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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 75-83, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984682

RESUMO

AIMS: Clinical studies of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction have had mixed results to date. We sought to compare VNS delivery and associated changes in symptoms and function in autonomic regulation therapy via left or right cervical vagus nerve stimulation in patients with chronic heart failure (ANTHEM-HF), increase of vagal tone in heart failure (INOVATE-HF), and neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) for hypothesis generation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data from the public domain for differences in proportions using Pearson's chi-square test, differences in mean values using Student's unpaired t-test, and differences in changes of mean values using two-sample t-tests. Guideline-directed medical therapy recommendations were similar across studies. Fewer patients were in New York Heart Association 3, and baseline heart rate (HR) was higher in ANTHEM-HF. In INOVATE-HF, VNS was aimed at peripheral neural targets, using closed-loop delivery that required synchronization of VNS to R-wave sensing by an intracardiac lead. Pulse frequency was low (1-2 Hz) because of a timing schedule allowing ≤3 pulses of VNS following at most 25% of detected R waves. NECTAR-HF and ANTHEM-HF used open-loop VNS delivery (i.e. independent of any external signal) aimed at both central and peripheral targets. In NECTAR-HF, VNS delivery at 20 Hz caused off-target effects that limited VNS up-titration in a majority of patients. In ANTHEM-HF, VNS delivery at 10 Hz allowed up-titration until changes in HR dynamics were confirmed. Six months after VNS titration, significant improvements in both HR and HR variability occurred only in ANTHEM-HF. When ANTHEM-HF and NECTAR-HF were compared, greater improvements from baseline were observed in ANTHEM-HF in standard deviation in normal-to-normal R-R intervals (94 ± 26 to 111 ± 50 vs. 146 ± 48 to 130 ± 52 ms; P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (32 ± 7 to 37 ± 0.4 vs. 31 ± 6 to 33 ± 6; P < 0.05), and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure mean score (40 ± 14 to 21 ± 10 vs. 44 ± 22 to 36 ± 21; P < 0.002). When compared with INOVATE-HF, greater improvement in 6-min walk distance was observed in ANTHEM-HF (287 ± 66 to 346 ± 78 vs. 304 ± 111 to 334 ± 111 m; P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, differences in patient demographics were seen and may have caused the differential responses in symptoms and function observed in association with VNS. Major differences in technology platforms, neural targets, VNS delivery, and HR and HR variability responses could have also potentially played a very important role. Further study is underway in a randomized controlled trial with these considerations in mind.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated comorbidities increase the risk of cognitive impairment in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Given the potential composite effect of multiple cardiovascular risk factors on cognition, we examined the ability of the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score and the Framingham Heart Study Global CVD risk score (FRS) to predict future cognitive function in older PLWH. METHODS: We constructed linear regression models evaluating the association between baseline 10-year CV risk scores and cognitive function (measured by NPZ-4 score) at a Year 4 follow up visit. RESULTS: Among 988 participants (mean age 52 years, 20% women), mean 10-year ASCVD risk score at entry into the cohort was 6.8% (SD 7.1%) and FRS was 13.1% (SD 10.7%). In models adjusted only for cognitive function at entry, the ASCVD risk score significantly predicted Year 4 NPZ-4 in the entire cohort and after stratification by sex (for every 1% higher ASCVD risk, Year 4 NPZ-4 was lower by 0.84 SD +/- 0.28 overall, p=0.003; lower by 2.17 SD +/- 0.67 in women, p=0.001; lower by 0.78 SD +/- 0.32 in men, p=0.016). A similar relationship was observed between FRS and Year 4 NPZ-4. In multivariable models, higher 10-year ASCVD risk and FRS predicted lower NPZ-4 in women. CONCLUSION: Baseline 10-year ASCVD risk and FRS predicted future cognitive function in older PLWH with well-controlled infection. CV risk scores may help to identify individuals, especially women, living with HIV who are at risk for worse cognition over time.

3.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 29(1): 111-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672389

RESUMO

Estimating the precision of a single proportion via a 100(1-α)% confidence interval in the presence of clustered data is an important statistical problem. It is necessary to account for possible over-dispersion, for instance, in animal-based teratology studies with within-litter correlation, epidemiological studies that involve clustered sampling, and clinical trial designs with multiple measurements per subject. Several asymptotic confidence interval methods have been developed, which have been found to have inadequate coverage of the true proportion for small-to-moderate sample sizes. In addition, many of the best-performing of these intervals have not been directly compared with regard to the operational characteristics of coverage probability and empirical length. This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate coverage probabilities and empirical lengths of five existing confidence intervals for clustered data across various true correlations, true probabilities of interest, and sample sizes. In addition, we introduce a new score-based confidence interval method, which we find to have better coverage than existing intervals for small sample sizes under a wide range of scenarios.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many individuals presumed to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Little is known about patterns of alcohol use in patients with NAFLD or how drinking behaviors affect liver fat. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2475 participants of the Framingham Heart Study with hepatic steatosis, as determined by computed tomography. We performed multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to evaluate the association between alcohol drinking patterns and hepatic steatosis. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, diet, and the components of the metabolic syndrome. We excluded heavy alcohol users, defined as women who consume more than 14 alcohol drinks per week and men who consume more than 21 alcohol drinks per week. RESULTS: In our sample (mean age, 49.8 ± 10.2 y; 50.3% women), the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 17.5%. The total number of alcohol drinks per week and the maximum drinks consumed per drinking day each were associated with hepatic steatosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29 and aOR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30). Binge drinking occurred in 25.4% of individuals with presumed NAFLD and was associated with an increased odds of hepatic steatosis (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98) among alcohol users. In a beverage-specific analysis, alcohol use patterns were associated with hepatic steatosis among beer drinkers, but not among wine drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional study of participants of the Framingham Heart Study with hepatic steatosis, we observed an association between alcohol use and liver fat, even after excluding heavy alcohol users from our analysis. Alcohol use therefore appears to be a risk factor for NAFLD. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and determine if alcohol use should be a focus for research, prevention, and treatment of presumed NAFLD.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1813-1820, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653353

RESUMO

The risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in subjects who interrupt temporarily or permanently thienopyridine therapy in the first 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains uncertain. In the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) study subjects were enrolled within 72 hours of PCI and treated with aspirin and a thienopyridine for 12 months before being randomized to continued thienopyridine versus placebo. This analysis focuses on the 12-month period before randomization. Thienopyridine interruptions of greater than 24 hours, occurring in the first 6 months after PCI were evaluated. The incidence of MACCE and moderate or severe bleeding occurring within 12 months after PCI were compared between subjects with and without interruptions. Among 23,002 subjects, the incidence of interruption of thienopyridine was 5.1% (n = 1,173). Compared with subjects who adhered to treatment, subjects with an interruption had a higher incidence of MACCE (6.1% vs 4.3%, p = 0.005), death (2.2% vs 1.4%, p = 0.02), myocardial infarction (3.8% vs 2.7%, p = 0.03), and bleeding (3.1% vs 2.2%, p = 0.04) at 12 months. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, interruptions were associated with MACCE (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.7, p = 0.04) and had a borderline association with subsequent bleeding (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0, 2.0, p = 0.05). In conclusion, interruption of thienopyridine in the first 6 months after PCI occurs not infrequently and is associated with an increased risk of MACCE and subsequent bleeding between the time of interruption and 12 months after PCI.

6.
Am Heart J ; 216: 30-41, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386936

RESUMO

In patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), guidelines recommend statins as first-line lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) with addition of nonstatin agents in those with persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. METHODS: To estimate the cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction implications of treatment intensification, we used a previously reported simulation model with enhancements. An ASCVD cohort was developed from a US claims database. A Cox model was used to estimate baseline risk of CV events: myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, unstable angina hospitalization, elective coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death. Patients were sampled with replacement (bootstrapping) and entered the simulation model, which applied stepwise LLT intensification logic, with a goal of achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL at each step. CV risk reduction assumptions were based on published data. Two treatment intensification scenarios were investigated: ideal and real-world (which accounted for statin intolerance, nonadherence, and payer restrictions). RESULTS: In a cohort of 1,000 patients with ASCVD, approximately 813 (809-818) would require treatment intensification with LLT under an ideal treatment intensification scenario. Before treatment intensification, 183 (179-187) events would be expected to occur over 5 years. With treatment intensification, 40 (34-45) of these events could be avoided. In a real-world scenario, about 818 (813-823) patients require treatment intensification with LLT, resulting in 29 (24-34) events avoided over 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of LLT in an ASCVD population translates into a substantial number of CV events avoided. This simulation-based model could assist in assessing the potential benefits of various types of population-level LLT interventions.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e012366, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433717

RESUMO

Background Early rapid declines of kidney function may occur in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis with institution of medical therapy. The causes and consequences are not well understood. Methods and Results Patients enrolled in the medical therapy-only arm of the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes With Renal Artery Lesions) study were assessed for a rapid decline (RD) in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), defined as a ≥30% decrease from baseline to either 3 months, 6 months, or both. In the medical therapy-only cohort, eGFR was available in 359 subjects at all time points, the subjects were followed for a median of 4.72 years, and 66 of 359 (18%) subjects experienced an early RD. Baseline log cystatin C (odds ratio, 1.78 [1.11-2.85]; P=0.02), age (odds ratio, 1.04 [1.00-1.07]; P<0.05), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine eGFR (odds ratio, 1.86 [1.15-3.0]; P=0.01) were associated with an early RD. Despite continued medical therapy only, the RD group had an improvement in eGFR at 1 year (6.9%; P=0.04). The RD and nondecline groups were not significantly different for clinical events and all-cause mortality (P=0.78 and P=0.76, respectively). Similarly, renal replacement therapy occurred in 1 of 66 (1.5%) of the RD patients and in 6 of 294 (2%) of the nondecline patients. The regression to the mean of improvement in eGFR at 1 year in the RD group was estimated at 5.8±7.1%. Conclusions Early rapid declines in kidney function may occur in patients with renal artery stenosis when medical therapy is initiated, and their clinical outcomes are comparable to those without such a decline, when medical therapy only is continued.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404666

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased liver- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality. In cross-sectional analyses, NAFLD clusters with several cardiometabolic traits including obesity,1,2 hypertension,3 diabetes,1 and dyslipidemia.3 However, liver fat is dynamic and changes over time. Aside from limited prior studies evaluating diet or exercise interventions, little is known about the association between changes in liver fat and the incidence of CVD risk factors. Additionally, previous studies often have limited follow-up; evaluate only select populations, such as individuals with obesity4,5 or diabetes6-8; and may not account for changes in weight or body mass index (BMI). The aim of the present study was to examine, in a longitudinal cohort, the natural history of liver fat change and the association with the incidence of multiple CVD risk factors.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(17): 2135-2145, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concentrations of circulating apolipoproteins are strongly linked to risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative importance of the additional knowledge of apolipoprotein concentrations within specific lipoprotein species for CAD risk prediction is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the performance of a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoproteomic score, based on targeted mass spectrometry of HDL-associated apolipoproteins, for the detection of angiographic CAD and outcomes. METHODS: HDL-associated apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apoC-1, apoC-2, apoC-3, and apoC-4 were measured in 943 participants without prevalent myocardial infarction (MI) referred for coronary angiography in the CASABLANCA (Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases) study. A composite HDL apolipoproteomic score (pCAD) was associated with likelihood of obstructive CAD (≥70% lesion in ≥1 vessel) and with incident cardiovascular outcomes over 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: There were 587 (62.2%) patients with coronary stenosis. The pCAD score was associated with the presence of obstructive CAD (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 1.69; p < 0.001), independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors including circulating plasma apoA-1 and apoB. The C-index for pCAD was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.67) for the presence of obstructive CAD. Although pCAD was not associated with cardiovascular mortality among all individuals (hazard ratio: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.66; p = 0.15), there was evidence of association for individuals with obstructive CAD (hazard ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.05; p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: An HDL apolipoproteomic score is associated with the presence of CAD, independent of circulating apoA-1 and apoB concentrations and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Among individuals with CAD, this score may be independently associated cardiovascular death. (The CASABLANCA Study: Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases [CASABLANCA]; NCT00842868).

11.
Eur Radiol ; 29(11): 6140-6148, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between directly measured density and morphology of coronary artery calcium (CAC) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants with CAC in noncontrast cardiac CT (2002-2005) were included and followed until 2016. Participants with known CVD or uninterpretable CT scans were excluded. We assessed and correlated (Spearman) CAC density, CAC volume, and the number of calcified segments. Moreover, we counted morphology features including shape (cylindrical, spherical, semi-tubular, and spotty), location (bifurcation, facing pericardium, or facing myocardium), and boundary regularity. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we associated all CAC characteristics with CVD events (CVD-death, myocardial infarction, stroke). RESULTS: Among 1330 included participants (57.8 ± 11.7 years; 63% male), 73 (5.5%) experienced CVD events in a median follow-up of 9.1 (7.8-10.1) years. CAC density correlated strongly with CAC volume (Spearman's ρ = 0.75; p < 0.001) and lower number of calcified segments (ρ = - 0.86; p < 0.001; controlled for CAC volume). In the survival analysis, CAC density was associated with CVD events independent of Framingham risk score (HR (per SD) = 2.09; 95%CI, 1.30-3.34; p = 0.002) but not after adjustment for CAC volume (p = 0.648). The extent of spherically shaped and pericardially sided calcifications was associated with fewer CVD events accounting for the number of calcified segments (HR (per count) = 0.55; 95%CI, 0.31-0.98; p = 0.042 and HR = 0.66; 95%CI, 0.45-0.98; p = 0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Directly measured CAC density does not predict CVD events due to the strong correlation with CAC volume. The spherical shape and pericardial-sided location of CAC are associated with fewer CVD events and may represent morphological features related to stable coronary plaques. KEY POINTS: • Coronary calcium density may not be independently associated with cardiovascular events. • Coronary calcium density correlates strongly with calcium volume. • Spherical shape and pericardial-sided location of CAC are associated with fewer CVD events.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Liver Int ; 39(8): 1535-1544, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prior studies demonstrated an association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), though data are conflicting. We examined the association between liver fat and prevalent and incident CKD in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). METHODS: We included FHS participants who underwent computed tomography (CT) from 2002 to 2005 (n = 1315). After excluding heavy alcohol use (n = 211) and missing covariates (n = 117), the final sample included 987 participants. For the incident CKD analysis, we excluded 73 participants with prevalent CKD. Liver fat was measured by the average liver attenuation on CT. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was obtained using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine-Cystatin C equation, and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 . Microalbuminuria was defined by sex-specific urinary albumin-creatinine ratio cut-offs. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were performed to determine the association between liver fat and CKD. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatic steatosis and CKD were 19% and 14% respectively (55.9% women, mean age 60 ± 9 years). After adjusting for covariates, we observed no significant associations between liver fat and CKD, microalbuminuria or eGFR in cross-sectional analyses. We observed positive associations between liver fat, incident microalbuminuria and reduced eGFR in age- and sex-adjusted models; these relationships were not significant in multivariable-adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based cohort study, we did not observe significant associations between liver fat and prevalent or incident CKD with a median follow-up time of 12.5 years. The association between NAFLD and CKD may be accounted for by shared risk factors; confirmatory studies are needed.

13.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 30(6): 822-829.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate safety and effectiveness of the iCAST Covered Stent for treatment of iliac artery atherosclerotic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The iCARUS trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593385) was a single-arm, prospective, multicenter study that enrolled 152 per protocol subjects at 25 sites in the United States and Germany. Subjects with multiple lesions and/or stents were eligible. The primary endpoint was the composite rate of death within 30 days, target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 9 months, or restenosis at 9 months after procedure. Secondary endpoints included major adverse vascular events (MAVEs), primary patency, freedom from TLR, and clinical success. RESULTS: Device and acute procedural success were achieved in 98.7% and 92.7% of cases, respectively. MAVE rate was 4.6% at 30 days. The 9-month primary composite endpoint rate was 8.1% (10/123), which was below the performance goal of 16.57%. Nine-month primary patency, defined as continuous flow without revascularization, bypass, or target limb amputation, was 96.4%. Freedom from TLR at 9 months and 3 years was 97.2% and 86.6%, respectively. Early clinical success was seen in 88.7% of subjects at 30 days with sustained clinical benefit in 72.4% of subjects at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: The iCARUS study demonstrated that the iCAST Covered Stent was safe and effective for treatment of atherosclerotic iliac artery lesions with sustained clinical benefit out to 3 years.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Artéria Ilíaca , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Stents , Idoso , Amputação , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ilíaca/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
14.
Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis ; 12: 49-58, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962703

RESUMO

Background: Data derived from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) study were analyzed in an effort to employ machine learning methods to predict the composite endpoint described in the original study. Methods: We identified 573 CORAL subjects with complete baseline data and the presence or absence of a composite endpoint for the study. These data were subjected to several models including a generalized linear (logistic-linear) model, support vector machine, decision tree, feed-forward neural network, and random forest, in an effort to attempt to predict the composite endpoint. The subjects were arbitrarily divided into training and testing subsets according to an 80%:20% distribution with various seeds. Prediction models were optimized within the CARET package of R. Results: The best performance of the different machine learning techniques was that of the random forest method which yielded a receiver operator curve (ROC) area of 68.1%±4.2% (mean ± SD) on the testing subset with ten different seed values used to separate training and testing subsets. The four most important variables in the random forest method were SBP, serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, and DBP. Each of these variables was also important in at least some of the other methods. The treatment assignment group was not consistently an important determinant in any of the models. Conclusion: Prediction of a composite cardiovascular outcome was difficult in the CORAL population, even when employing machine learning methods. Assignment to either the stenting or best medical therapy group did not serve as an important predictor of composite outcome. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00081731.

15.
Am Heart J ; 209: 36-46, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney injury is common in patients with cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We determined whether blood measurement of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), would predict kidney outcomes in patients undergoing angiographic procedures for various indications. METHODS: One thousand two hundred eight patients undergoing coronary and/or peripheral angiography were prospectively enrolled; blood was collected for KIM-1 measurement. Peri-procedural acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined as AKI within 48 hours of contrast exposure. Non-procedural AKI was defined as AKI beyond 48 hours. Development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as progression to an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 milliliters/minute/1.73 m2 by study conclusion. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of non-procedural AKI, while univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate peri-procedural AKI and predictors of progression to CKD. RESULTS: During mean follow up of 4 years, peri-procedural AKI occurred in 5.0%, non-procedural AKI in 27.3%, and 12.4% developed new reduction in eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Higher KIM-1 concentrations were associated with prevalent comorbidities associated with risk in cardiovascular disease and worse left ventricular function. In adjusted analyses, elevated pre- and post-procedural KIM-1 concentrations predicted not only peri-procedural AKI (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2·18, P = .01 and OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-2.15, P = .01, respectively) and non-procedural AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 1·49, 95% CI 1·24-1·78, P < .001 and HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.23-1.74, P < .001, respectively), but also progression to CKD (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.32-2.99, P = .001 and OR 2·02, 95% CI 1·35-3·03, P = .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a typical at-risk population undergoing coronary and/or peripheral angiography, blood concentrations of KIM-1 may predict incident peri-procedural and non-procedural AKI, as well as progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Cateteres , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
16.
Liver Int ; 39(4): 740-747, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known regarding the risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) among adult children of affected parents. We examined the association between parental and offspring HS in the multigenerational Framingham Heart Study, which characterized HS using computed tomography. METHODS: We performed multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, alcohol use, and body mass index to generate the odds of HS according to parental HS. We determined the proportion of participants with HS according to parental HS and the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ). After excluding heavy alcohol use (n = 126) and missing covariates (n = 1), 785 offspring with at least one parent were included. RESULTS: Approximately 23% (183/785) had at least one parent with HS and 1.1% had two affected parents (9/785). In adjusted models, participants with at least one parent with HS had a nearly two-fold increased odds of HS compared to participants without a parental history of HS (OR 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.15-3.03). Among participants without hypertension, diabetes, or obesity, a higher proportion had HS if they had a parental history of HS compared to those without (16.1% vs 5.2%, P < 0.001). However, for participants with cardiometabolic risk factors, we did not observe a difference in HS among those with and without parental HS (30.3% vs 28.5%, P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a parental history of HS are at increased risk for HS. Specifically, a parental history of HS may be an important factor among those that are otherwise metabolically healthy.

17.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(6): 1157-1164.e4, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an inflammatory condition that results in progressive liver disease. It is unknown if individuals with hepatic steatosis, but not known to have liver disease, have higher serum concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: We collected data from 2482 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (mean age, 51 ± 11 y; 51% women) who underwent computed tomography and measurement of 14 serum markers of systemic inflammation. Heavy alcohol users were excluded. The liver:phantom ratio (a continuous parameter of liver attenuation relative to a calibration phantom) was used to identify individuals with radiographic evidence of liver fat. Primary covariates included age, sex, smoking, alcohol, aspirin use, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Body mass index and visceral fat were secondary covariates. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess the association between liver fat and systemic inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, liver fat was associated with the following inflammatory markers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P < .001), urinary isoprostanes (P < .001), interleukin 6 (P < .001), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (P < .001), and P-selectin (P = .002). Additional adjustment for body mass index or visceral fat attenuated the results slightly, although all associations remained statistically significant (P for all ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS: In a community-based cohort, individuals with hepatic steatosis without known liver disease had higher mean serum concentrations of systemic markers of inflammation. Studies are needed to determine whether treatment of hepatic steatosis reduces systemic inflammation.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(16): e009217, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369323

RESUMO

Background In patients with vascular disease, risk models may support decision making on novel risk reducing interventions, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors or anti-inflammatory agents. We developed and validated an innovative model to estimate life expectancy without recurrent cardiovascular events for individuals with coronary, cerebrovascular, and/or peripheral artery disease that enables estimation of preventive treatment effect in lifetime gained. Methods and Results Study participants originated from prospective cohort studies: the SMART (Secondary Manifestations of Arterial Disease) cohort and REACH (Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) cohorts of 14 259 ( REACH Western Europe), 19 170 ( REACH North America) and 6959 ( SMART , The Netherlands) patients with cardiovascular disease. The SMART-REACH model to estimate life expectancy without recurrent events was developed in REACH Western Europe as a Fine and Gray competing risk model incorporating cardiovascular risk factors. Validation was performed in REACH North America and SMART . Outcomes were (1) cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) and (2) noncardiovascular death. Predictors were sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, creatinine, number of cardiovascular disease locations, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure. Calibration plots showed high agreement between estimated and observed prognosis in SMART and REACH North America. C-statistics were 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.70) in SMART and 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.68) in REACH North America. Performance of the SMART-REACH model was better compared with existing risk scores and adds the possibility of estimating lifetime gained by novel therapies. Conclusions The externally validated SMART-REACH model could be used for estimation of anticipated improvements in life expectancy without recurrent cardiovascular events in individual patients with cardiovascular disease in Western Europe and North America.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Expectativa de Vida , Doença Arterial Periférica , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Prevenção Secundária
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(8): e005308, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women may derive differential benefit from prolonged DAPT (dual antiplatelet therapy) after coronary stenting than men. We assessed whether the risks/benefits of prolonged DAPT differ between women and men. METHODS AND RESULTS: The DAPT study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing continued thienopyridine versus placebo beyond 12 months after coronary stenting. We compared rates of myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and bleeding by sex and randomized treatment. Of 11 648 patients, women (N=2925) were older, with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and lower rates of acute coronary syndrome than men. At 12 to 30 months, women had similar adjusted ischemic and bleeding events as men. The effects of continued thienopyridine therapy did not differ significantly by sex for stent thrombosis (women: hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-1.36; men: HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44; interaction P=0.17), myocardial infarction (women: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.50-1.14; men: HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.36-0.60; interaction P=0.052), major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (women: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.22; men: HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.85; interaction P=0.26), and bleeding (women: HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.88-2.40; men: HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.28-2.49; interaction P=0.50). CONCLUSIONS: Women had similar late risks of ischemia and bleeding as men after coronary stent procedures. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00977938.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Stents , Tienopiridinas/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tienopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(10): e007331, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presentation with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) constitutes a high-risk subset of patients with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. We report clinical outcomes in subjects with ACS from the BIOFLOW V trial (BIOTRONIK - A Prospective Randomized Multicenter Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of the Orsiro Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Subjects With up to Three De Novo or Restenotic Coronary Artery Lesions) comparing an ultrathin strut (60 µm) bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) with a thin strut (81 µm) durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (DP-EES). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 1334 patients randomized to 2:1 treatment with either BP-SES or DP-EES, 677 (50.7%) ACS patients without ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (MI; 454 BP-SES and 223 DP-EES) were identified in the retrospective post hoc analysis. The primary end point of 12-month target lesion failure, individual component end points, and stent thrombosis were evaluated. Recurrent MI was defined as a ≥50% increase of creatine kinase-myocardial band or in the absence of creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin >50% increase over previous level and >3× the upper limit of normal). All events were adjudicated by a blinded independent clinical events committee. Overall, baseline clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics of the ACS population were similar between the 2 treatment groups. At 12 months, target lesion failure occurred in 5.6% (24/426) of BP-SES patients versus 11.0% (23/209) in DP-EES patients ( P=0.02); target lesion failure composite components were cardiac death, 0% versus 1.0% ( P=0.11); target vessel-related MI, 3.5% versus 9.7% ( P=0.003); and clinically driven target lesion revascularization, 2.8% versus 3.4% ( P=0.80). Spontaneous target vessel MI was 0.5% (2/425) for BP-SES versus 2.4% (5/206) for DP-EES ( P=0.041). Stent thrombosis rates at 1 year were similar (0.5% versus 1.0%; P=0.601). CONCLUSIONS: In the ACS subgroup population of the BIOFLOW V study, treatment with BP-SES compared with DP-EES was associated with a significantly lower rate of 12-month target lesion failure, a difference driven by significantly lower periprocedural MI and spontaneous MI. These findings support treatment with an ultrathin strut BP-SES in ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02389946.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Stents Farmacológicos , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Polímeros/química , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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