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1.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(12): 706-721, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834295

RESUMO

The management of patients with heart disease or suspected heart disease, who are hospitalized and/or who should undergo surgery or an invasive procedure, is very complex for the comorbidities often present, the multiple therapies taken and the frequent presence of advanced cardiac devices.The purpose of this document is to provide indications and standardize the behavior of different clinicians in the management of heart disease patients or those with suspected heart disease in order (i) to manage acute cardiac conditions with appropriate timing and accuracy, and (ii) to define the cardiovascular risk in the individual patient with appropriate timing and indications, allowing patients to face any surgery or invasive procedure with the lowest risk correlated to his heart disease.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 15(1): 3, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information. The study is endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography and organized in 10 subprojects focusing on: contractile reserve for prediction of cardiac resynchronization or medical therapy response; stress B-lines in heart failure; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mitral regurgitation after either transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement; outdoor SE in extreme physiology; right ventricular contractile reserve in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot; suspected or initial pulmonary arterial hypertension; coronary flow velocity, left ventricular elastance reserve and B-lines in known or suspected CAD; identification of subclinical familial disease in genotype-positive, phenotype- negative healthy relatives of inherited disease (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). RESULTS: We expect to recruit about 10,000 patients over a 5-year period (2016-2020), with sample sizes ranging from 5,000 for coronary flow velocity/ left ventricular elastance/ B-lines in CAD to around 250 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. This data-base will allow to investigate technical questions such as feasibility and reproducibility of various SE parameters and to assess their prognostic value in different clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The study will create the cultural, informatic and scientific infrastructure connecting high-volume, accredited SE labs, sharing common criteria of indication, execution, reporting and image storage of SE to obtain original safety, feasibility, and outcome data in evidence-poor diagnostic fields, also outside the established core application of SE in CAD based on regional wall motion abnormalities. The study will standardize procedures, validate emerging signs, and integrate the new information with established knowledge, helping to build a next-generation SE lab without inner walls.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(3): 483-489, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988039

RESUMO

Hypertensive hypokinetic cardiomyopathy (HHC) is defined by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction with a history of systemic hypertension as the only possible cause. Although commonly encountered in clinical practice, its characterization and differences with true idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical instrumental features and the natural history of HHC. We analyzed the data of 4,191 patients referred to our center for newly diagnosed LV systolic dysfunction from 2005 to 2010. Of them, 310 presented idiopathic LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <50%): 136 (44%) had a history of systemic hypertension and were defined HHC. The remaining 174 patients were considered IDC. Compared with patients with IDC, those with HHC were older (63 ± 11 vs 47 ± 14 years, p <0.001), with worse comorbidity profile, higher blood pressure, and increased LV mass. During follow-up, patients with HHC showed earlier and higher proportion of LV reverse remodeling (46% vs 21% at 6 months' follow-up). Moreover, they had a better long-term survival free from cardiovascular death/ventricular assist device/heart transplant/malignant ventricular arrhythmias (5.1 vs 12.6 in HHC and IDC, p = 0.03). Indeed, their mortality was mainly driven by noncardiovascular causes (at 10 years 9.6% vs 1.7% in HHC and IDC, p <0.001). In conclusion, HHC has a high prevalence among patients with "idiopathic" LV dysfunction. The natural history of patients with HHC is characterized by a rapid response to optimal therapy for heart failure, a favorable cardiovascular outcome, and a relevant incidence of noncardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Fibrilação Ventricular/epidemiologia , Remodelação Ventricular
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 112(9): 1493-8, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23972350

RESUMO

The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 11(7-8): 590-8, 2010.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21033337

RESUMO

The number of patients affected by cardiovascular disease admitted to internal medicine and geriatric wards is expanding due to the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. This contributes to a growing demand for cardiology consult visits, with requests for perioperative risk stratification for non-cardiac surgery or endoscopy, and general clinical management. This document was jointly drafted by the Cardiology and Anesthesiology departments, medical and surgical departments, and endoscopy services of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria "Ospedali Riuniti" in Trieste (Italy). It addresses critical issues such as antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in non-cardiac surgery, electric device management, and prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis. It provides general guidelines and appropriateness criteria, prompted by the Joint Commission International and approved by the Hospital Guidelines Committee. It provides a basis for periodic educational meetings, and will be periodically updated. Periodic audits will monitor its application, and critical and controversial points, in order to promote quality of health care, organizational efficiency, and appropriateness.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiologia , Endoscopia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Endocardite Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 11(11): 823-8, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21348319

RESUMO

Physiological adaptation to pregnancy exposes mother's cardiovascular system to relevant hemodynamic overload. These changes and other specific conditions of pregnancy, such as amniotic embolism, can point out unrecognized preexisting heart disease or, in the presence of some cofactors, be burdensome even for healthy hearts. Thus, tragic cases of heart failure or cardiac arrest may occur, whose management requires several considerations with respect of trying to save two lives at the same time, the need for drugs potentially harmful to the fetus, and assessment of emergent cesarean section.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Endocrinology ; 147(12): 5768-76, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16980436

RESUMO

The glucose sensor enzyme glucokinase plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Activation of glucokinase represents a promising concept for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed the glucokinase activation through its physiological interaction partner, the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2) and the resulting effect on glucose metabolism in insulin-producing cells. In RINm5F-GK-PFK-2/FBPase-2 cells stably overexpressing glucokinase plus islet PFK-2/FBPase-2, colocalization between both enzymes as well as elevation of glucokinase activity were significantly increased at a stimulatory glucose concentration of 10 mmol/liter. RINm5F-GK-PFK-2/FBPase-2 cells showed under this culture condition a significant increase in glucose utilization and in the ATP/ADP ratio compared with RINm5F-GK cells, which only overexpress glucokinase. Also glucose-induced insulin secretion was elevated in RINm5F-GK-PFK-2/FBPase-2 cells in comparison to RINm5F-GK cells. Furthermore, pyruvate accumulation and lactate production in RINm5F-GK-PFK-2/FBPase-2 cells were significantly lower at both 10 and 30 mmol/liter glucose than in RINm5F-GK and RINm5F cells. The significant improvement of glucose metabolism after PFK-2/FBPase-2 overexpression is apparently not exclusively the result of high glucokinase enzyme activity. Stabilization of the closed glucokinase conformation by PFK-2/FBPase-2 may not only activate the enzyme but also improve metabolic channeling in beta-cells.


Assuntos
Glucoquinase/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Glucoquinase/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Ligação Proteica , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratos , Transfecção
9.
Diabetes ; 53(4): 1020-9, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15047617

RESUMO

The bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2) was recently identified as a new intracellular binding partner for glucokinase (GK). Therefore, we studied the importance of this interaction for the activity status of GK and glucose metabolism in insulin-producing cells by overexpression of the rat liver and pancreatic islet isoforms of PFK-2/FBPase-2. PFK-2/FBPase-2 overexpression in RINm5F-GK cells significantly increased the GK activity by 78% in cells expressing the islet isoform, by 130% in cells expressing the liver isoform, and by 116% in cells expressing a cAMP-insensitive liver S32A/H258A double mutant isoform. Only in cells overexpressing the wild-type liver PFK-2/FBPase-2 isoform was the increase of GK activity abolished by forskolin, apparently due to the regulatory site for phosphorylation by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In cells overexpressing any isoform of the PFK-2/FBPase-2, the increase of the GK enzyme activity was antagonized by treatment with anti-FBPase-2 antibody. Increasing the glucose concentration from 2 to 10 mmol/l had a significant stimulatory effect on the GK activity in RINm5F-GK cells overexpressing any isoform of PFK-2/FBPase-2. The interaction of GK with PFK-2/FBPase-2 takes place at glucose concentrations that are physiologically relevant for the activation of GK and the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This new mechanism of posttranslational GK regulation may also represent a new site for pharmacotherapeutic intervention in type 2 diabetes treatment.


Assuntos
Glucoquinase/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Adenoviridae , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Vetores Genéticos , Glucoquinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transfecção
10.
Biol Res ; 36(3-4): 359-65, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14631868

RESUMO

Liver microsomal cytochrome P4502E1-dependent p-nitrophenol (PNP) hydroxylation and expression of cytochrome P4502E1 were studied in rats subjected to gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) or L-3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3) administration as a possible mechanism contributing to superoxide radical (O2.-) generation. HCCH treatment (a single dose of 40 mg/kg body wt) produced a 43% increase in the content of total cytochrome P450, whereas T3 (daily doses of 0.1 mg/kg body wt for two consecutive days) led to a 37% decrease. NADPH-dependent O2.- generation was elevated by HCCH and T3, expressed as either per mg of protein or per nmol of cytochrome P450, with a 135% enhancement in the O2.- production/superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity ratios being observed in both conditions. This was partly due to depression of SOD activity. Concomitantly, the molecular activity of NADPH-cytochrome p450 reductase was enhanced by 90 and 69% by HCCH and T3, respectively. In these conditions, microsomal PNP hydroxylation showed increases of 58 and 45% in HCCH- and T3-treated rats over control values, respectively, with a parallel 31% (HCCH) and 41% (T3) enhancement in the content of cytochrome P4502E1 assessed by western immunoblotting. We conclude that HCCH and T3 enhance the expression and activity of cytochrome P4502E1 and that of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in rat liver, regardless of the changes in total cytochrome P450 content, representing major contributory mechanisms to microsomal NADPH-dependent O2.- generation.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Hexaclorocicloexano/farmacologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tri-Iodotironina/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
Biol. Res ; 36(3/4): 359-365, 2003. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-356881

RESUMO

Liver microsomal cytochrome P4502E1-dependent p-nitrophenol (PNP) hydroxylation and expression of cytochrome P4502E1 were studied in rats subjected to gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) or L-3,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3) administration as a possible mechanism contributing to superoxide radical (O2.-) generation. HCCH treatment (a single dose of 40 mg/kg body wt) produced a 43 per cent increase in the content of total cytochrome P450, whereas T3 (daily doses of 0.1 mg/kg body wt for two consecutive days) led to a 37 per cent decrease. NADPH-dependent O2.- generation was elevated by HCCH and T3, expressed as either per mg of protein or per nmol of cytochrome P450, with a 135 per cent enhancement in the O2.- production/superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity ratios being observed in both conditions. This was partly due to depression of SOD activity. Concomitantly, the molecular activity of NADPH-cytochrome p450 reductase was enhanced by 90 and 69 per cent by HCCH and T3, respectively. In these conditions, microsomal PNP hydroxylation showed increases of 58 and 45 per cent in HCCH- and T3-treated rats over control values, respectively, with a parallel 31 per cent (HCCH) and 41 per cent (T3) enhancement in the content of cytochrome P4502E1 assessed by western immunoblotting. We conclude that HCCH and T3 enhance the expression and activity of cytochrome P4502E1 and that of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in rat liver, regardless of the changes in total cytochrome P450 content, representing major contributory mechanisms to microsomal NADPH-dependent O2.- generation.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Fígado , Microssomos Hepáticos , Fígado , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
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