Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 338
Filtrar
1.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153637, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619577

RESUMO

Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a relevant prognostic factor in germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) and it has been included in the AJCC staging system. Nevertheless, its histological assessment is challenging, with low/moderate interobserver agreement also among expert uropathologists. Few studies focused on the potential role of immunohistochemistry to solve this critical issue; as result, in current guidelines there is no indication for additional staining to detect this histological feature. In the present study, we investigated the detection of LVI invasion in a small cohort of GCTT with double staining for OCT4/CD34. Although our results need to be validated in larger case series with follow-up data, they suggest as OCT4/CD34 could be a useful tool for the histological assessment of these tumors, helping to identify some histological mimickers of LVI and modifying the pT/stage in a significant percentage of patients.

2.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536504

RESUMO

Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed non-skin malignancy in male patients, still representing one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Evidence is mounting that suggests the putative role of microbiota in the carcinogenesis as well as in modulating the efficacy and activity of anticancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies) in a large number of hematological and solid tumors. However, few data are available regarding the interactions between prostate cancer and microbiome so far, in particular in terms of the impact of microbiota on disease development, pathogenesis, and response to medical treatments in this genitourinary malignancy. Herein, we provide an overview of current knowledge, novel insights and emerging therapeutic approaches related to gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiome in prostate cancer patients, especially focusing on available evidence and published trials on this topic.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112227, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563953

RESUMO

Primary and secondary prevention protocols aim at reducing the plasma levels of lipids - with particular reference to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma concentrations - in order to improve the overall survival and reduce the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events. The use of statins has been widely considered as the first-line approach in lipids management as they can dramatically impact on the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals. The introduction of ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors overcame the adverse effects of statins and ameliorate the achievement of the target lipids levels. Indeed, advances in therapies promote the use of specific molecules - i.e. short strands of RNA named small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) - to suppress the transcription of genes related to lipids metabolism. Recently, the inclisiran has been developed: this is a siRNA able to block the mRNA of the PCSK9 gene. About 50% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels have been observed in randomized controlled trials with inclisiran. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding inclisiran and its possible role in the general management of patients with lipid disorders and/or in primary/secondary prevention protocols.

5.
Oncology ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tivozanib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3, recently approved in Europe for the first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of safety and activity of tivozanib administered at 1.34 mg daily (3 weeks on, 1 week off) within a compassionate-use program to patients with mRCC with no prior systemic treatment in Italy. RESULTS: From August 2018 to April 2019, 64 patients have started tivozanib in 9 oncology units. The median age was 67.5 years (range 40-85), 62.5% males. According to International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria, 27.1% of patients were good prognosis, 57.6% intermediate, and 15.3% poor. Primary tumor had been removed in 71.9% of patients. Histology was clear cell 89%, papillary 4.7%, and unclassified 6.3%. The response rate was 34.4%, stable disease 40.6%, and progression 15.6%. Grade 3-4 toxicities were 7.8% hypertension, 4.7% anemia, 3.1% mucositis, 3.1% asthenia, 1.6% diarrhea, 1.6% anorexia, 1.6% worsening of renal function, and 3.1% cardiac events. Dose reduction to 0.89 mg was applied to 17.2% of patients, and the discontinuation rate due to toxicity was 5.8%. Median progression-free survival was 12.4 months, with 68.7% of patients alive at 12 months. The developing of hypertension predicted increased progression-free survival at multivariate analysis (HR, 0.128; 95% CI, 0.03-0.59; p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Tivozanib showed good activity and favorable safety profile in a real-world cohort of unselected patients with mRCC. Predictive biomarkers of response to antiangiogenic therapy are urgently needed in order to identify RCC patients who could still receive a monotherapy with VEGFR inhibitors in the first line.

7.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407702

RESUMO

Background: With hormonal agents quickly expanding as novel therapeutic options in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), the toxicity profile of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide should be kept in mind.Methods: We performed an updated meta-analysis with the aim to analyze the risk of treatment-related cardiovascular (CV) events, any grade, and grade 3-4 (G3-4) hypertension in nmCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT plus placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results were compared by calculating Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); RRs were combined with Mantel-Haenszel method.Results: Three RCTs involving 4110 patients were available for the meta-analysis. According to our results, the addition of novel hormonal agents was associated with a significantly increased risk of CV events (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.29-2.27) and G3-4 hypertension (RR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.19-1.97). In addition, a trend toward a higher risk of any grade hypertension was reported in the experimental arm.Conclusions: The use of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients implies a careful benefit-risk assessment. Real-world, large-cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings of our meta-analysis.

9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405738

RESUMO

Introduction: In the evolving treatment scenario of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, cabozantinib is gaining increasing attention, presenting as a cornerstone therapy, both as a monotherapy and in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.Areas covered: In this review, the authors explore the role of cabozantinib in the treatment of metastatic clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma, presenting data from the most recent clinical trials and investigating ongoing studies. They, furthermore, evaluate the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and immunomodulatory effect of cabozantinib, as well as underlining the tolerability profile and patients' quality of life.Expert opinion: Cabozantinib's administration as a single agent is restricted to intermediate- and poor-risk patients (according to IMDC criteria). The further advent of anti-VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor regimens (such as pembrolizumab + axitinib) has allowed to expand the use of cabozantinib, leading to its combination with nivolumab. In the next few years, more information is required to look for the application of cabozantinib-based combinations as a later-line approach in metastatic RCC patients, beside their use in the first-line setting.

10.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

11.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387593

RESUMO

Several novel androgen receptor (AR)-inhibitors have been introduced for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) treatment, with the improvement of survival outcomes which need to be balanced against the risk of adverse events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients, to assess overall survival (OS), incidence and risk of adverse drug events, adverse-events-related death and adverse-events-related treatment discontinuation. We selected three RCTs (SPARTAN, PROSPER and ARAMIS). New hormonal agents administration resulted in better OS, despite the increased risk of several any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events. In the decision-making process, careful evaluation of expected adverse events, patients' comorbidities and maintenance of quality of life are mandatory.

12.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 120-127, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed the advent of novel treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we conducted an up-to-date and comprehensive meta-analysis including recently published data of phase III clinical trials evaluating immune-based combinations in mRCC. METHODS: We retrieved all the relevant trials published from 15th June 2008 to 24th February 2021, evaluating immune-based combinations in treatment-naïve mRCC through PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), complete response (CR) rate, and overall response rate (ORR). Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for OS and PFS, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for CR rate and ORR, were extracted. RESULTS: Overall, 6 phase III studies involving 5175 treatment-naïve mRCC patients were available for the meta-analysis (immune-based combinations, n = 2576; sunitinib, n = 2597). According to our results, the use of immune-based combinations decreased the risk of death by 26% (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81, P < 0.001); similarly, a PFS benefit was observed (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.85, P = 0.001). In addition, immune-based combinations showed better CR rate and ORR, with ORs of 3.04 (95% CI 2.31-3.99, P = 0.001) and 2.53 (95% CI 1.77-3.62, P < 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our meta-analysis confirm the clinical benefit provided by immunotherapy combinations, with CR rate more than tripled in mRCCs receiving immune-based combinations. Further studies in real-world setting are warranted to validate the findings of our meta-analysis, the most updated to systematically evaluate immune-based combinations in mRCC.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298683

RESUMO

The 2021 novelties in prognostic and therapeutic tissue markers in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) can be subdivided into two major groups. The first group is related to prognostic markers based on morphological and immunohistochemical evaluations. The novelties in this group can then be subdivided into two subgroups, one involving morphologic evaluation only, i.e., PCa grading, and the other involving both morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluations, i.e., aggressive variant PCa (AVPCa). Grading concerns androgen-dependent PCa, while AVPCa represents a late phase in its natural history, when it becomes androgen-independent. The novelties of the other major group are related to molecular markers predicting significant disease or response to therapy. This group mainly includes novelties in the molecular evaluation of PCa in tissue material and liquid biopsies.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298702

RESUMO

Treatment response is usually assessed by the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). These criteria may not be adequate to evaluate the response to immunotherapy, considering the peculiar patterns of response reported with this therapy. With the advent of immunotherapy these criteria have been modified to include the evaluation of the peculiar responses seen with this type of therapy (iRECIST criteria), including pseudoprogressions and hyperprogressions. Tumor growth rate (TGR) is a dynamic evaluation that takes into account the kinetics of response to treatment and may help catch the real efficacy of an immunotherapy approach. We performed a retrospective monocentric study to explore the impact of TGR change after nivolumab administration as the second or later line of treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated 27 patients, divided into three categories: Disease control (DC) if there was no PD; lower velocity PD (LvPD) if disease progressed but the TGR at second assessment (TGR2) was lower than the TGR at first assessment (TGR1); higher velocity PD (HvPD) if TGR2 was higher than TGR1. The median OS for the DC group was 11.0 months (95% CI 5.0-17.0) (reference) vs. (not reached) NR (95% CI NR-NR) for LvPD (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.06-1.30; p 0.102) vs. NR (95% CI NR-NR) for HvPD (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88; p 0.032). There was no difference between LvPD and DC (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.20-7.28; p 0.838). In patients with metastatic RCC, the second or later line of nivolumab treatment may lead to a deceleration in TGR resulting in an improved survival outcome similar to that observed in patients experiencing tumor regression. In this subgroup, especially in the presence of a clinical benefit, continuing the treatment beyond progression can be recommended.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207825

RESUMO

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas are a miscellaneous group of tumors that include different histological subtypes, each one characterized by peculiarity in terms of genetic alteration, clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment response. Because of their low incidence and poor enrollment in clinical trials, alongside their heterogeneity, additional efforts are required to better unveil the pathogenetic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve the treatment algorithm. Nowadays, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR and MET inhibitors, and even cisplatin-based chemotherapy and immunotherapy are potential weapons that are still under evaluation in this setting. Various biomarkers have been evaluated for detecting progression and monitoring renal cell carcinoma, but more studies are necessary to improve this field. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular characteristics of this group of tumors and the recently published trials, giving an insight into what might become the future therapeutic standard in this complex world of non-clear cell kidney cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931103, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occlusions are exceedingly rare, and are considered a devastating phenomenon that presents as cortical blindness. Predominant causes of PCA infarcts include cardiac and arterial embolisms. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy is also an extremely rare cardiopathology. Several reports describe stroke as a potential manifestation of LVNC, but bilateral PCA infarcts are likely also caused by underlying LVNC cardiomyopathy, although this has not yet been reported. CASE REPORT A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department of an outside hospital with acute vision loss in both eyes and dysarthria. His neurological examination necessitated an emergent stroke evaluation. His electrocardiogram and telemetry at admission did not reveal arrhythmia. He underwent an emergency endovascular thrombectomy at our facility. During the post-intervention stroke workup, a transthoracic echocardiogram with contrast showed left ventricle dilation, with an ejection fraction (EF) of 29%. Subsequent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of LVNC cardiomyopathy. He was started on therapeutic anticoagulation (apixaban) and remained stable neurologically during the 3-month followup, with some residual visual field deficits. His cardiac outcome also improved (stress test was unremarkable for any cardiac ischemia, and an echocardiogram showing improved EF of 40%). CONCLUSIONS Our report is distinct, as it presents 2 exceedingly rare events in a patient: the occurrence of simultaneous bilateral PCA infarcts and LVNC cardiomyopathy. Prompt and accurate diagnosis was pivotal to the successful management of both conditions. Prospective studies are warranted to further knowledge of LVNC pathophysiology and the occurrence of stroke in such patients so that comprehensive management plans can be devised.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Posterior , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/complicações , Miocárdio Ventricular não Compactado Isolado/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167433

RESUMO

Introduction: While sorafenib monotherapy represented the mainstay of medical treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for more than a decade, novel agents and combination therapies have recently produced unprecedented paradigm shifts. The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab is now being evaluated as a front-line treatment in advanced HCC patients; early phase clinical trials have already reported promising results.Areas covered: This paper reviews the combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC. The preclinical rationale and completed and ongoing trials are examined and later, the authors reflect on biomarkers of predictive of response to immune-based combinations and future treatment decision-making on the basis of tolerability and clinical benefits provided by these novel therapeutics. A literature search was conducted in April 2021 of Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library and Scopus databases; moreover, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed.Expert opinion: The landscape of new agents and combinations continues to expand. Recently, immune-based combinations have reported important results in advanced HCC, as witnessed by the landmark IMbrave150 trial. Based on the promising results of early phase clinical trials, lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has the potential to represent a novel treatment option in this setting.

19.
Oncologist ; 26(9): 740-750, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) correlate with adverse prognosis in patients with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer. Little data are available for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a multicenter prospective observational study to assess the correlation between CTC counts and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic RCC treated with an antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a first-line regimen; overall survival (OS) and response were secondary objectives. CTC counts were enumerated by the CellSearch system at four time points: day 0 of treatment, day 28, day 56 and then at progression, or at 12 months in the absence of progression. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-five eligible patients with a median age of 69 years were treated with sunitinib (77.5%) or pazopanib (21%). At baseline, 46.7% of patients had one or more CTCs per milliliter (range, 1 to 263). Thirty patients had at least three CTCs, with a median PFS of 5.8 versus 15 months in the remaining patients (p = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 1.99), independently of the International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium score at multivariate analysis (HR, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.14). Patients with at least three CTCs had a shorter estimated OS of 13.8 months versus 52.8 months in those with fewer than three CTCs (p = .003; HR, 1.99; multivariate analysis HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 0.95-2.93). Baseline CTC counts did not correlate with response; neither did having CTC sequencing counts greater than or equal to one, two, three, four, or five. CONCLUSION: We provide prospective evidence that the presence of three or more CTCs at baseline is associated with a significantly shorter PFS and OS in patients with metastatic RCC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This prospective study evaluated whether the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood correlates with activity of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This study demonstrated that almost half of patients with metastatic RCC have at least one CTC in their blood and that those patients with at least three CTCs are at increased risk of early progressive disease and early death due to RCC. Studies incorporating CTC counts in the prognostic algorithms of metastatic RCC are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(10): 1225-1232, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent years have registered the advent of novel treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Immuno-TKI combinations have been suggested to improve clinical outcomes but may also result in increased toxicity, including gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. METHODS: Herein, we performed a meta-analysis aimed at comparing the risk of certain GI toxicities in mRCC patients treated with immuno-TKI combinations versus sunitinib monotherapy. Overall, four phase III trials (KEYNOTE-426, JAVELIN Renal 101, CheckMate 9ER, CLEAR) involving 3059 mRCC patients were available. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested an increased risk of all-grade diarrhea, grade 3-4 diarrhea and grade 3-4 decreased appetite in patients treated with immuno-TKI combinations. Conversely, an apparently higher risk of all-grade nausea was observed in the sunitinib group. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggested that immuno-TKI combinations are associated with higher risk of GI toxicities compared with sunitinib. Beyond the efficacy of immuno-TKI combinations in mRCC patients, careful consideration should be given to treatment-related adverse events, including GI toxicities. Early recognition and treatment are critical to maximize recovery.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...