the size of nanoparticles was detected to be in the range of 100-250 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS). FT-IR study confirmed the stabilization of silver nanoparticles by the presence of diverse functional arayl on each compound. SEM further revealed the construction of spherical nanoparticles. Among the quinazolinone derivative tested, two compounds (QNZ 4, QNZ 6) conjugated with silver nanoparticles showed enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K1, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, B. cereus and P. aeruginosa as compared to the compounds.

Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3122, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816269


Herein, we report green synthesized nanoparticles based on stabilization by plant gums, loaded with citrus fruits flavonoids Hesperidin (HDN) and Naringin (NRG) as novel antimicrobial agents against brain-eating amoebae and multi-drug resistant bacteria. Nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by using zetasizer, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, ultravoilet-visible and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic techniques. The size of these spherical nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 100-225 nm. The antiamoebic effects of these green synthesized Silver and Gold nanoparticles loaded with HDN and NRG were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri, while antibacterial effects were evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. Amoebicidal assays revealed that HDN loaded Silver nanoparticles stabilized by gum acacia (GA-AgNPs-HDN) quantitatively abolished amoeba viability by 100%, while NRG loaded Gold nanoparticles stabilized by gum tragacanth (GT-AuNPs-NRG) significantly reduced the viability of A. castellanii and N. fowleri at 50 µg per mL. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibited the encystation and excystation by more than 85%, as well as GA-AgNPs-HDN only completely obliterated amoeba-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity. Whereas, GA-AgNPs-HDN exhibited significant bactericidal effects against MRSA and E. coli K1 and reduced bacterial-mediated host cells cytotoxicity. Notably, when tested against human cells, these nanoparticles showed minimal (23%) cytotoxicity at even higher concentration of 100 µg per mL as compared to 50 µg per mL used for antimicrobial assays. Hence, these novel nanoparticles formulations hold potential as therapeutic agents against infections caused by brain-eating amoebae, as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, and recommend a step forward in drug development.

Antibiotics (Basel) ; 7(4)2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445704


This paper sets out to determine whether silver nanoparticles conjugation enhance the antibacterial efficacy of clinically approved drugs. Silver conjugated Cephradine and Vildagliptin were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Using antibacterial assays, the effects of drugs alone and drugs-conjugated with silver nanoparticles were tested against a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Cytopathogenicity assays were performed to determine whether pretreatment of bacteria with drugs inhibit bacterial-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. The UV-vis spectra of both silver-drug nanoconjugates showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance band in the range of 400⁻450 nm. AFM further confirmed the morphology of nanoparticles and revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size distribution of 30⁻80 nm. FT-IR analysis demonstrated the involvement of Hydroxyl groups in both drugs in the stabilization of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial assays showed that silver nanoparticle conjugation enhanced antibacterial potential of both Cephradine and Vildagliptin compared to the drugs alone. Pretreatment of bacteria with drugs inhibited E. coli K1-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. In summary, conjugation with silver nanoparticle enhanced antibacterial effects of clinically approved Cephradine. These findings suggest that modifying and/or repurposing clinically approved drugs using nanotechnology is a feasible approach in our search for effective antibacterial molecules.