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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When compared to patients with normal renal function, patients with chronic kidney disease develop higher in-hospital complications post implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. However, real world data on in-hospital complications post ICD therapy in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is limited. In this study, we aim to explore the procedure-related complications of ICD therapy in patients with ESRD. METHODS: Using the nationwide inpatient sample database, we conducted a retrospective analysis on ESRD patients who underwent inpatient ICD placement from 2010 to 2016. Using 1:2 propensity score matching, we compared ESRD patients to those with normal renal function. Outcomes of interest were postoperative hemorrhage and hematoma formation, blood transfusion, pericardial complications, mechanical complications requiring lead revision, vascular injury, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay. RESULTS: Our sample included 40,075 cases with subsequent propensity score matching between ESRD and normal renal function. Comparatively, patients with ESRD had higher odds of  postoperative hemorrhage (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-1.99, P = <0.0001), blood transfusion (OR, 3.88; CI 3.29-4.56; P = <0.0001), mechanical complications requiring lead revision (OR, 1.24; CI 1.01-1.51; P = 0.035), vascular injury (OR, 2.02; CI 1.27-3.24; P = 0.0027), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.56; CI 3.08-6.76; P = <0.0001), and longer hospitalization (11 days VS 7 days, P = <0.0001), but without significant difference in pericardial complications (OR, 1.9; CI 0.92-1.54; P = <0.18). CONCLUSION: In this large contemporary cohort, patients with ESRD undergoing inpatient ICD therapy are at higher risk of developing post-procedural complications including hemorrhage and hematoma, blood transfusion, mechanical complications requiring lead revision, and in hospital mortality, without increased risk of pericardial complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708572

RESUMO

AIMS: Amiodarone reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass surgery; however, the benefit of perioperative amiodarone in patients undergoing septal myectomy (SM) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (oHCM) has not been studied. We hypothesized that prophylactic amiodarone would reduce the incidence of postoperative AF (POAF) following SM for oHCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-centre, pre-post intervention open-label study of oral amiodarone (200 mg twice daily starting 7 days preoperatively and 200 mg once daily continuing for 30 days postoperatively) in patients without prior AF undergoing SM for oHCM from 2014 to 2018. The primary outcome was incident AF within 30 days. Secondary outcomes were unplanned readmission, AF treatment, total and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and pacemaker implantation for high-grade atrioventricular (AV) block. 61 patients met inclusion criteria with 34 (55.8%) in the pre-intervention (control) group and 27 (44.2%) in the post-intervention (amiodarone) group. The incidence of POAF was 11.0% in the amiodarone group compared with 38.2% in the control group (P = 0.017). After adjusting for age, amiodarone was associated with less POAF [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05, 0.76; P = 0.016]. ICU (2 days [IQR 1, 4] vs. 3 days [IQR 2, 4]; P = 0.165) and total (6 days [IQR 5, 6] vs. 6 days [IQR 5, 7]; P = 0.165) LOS were similar, as was the rate of pacemaker implantation (7.4% vs. 8.3%, P > 0.999). There were no adverse events associated with amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative oral amiodarone is safe and was associated with lower incidence of POAF following SM for oHCM.

3.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(4): 1002-1012, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527523

RESUMO

Background: Readmissions following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are common but detailed analysis of cardiac and non-cardiac inpatient readmissions beyond thirty days to different levels of care are limited. Methods: Our study population was 1,037 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR between 2011-2017 within a multi-hospital quaternary health system. A retrospective chart review was performed and readmissions were adjudicated and classified based on primary readmission diagnosis (cardiac versus noncardiac) and level of care [intensive care unit (ICU) admission vs. non-ICU admission]. Incidence, causes, and outcomes of readmissions to up to three years post procedure were evaluated. Results: Of the 1,017 patients who survived their index hospitalization, there were readmissions due to noncardiac causes in 350 (34.4%) and cardiac causes in 208 (20.5%) during a mean 1.96 years of follow-up. The most common non-cardiac causes of readmission were sepsis/infection (14.3%), gastrointestinal (8.3%), and respiratory (4.8%), whereas heart failure (14.0%) and arrhythmias (4.6%) were the most common cardiac causes of readmission. A total of 191 (18.8%) patients were readmitted to the ICU and 372 patients (36.6%) were non-ICU readmissions. The risk of a noncardiac readmission was highest in the period immediately following TAVR (~4.5% per month) with an early high hazard phase that gradually declined over months. However, the risk of cardiac readmission remained stable at ~1% per month throughout. TAVR patients that were readmitted for any cause had markedly increased mortality; this was especially true for patients readmitted to an ICU. Conclusions: In TAVR patients who survived their index hospitalization, non-cardiac readmissions were more prevalent than cardiac. The risk of readmission and subsequent mortality was highest immediately post-procedure and declined thereafter. Readmission to ICU portends the highest risk of subsequent death in this cohort. Patient baseline co-morbidities are an important consideration for TAVR patients and play a significant role in readmissions and outcomes.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021367, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533035

RESUMO

Background Well-conducted meta-analyses are considered to be at the top of the evidence-based hierarchy pyramid, with an expansion of these publications within the cardiovascular research arena. There are limited data evaluating the trends and quality of such publications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodological rigor and temporal trends of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals. Methods and Results Using the Medline database, we retrieved cardiovascular medicine-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, The British Medical Journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, Circulation, European Heart Journal, and Journal of American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018. Among 6406 original investigations published during the study period, meta-analyses represented 422 (6.6%) articles, with an annual decline in the proportion of published meta-analyses (8.7% in 2012 versus 4.6% in 2018, Ptrend=0.002). A substantial number of studies failed to incorporate elements of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines (51.9%) and only a minority of studies (10.4%) were registered in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Fewer manuscripts failed to incorporate the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology elements over time (60.2% in 2012 versus 40.0% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001) whereas the number of meta-analyses registered at PROSPERO has increased (2.4% in 2013 versus 17.5% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions The proportion of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals has declined over time. Although there is an increasing trend in compliance with quality-based guidelines, the overall compliance remains low.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e019291, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585590

RESUMO

Background Studies have reported that people living with HIV have higher burden of subclinical cardiovascular disease, but the data are not adequately synthesized. We performed meta-analyses of studies of coronary artery calcium and coronary plaque in people living with HIV. Methods and Results We performed systematic search in electronic databases, and data were abstracted in standardized forms. Study-specific estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. 43 reports representing 27 unique studies and involving 10 867 participants (6699 HIV positive, 4168 HIV negative, mean age 52 years, 86% men, 32% Black) were included. The HIV-positive participants were younger (mean age 49 versus 57 years) and had lower Framingham Risk Score (mean score 6 versus 18) compared with the HIV-negative participants. The pooled estimate of percentage with coronary artery calcium >0 was 45% (95% CI, 43%-47%) for HIV-positive participants, and 52% (50%-53%) for HIV-negative participants. This difference was no longer significant after adjusting for difference in Framingham Risk Score between the 2 groups. The odds ratio of coronary artery calcium progression for HIV-positive versus -negative participants was 1.64 (95% CI, 0.91-2.37). The pooled estimate for prevalence of noncalcified plaque was 49% (95% CI, 47%-52%) versus 20% (95% CI, 17%-23%) for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative participants, respectively. Odds ratio for noncalcified plaque for HIV-positive versus -negative participants was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.08-1.38). There was significant heterogeneity that was only partially explained by available study-level characteristics. Conclusions People living with HIV have higher prevalence of noncalcified coronary plaques and similar prevalence of coronary artery calcium, compared with HIV-negative individuals. Future studies on coronary artery calcium and plaque progression can further elucidate subclinical atherosclerosis in people living with HIV.

6.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471997

RESUMO

Clinical heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias are hallmark features of amyloid cardiomyopathy. In contrast to the advancements in targeted therapies, there is a general lack of evidence-based practice guidelines for clinical management of amyloid cardiomyopathy. In this review, we review the role of routine medical therapy in amyloid cardiomyopathy, from heart failure management to orthostatic hypotension, atrial arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications, and prevention of sudden death. We conclude by discussing approaches to patients with end-stage disease.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003356, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The p.Val142Ile variant, predominantly found among people of African descent, is the most common cause of variant transthyretin amyloidosis and carriers predominantly develop a cardiomyopathy (variant transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy) phenotype. Yet, there are conflicting data on the prevalence and outcomes of p.Val142Ile variant carriers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the prevalence and outcomes of p.Val142Ile variant transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy among subjects of African descent. We found 62 relevant articles after searching the MEDLINE databases from 1980 to 2020 that reported data for ≈150 000 subjects. RESULTS: The reported worldwide prevalence of the p.Val142Ile variant is 0.3% to 1.6% in the general population. Among people of African descent, the reported prevalence from all studies ranges from 1.1% to 9.8%, but for studies with >1000 subjects, it is 3% to 3.5%. The prevalence of the p.Val142Ile variant in a region is dependent on the reported percentage of subjects who are of African descent in that region. p.Val142Ile variant transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy typically presents in the seventh to eighth decade of life and the majority of cases reported were male, with 25% to 38% diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. It was associated with a longitudinally worse quality of life and a lower adjusted survival compared with other types of transthyretin amyloidosis cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The p.Val142Ile variant is the most common variant of the transthyretin gene with most carriers being of African descent. The true penetrance is unknown but the p.Val142Ile variant is associated with increased rates of incident heart failure and portends a lower overall survival. Increased awareness could lead to earlier diagnosis and improved heart failure outcomes among those of African descent, which is of increasing importance given the advent of novel therapeutics for this disease.

8.
Am J Cardiol ; 157: 107-114, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366115

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter (AFL) frequently complicate transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CM). Management poses challenges as rate control drugs are poorly tolerated and data addressing tolerability and efficacy of rhythm control is limited. We report outcomes of AF/AFL in ATTR-CM in a single center observational study of patients seen at our Amyloidosis Center with wild-type or hereditary ATTR-CM diagnosed between 2005-2019 including 84 patients (average age 74 ± 10 years, 94% male) with 27.6 ± 22.8 months follow-up. AF/AFL occurred in 61 patients (73%). Rapid ventricular response was common as was attempted rate control. However, discontinuation of rate control drugs was frequent (80%), often for adverse effects. Rhythm control was attempted in 64%, usually with cardioversion (DCCV) or ablation. Post-DCCV recurrence was common (91%) and time to recurrence was similar with or without anti-arrhythmic drugs (5.8 months (IQR 1.9-12.5) vs 6.2 months (IQR 1.9-12.5) p = 0.83). Ablation was performed in 23% with AFL (all for typical AFL) with 14% recurrence after mean of 60.9 months. Ablation for AF was performed in 12% with 86% recurrence after median of 6.2 months (IQR 5.6-12.3). Most patients (62%) with rhythm control had subjective improvement (≥1 NYHA class or resolved palpitations). In conclusion, AF/AFL was common in our cohort. Rate control was poorly tolerated and often abandoned. Rhythm control led to symptomatic improvement in a majority of cases, but durable success was limited. DCCV was modestly successful and not significantly improved with anti-arrhythmics. Ablation was successful with typical AFL but had limited success in AF.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Flutter Atrial/terapia , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(2): 286-290, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34317520

RESUMO

Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) is a multiorgan syndrome with rare and heterogenous cardiac manifestations. We present the case of a man with pericardial effusion complicated by cardiac tamponade, new onset atrial fibrillation, and high-degree atrioventricular block leading to a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

10.
Quintessence Int ; 52(9): 788-796, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 led to the adoption of containment measures including the temporary closure of dental clinics. However, dental emergencies have not ceased during this pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze patient profiles and the offered management options to pediatric patients presenting with dental emergencies during a COVID-19 lockdown. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Retrospective analysis was performed of patient records of children seeking emergency dental treatment during a 7-week lockdown period in 2020 in a university pedodontic clinic in Germany, and compared to a similar cohort from 2019. Data on patient, tooth, and session level were collected. RESULTS: The 2020 cohort consisted of 83 patients, and the 2019 cohort included 46 patients, showing a 45% greater need for emergency treatment in 2020. The most common chief complaint was plaque-induced gingivitis/oral mucosal conditions in 2020 (26.4%), and irreversible pulpitis in 2019 (25.5%). Dental caries (without spontaneous pain) was the second most common chief complaint in both cohorts (20.7% and 23.4%, respectively). Most interventions in 2020 were minimally invasive treatments (eg, Hall Technique, silver diammine fluoride; 20.3%), which were in 2019 not considered at all; followed by pharmacologic treatment (16.9%), which was in 2019 also highly used (35.9%). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in emergency pediatric dental visits and shifted treatment options towards less invasive procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cárie Dentária , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Emergências , Tratamento de Emergência , Humanos , Pandemias , Odontopediatria , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Comp Eff Res ; 10(11): 927-938, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142865

RESUMO

Aim: Delayed diagnosis of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) represents a missed opportunity for intervention. This study estimates the health benefits of timely diagnosis and treatment with tafamidis. Methods: A disease simulation model was developed to predict health outcomes under scenarios of timely and delayed diagnosis and treatment. Efficacy and quality of life (QoL) profiles were derived from the pivotal tafamidis trial and diagnostic delay durations from the literature. Results: Timely diagnosis and treatment were predicted to extend mean life expectancy by 5.46 and 7.76 years, relative to delayed diagnosis, for wild-type and hereditary ATTR-CM, respectively. Corresponding QALY gains were 4.50 and 6.22. Conclusion: Timely diagnosis and treatment with tafamidis are predicted to significantly improve survival and QoL for ATTR-CM patients.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares , Cardiomiopatias , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Pré-Albumina/genética , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is a genetic disorder treated with septal reduction therapy, either alcohol septal ablation or septal myectomy (SM). Historically older patients have been presumed to be poor candidates for SM and thus referred directly for alcohol septal ablation in some centers. We reviewed our experience with SM in older patients. METHODS: We identified 100 patients at our institution who underwent SM for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy from 2015 to 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients 65 years or older were compared with patients younger than 65. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were in the <65 group and 35 patients in the ≥65 group. Both groups had similar preoperative peak stress left ventricular outflow tract gradients (129 mm Hg vs 110 mm Hg, P < .001). Most patients in both groups had moderate to severe mitral regurgitation on preoperative stress echocardiography. The elderly group was more likely to have coronary artery bypass graft as a concomitant procedure (37% vs 8%, P < .001). Only 1 death occurred in the series secondary to a pulmonary embolism. At the 30-day follow-up on stress echocardiography, peak stress gradients were normal in both groups (21 and 20 mm Hg, respectively; P < .001), and 88% of all patients had trace to mild mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: Properly selected older patients can safely undergo SM with excellent outcomes similar to younger patients. Relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and correction of mitral regurgitation are reliably achieved in both groups. Advanced age should not be a strict criteria for selecting septal reduction therapy approach.

14.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(1): 141-159, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a progressive, fatal and under-recognized disease. This targeted literature review assessed the extent and consequences of diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis in ATTR-CM. METHODS: The Embase database was searched together with proceedings of eight cardiology conferences to identify publications or abstracts on ATTR-CM. Outcomes of interest were time from symptom onset to diagnosis, rates of delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis, and costs, healthcare resource use or clinical outcomes whilst undiagnosed/misdiagnosed. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles were included. Weighted means of reported mean and median diagnostic delays were 6.1 and 3.4 years for wild-type (ATTRwt-CM) and 5.7 and 2.6 years for hereditary (ATTRv-CM). Misdiagnosis occurred in 34-57% of patients when reported. Evaluation and misdiagnosis by multiple healthcare providers before receiving an ATTR-CM diagnosis was common, and there was evidence that patients undergo unnecessary or inappropriate evaluations or treatments while misdiagnosed. Diagnostic "red flags" were reported to be underused. Data on the consequences of delay for patients and health systems were sparse, but given the progressive nature of ATTR-CM, delay is likely to have adverse consequences. CONCLUSION: ATTR-CM patients commonly experience diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to provide timely diagnosis so that patients can benefit from earlier access to new disease-modifying therapies.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ATTR-ACT trial showed that tafamidis reduced all-cause mortality and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM). This study aimed to estimate the impact of tafamidis on survival and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). METHODS: A multi-state, cohort, Markov model was developed to simulate the disease course of ATTR-CM throughout a lifetime. For survival extrapolation, survival curves were fitted by treatment arm and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I/II (68% of patients) and NYHA class III (32% of patients) cohorts using the individual patient-level data from both the ATTR-ACT and the corresponding long-term extension study. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The predicted mean survival for the total population (NYHA class I/II+III) was 6.73 years for tafamidis and 2.85 years for the standard of care (SoC), resulting in an incremental mean survival of 3.88 years (95% CI 1.32-5.66). Of the 6.73 life-years, patients on tafamidis spend, on average, 4.82 years in NYHA class I/II, while patients on standard of care (SoC) spend an average of 1.60 life-years in these classes. The combination of longer survival in lower NYHA classes produced a QALY gain of 5.39 for tafamidis and 2.11 for SoC, resulting in 3.29 incremental QALYs (95% CI 1.21-4.74) in favor of tafamidis. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the disease simulation model results, tafamidis is expected to more than double the life expectancy and QALYs of ATTR-CM patients compared to SoC. Longer-term follow-up data from the ATTR-ACT extension study will further inform these findings.

16.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(5): 649-658, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) outcomes (vs. warfarin) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) across body mass index (BMI) categories, including ≥40 and <18.5 kg/m2. BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have not systematically tested the fixed DOAC dosing in underweight and morbidly obese patients. METHODS: We retrospectively included consecutive patients with nonvalvular AF with CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75, Diabetes, Stroke/transient ischemic attack/systemic thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74, Sex) of ≥1 receiving OACs at our hospital system (2010-2018). Patients were categorized into groups 1 (underweight: BMI of <18.5 kg/m2), 2 (normal/overweight: BMI of 18.5 to <30 kg/m2), 3 (grade 1/2 obesity: BMI of 30 to <40 kg/m2), and 4 (grade 3 obesity: BMI of ≥40 kg/m2). We further classified patients by DOAC versus warfarin use. Outcomes were ischemic stroke, significant bleeding events (i.e., resulting in hospitalization), and mortality. RESULTS: We included 36,094 patients with a mean age of 74 ± 11 years and CHA2DS2-VASc of 3.4 ± 1.5. Groups 1 through 4 included 455 (1.3%), 18,339 (50.8%), 13,376 (37.1%), and 3,924 (10.9%) patients, respectively. DOAC use ranged from 49% to 56%. At 3.8 follow-up years, with multivariable Cox regression, DOACs (vs. warfarin) were associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke, bleeding, and mortality across all BMI groups, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.85), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.87), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.88), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.87) (p < 0.001 for all) for ischemic stroke; 0.42 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.92), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19 to 0.89), 0.45 (95% CI: 0.20 to 1.00), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.94) (p < 0.05 for all) for bleeding; and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.19; p = 0.5), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66 to 0.75; p < 0.0001), 0.65 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.71; p < 0.0001), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.56 to 0.77; p < 0.0001) for mortality, in groups 1 to 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with nonvalvular AF, DOACs compared to warfarin were associated with better safety and effectiveness across all BMI categories, including underweight and morbidly obese patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Obesidade Mórbida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6488, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753786

RESUMO

Prisons in the United States have become a hotbed for spreading COVID-19 among incarcerated individuals. COVID-19 cases among prisoners are on the rise, with more than 143,000 confirmed cases to date. However, there is paucity of data addressing clinical outcomes and mortality in prisoners hospitalized with COVID-19. An observational study of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 10 and May 10, 2020 at two Henry Ford Health System hospitals in Michigan. Clinical outcomes were compared amongst hospitalized prisoners and non-prisoner patients. The primary outcomes were intubation rates, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox-regression models were used to investigate primary outcomes. Of the 706 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (mean age 66.7 ± 16.1 years, 57% males, and 44% black), 108 were prisoners and 598 were non-prisoners. Compared to non-prisoners, prisoners were more likely to present with fever, tachypnea, hypoxemia, and markedly elevated inflammatory markers. Prisoners were more commonly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (26.9% vs. 18.7%), required vasopressors (24.1% vs. 9.9%), and intubated (25.0% vs. 15.2%). Prisoners had higher unadjusted inpatient mortality (29.6% vs. 20.1%) and 30-day mortality (34.3% vs. 24.6%). In the adjusted models, prisoner status was associated with higher in-hospital death (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33 to 4.05) and 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.00). In this cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, prisoner status was associated with more severe clinical presentation, higher rates of ICU admissions, vasopressors requirement, intubation, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ventiladores Mecânicos
18.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(4): 623-631, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation of epicardial and mid-myocardial ventricular arrhythmias is limited by lesion depth. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to generate deep mid-interventricular septal (IVS) lesions using high-intensity ultrasound (US) from an endocardial catheter-based approach. METHODS: Irrigated US catheters (12 F) were fabricated with 3 × 5 mm transducers of 5.0, 6.5, and 8.0 MHz frequencies and compared in an ex vivo perfused myocardial ablation model. In vivo septal ablation in swine (n = 12) was performed via femoral venous access to the right ventricle. Lesions were characterized by echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and electroanatomic voltage mapping pre- and post-ablation, and at 30 days. Four animals were euthanized immediately post-ablation to compare acute and chronic lesion histology and gross pathology. RESULTS: In ex vivo models, maximal lesion depth and volume was achieved by 6.5 MHz catheters, which were used in vivo. Lesion depth by gross pathology was similar post-ablation (10.8 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.9-12.4 mm) and at 30 days (11.2 mm; 95% CI 10.6-12.4 mm) (P = .56). Lesion volume decreased post-ablation to 30 days (from 255 [95% CI 198-440] to 162 [95% CI 133-234] mm3; P = .05), yet transmurality increased from 58% (95% CI 50%-76%) to 81% (95% CI 74%-93%), attributable to a reduction in IVS thickness (from 16.0 ± 1.7 to 10.6 ± 2.4 mm; P = .007). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed dense septal ablation by delayed enhancement, with increased T1 time post-ablation and at 30 days and increased T2 time only post-ablation. Voltage mapping of both sides of IVS demonstrated reduced unipolar (but not bipolar) voltage along the IVS. CONCLUSION: High-intensity US catheter ablation may be an effective treatment of mid-myocardial or epicardial ventricular arrhythmias from an endocardial approach.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 72-76, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) are known, identifying patients who will develop AF/AFL within the near future remains challenging. We sought to evaluate if the CHA2DS2-VASc risk score (CVRS) can identify hospital readmissions with AF, AFL, or acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) among hospitalized patients without prior history of AF/AFL. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Readmission Database, a study cohort included patients without prior AF/AFL or new diagnosis of AF/AFL at the index hospitalization from 2012 to 2014. Patients were stratified based on the CVRS into three groups: Low (CVRS ≤1), Intermediate (CVRS 2-5), and High (CVRS ≥6).The primary outcome of interest was 180-day readmission rate with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF/AFL. Secondary outcomes of interest were acute CVA and 6-month mortality rate. RESULTS: A total of 17,820,640 patients were included in our study. Over a 6-month follow up duration from the index hospitalization, the overall re-admission rate for new onset atrial arrhythmias (AF/AFL) was 3.48% (n = 620,986), acute CVA 0.13% (n = 22,522), and all-cause mortality 0.31% (n = 55,632). When compared to other groups, patients with a higher CVRS were readmitted more frequently for AF/AFL [odds ratio (OR) 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.41-2.45, P < .0001), acute CVA (OR 3.96; 95%CI 3.85-4.08, P < .0001), and all-cause mortality (OR 2.19; 95%CI 2.14-2.24, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: In this large contemporary cohort, a CHADS2VA2SC score ≥ 6 identified patients without known prior atrial arrhythmias at an elevated risk of developing AF/AFL or acute CVA within 6 months of hospitalization.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Flutter Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
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