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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781818

RESUMO

Railyards are important transportation hubs, and they are often situated near populated areas with high co-located density of manufacturing, freight movement and commercial enterprises. Emissions occurring within railyards can affect nearby air quality. To better understand the air pollution levels in proximity to a major railyard, an intensive mobile air monitoring study was conducted in May 2012 around a major railyard area in Atlanta, GA, constituted of two separate facilities situated side-by-side. A total of 19 multi-hour mobile monitoring sessions took place over different times of day, days of the week, and under a variety of wind conditions. High time resolution measurements included black carbon (BC), particle number concentration (PN), particle optical extinction (EXT), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, NOy), carbon monoxide (CO), and speciated air toxics. Urban background was estimated to contribute substantially (>70%) to EXT and CO, whereas BC, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and toluene had comparably low background contributions (<30%). Mobile monitoring data were aggregated into 50 meter spatial medians by wind categories, with categories including low speed wind conditions (<0.5 m s-1) and, for wind speeds above that threshold, by wind direction relative to the railyard. Spatial medians of different pollutants measured had a wide range of correlation-gas-phase air toxics (benzene, toluene, acetaldehyde) had moderate correlation with each other (r = 0.46⁻0.59) and between toluene and CO (r = 0.53), but lower correlation for other pairings. PN had highest correlation with oxides of nitrogen (r = 0.55⁻0.66), followed by BC (r = 0.4), and lower correlation with other pollutants. Multivariate regression analysis on the full set of 50 m medians found BC and NO as having the strongest relationship to railyard emissions, in comparison to their respective background levels. This was indicated by an increase associated with transiting through the yard and inverse relationship with distance from the railyard; NO and BC decreased by a factor of approximately 0.5 and 0.7 over 1 km distance of the railyard boundary, respectively. Low speed, variable wind conditions were related to higher concentrations of all measured parameters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Georgia , Ferrovias , Vento
2.
Nat Chem ; 10(4): 462-468, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483638

RESUMO

The evolution of atmospheric organic carbon as it undergoes oxidation has a controlling influence on concentrations of key atmospheric species, including particulate matter, ozone and oxidants. However, full characterization of organic carbon over hours to days of atmospheric processing has been stymied by its extreme chemical complexity. Here we study the multigenerational oxidation of α-pinene in the laboratory, characterizing products with several state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Although quantification of some early generation products remains elusive, full carbon closure is achieved (within measurement uncertainty) by the end of the experiments. These results provide new insights into the effects of oxidation on organic carbon properties (volatility, oxidation state and reactivity) and the atmospheric lifecycle of organic carbon. Following an initial period characterized by functionalization reactions and particle growth, fragmentation reactions dominate, forming smaller species. After approximately one day of atmospheric aging, most carbon is sequestered in two long-lived reservoirs-volatile oxidized gases and low-volatility particulate matter.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3235, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459666

RESUMO

Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm-3) and 33% (36 cm-3) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm-3) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm-3) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

4.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(36): 10013-8, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551086

RESUMO

The mechanisms leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are an important subject of ongoing research for both air quality and climate. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that reactions taking place in the atmospheric liquid phase represent a potentially significant source of SOA mass. Here, we report direct ambient observations of SOA mass formation from processing of biomass-burning emissions in the aqueous phase. Aqueous SOA (aqSOA) formation is observed both in fog water and in wet aerosol. The aqSOA from biomass burning contributes to the "brown" carbon (BrC) budget and exhibits light absorption wavelength dependence close to the upper bound of the values observed in laboratory experiments for fresh and processed biomass-burning emissions. We estimate that the aqSOA from residential wood combustion can account for up to 0.1-0.5 Tg of organic aerosol (OA) per y in Europe, equivalent to 4-20% of the total OA emissions. Our findings highlight the importance of aqSOA from anthropogenic emissions on air quality and climate.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carbono/toxicidade , Clima , Poluição do Ar , Biomassa , Europa (Continente) , Material Particulado/química , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Água/química
6.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8435, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26419204

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) and light-absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon, BrC) play key roles in warming the atmosphere, but the magnitude of their effects remains highly uncertain. Theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments demonstrate that coatings on BC can enhance BC's light absorption, therefore many climate models simply assume enhanced BC absorption by a factor of ∼1.5. However, recent field observations show negligible absorption enhancement, implying models may overestimate BC's warming. Here we report direct evidence of substantial field-measured BC absorption enhancement, with the magnitude strongly depending on BC coating amount. Increases in BC coating result from a combination of changing sources and photochemical aging processes. When the influence of BrC is accounted for, observationally constrained model calculations of the BC absorption enhancement can be reconciled with the observations. We conclude that the influence of coatings on BC absorption should be treated as a source and regionally specific parameter in climate models.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(17): 10330-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26207427

RESUMO

Gas-phase low volatility organic compounds (LVOC), produced from oxidation of isoprene 4-hydroxy-3-hydroperoxide (4,3-ISOPOOH) under low-NO conditions, were observed during the FIXCIT chamber study. Decreases in LVOC directly correspond to appearance and growth in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of consistent elemental composition, indicating that LVOC condense (at OA below 1 µg m(-3)). This represents the first simultaneous measurement of condensing low volatility species from isoprene oxidation in both the gas and particle phases. The SOA formation in this study is separate from previously described isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) uptake. Assigning all condensing LVOC signals to 4,3-ISOPOOH oxidation in the chamber study implies a wall-loss corrected non-IEPOX SOA mass yield of ∼4%. By contrast to monoterpene oxidation, in which extremely low volatility VOC (ELVOC) constitute the organic aerosol, in the isoprene system LVOC with saturation concentrations from 10(-2) to 10 µg m(-3) are the main constituents. These LVOC may be important for the growth of nanoparticles in environments with low OA concentrations. LVOC observed in the chamber were also observed in the atmosphere during SOAS-2013 in the Southeastern United States, with the expected diurnal cycle. This previously uncharacterized aerosol formation pathway could account for ∼5.0 Tg yr(-1) of SOA production, or 3.3% of global SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Butadienos/análise , Hemiterpenos/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Pentanos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Atmosfera/química , Modelos Teóricos , Óxido Nítrico/química , Oxirredução , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Fatores de Tempo , Pressão de Vapor , Volatilização
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(11): 7012-20, 2015 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897974

RESUMO

Limited direct measurements of criteria pollutants emissions and precursors, as well as natural gas constituents, from Marcellus shale gas development activities contribute to uncertainty about their atmospheric impact. Real-time measurements were made with the Aerodyne Research Inc. Mobile Laboratory to characterize emission rates of atmospheric pollutants. Sites investigated include production well pads, a well pad with a drill rig, a well completion, and compressor stations. Tracer release ratio methods were used to estimate emission rates. A first-order correction factor was developed to account for errors introduced by fenceline tracer release. In contrast to observations from other shale plays, elevated volatile organic compounds, other than CH4 and C2H6, were generally not observed at the investigated sites. Elevated submicrometer particle mass concentrations were also generally not observed. Emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.006 to 0.162 tons per day (tpd) for NOx, 0.029 to 0.426 tpd for CO, and 67.9 to 371 tpd for CO2. CH4 and C2H6 emission rates from compressor stations ranged from 0.411 to 4.936 tpd and 0.023 to 0.062 tpd, respectively. Although limited in sample size, this study provides emission rate estimates for some processes in a newly developed natural gas resource and contributes valuable comparisons to other shale gas studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Gás Natural/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Íons , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Pennsylvania , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(7): 1154-63, 2015 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25654760

RESUMO

The atmospheric aging of soot particles, in which various atmospheric processes alter the particles' chemical and physical properties, is poorly understood and consequently is not well-represented in models. In this work, soot aging via heterogeneous oxidation by OH and ozone is investigated using an aerosol flow reactor coupled to a new high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometric technique that utilizes infrared vaporization and single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization. This analytical technique simultaneously measures the elemental and organic carbon components of soot, allowing for the composition of both fractions to be monitored. At oxidant exposures relevant to the particles' atmospheric lifetimes (the equivalent of several days of oxidation), the elemental carbon portion of the soot, which makes up the majority of the particle mass, undergoes no discernible changes in mass or composition. In contrast, the organic carbon (which in the case of methane flame soot is dominated by aliphatic species) is highly reactive, undergoing first the addition of oxygen-containing functional groups and ultimately the loss of organic carbon mass from fragmentation reactions that form volatile products. These changes occur on time scales comparable to those of other nonoxidative aging processes such as condensation, suggesting that further research into the combined effects of heterogeneous and condensational aging is needed to improve our ability to accurately predict the climate and health impacts of soot particles.


Assuntos
Fuligem/química , Atmosfera/química , Oxirredução
10.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4589-99, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526741

RESUMO

Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particle matter (PM) with significant effects on the global radiation budget and on human health. The soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) has been developed and deployed for real-time ambient measurements of refractory carbon particles. In the SP-AMS, black carbon or metallic particles are vaporized through absorption of 1064 nm light from a CW Nd:YAG laser. This scheme allows for continuous "soft" vaporization of both core and coating materials. The main focus of this work is to characterize the extent to which this vaporization scheme provides enhanced chemical composition information about aerosol particles. This information is difficult to extract from standard SP-AMS mass spectra because they are complicated by extensive fragmentation from the harsh 70 eV EI ionization scheme that is typically used in these instruments. Thus, in this work synchotron-generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light in the 8-14 eV range is used to measure VUV-SP-AMS spectra with minimal fragmentation. VUV-SP-AMS spectra of commercially available carbon black, fullerene black, and laboratory generated flame soots were obtained. Small carbon cluster cations (C(+)-C5(+)) were found to dominate the VUV-SP-AMS spectra of all the samples, indicating that the corresponding neutral clusters are key products of the SP vaporization process. Intercomparisons of carbon cluster ratios observed in VUV-SP-AMS and SP-AMS spectra are used to confirm spectral features that could be used to distinguish between different types of refractory carbon particles. VUV-SP-AMS spectra of oxidized organic species adsorbed on absorbing cores are also examined and found to display less thermally induced decomposition and fragmentation than spectra obtained with thermal vaporization at 200 °C (the minimum temperature needed to quantitatively vaporize ambient oxidized organic aerosol with a continuously heated surface). The particle cores tested in these studies include black carbon, silver, gold, and platinum nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that SP vaporization is capable of providing enhanced organic chemical composition information for a wide range of organic coating materials and IR absorbing particle cores. The potential of using this technique to study organic species of interest in seeded laboratory chamber or flow reactor studies is discussed.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fuligem/análise , Carbono/análise , Cátions/análise , Ácido Cítrico/análise , Etilenos/análise , Fulerenos/análise , Compostos de Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos de Platina/química , Compostos de Prata/química , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo , Volatilização
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(12): 6349-57, 2013 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23701291

RESUMO

Brown carbon (BrC), which may include secondary organic aerosol (SOA), can be a significant climate-forcing agent via its optical absorption properties. However, the overall contribution of SOA to BrC remains poorly understood. Here, correlations between oxidation level and optical properties of SOA are examined. SOA was generated in a flow reactor in the absence of NOx by OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors used as surrogates for anthropogenic (naphthalene, tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane), biomass burning (guaiacol), and biogenic (α-pinene) emissions. SOA chemical composition was characterized with a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. SOA mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC) and refractive indices were calculated from real-time cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometry measurements at 405 and 532 nm and from UV-vis spectrometry measurements of methanol extracts of filter-collected particles (300 to 600 nm). At 405 nm, SOA MAC values and imaginary refractive indices increased with increasing oxidation level and decreased with increasing wavelength, leading to negligible absorption at 532 nm. Real refractive indices of SOA decreased with increasing oxidation level. Comparison with literature studies suggests that under typical polluted conditions the effect of NOx on SOA absorption is small. SOA may contribute significantly to atmospheric BrC, with the magnitude dependent on both precursor type and oxidation level.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Carbono/química , Monoterpenos/química , Naftalenos/química , Oxirredução
12.
Science ; 339(6118): 393, 2013 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23349273

RESUMO

Jacobson argues that our statement that "many climate models may overestimate warming by BC" has not been demonstrated. Jacobson challenges our results on the basis that we have misinterpreted some model results, omitted optical focusing under high relative humidity conditions and by involatile components, and because our measurements consist of only two locations over short atmospheric time periods. We address each of these arguments, acknowledging important issues and clarifying some misconceptions, and stand by our observations. We acknowledge that Jacobson identified one detail in our experimental technique that places an additional constraint on the interpretation of our observations and reduces somewhat the potential consequences of the stated implications.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Carbono/química , Aquecimento Global , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fuligem/química
13.
Science ; 337(6098): 1078-81, 2012 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22936774

RESUMO

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) warms Earth's climate, and its reduction has been targeted for near-term climate change mitigation. Models that include forcing by BC assume internal mixing with non-BC aerosol components that enhance BC absorption, often by a factor of ~2; such model estimates have yet to be clearly validated through atmospheric observations. Here, direct in situ measurements of BC absorption enhancements (E(abs)) and mixing state are reported for two California regions. The observed E(abs) is small-6% on average at 532 nm-and increases weakly with photochemical aging. The E(abs) is less than predicted from observationally constrained theoretical calculations, suggesting that many climate models may overestimate warming by BC. These ambient observations stand in contrast to laboratory measurements that show substantial E(abs) for BC are possible.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Carbono/química , Aquecimento Global , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fuligem/química , Adsorção , California , Carbono/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fuligem/análise
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(10): 5430-7, 2012 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22534114

RESUMO

Functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) reactions governing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the OH oxidation of alkane precursors were studied in a flow reactor in the absence of NO(x). SOA precursors were n-decane (n-C10), n-pentadecane (n-C15), n-heptadecane (n-C17), tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]decane (JP-10), and vapors of diesel fuel and Southern Louisiana crude oil. Aerosol mass spectra were measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, from which normalized SOA yields, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) and oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios, and C(x)H(y)+, C(x)H(y)O+, and C(x)H(y)O(2)+ ion abundances were extracted as a function of OH exposure. Normalized SOA yield curves exhibited an increase followed by a decrease as a function of OH exposure, with maximum yields at O/C ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.74. The decrease in SOA yield correlates with an increase in oxygen content and decrease in carbon content, consistent with transitions from functionalization to fragmentation. For a subset of alkane precursors (n-C10, n-C15, and JP-10), maximum SOA yields were estimated to be 0.39, 0.69, and 1.1. In addition, maximum SOA yields correspond with a maximum in the C(x)H(y)O+ relative abundance. Measured correlations between OH exposure, O/C ratio, and H/C ratio may enable identification of alkane precursor contributions to ambient SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Alcanos/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Laboratórios , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Carbono/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , México , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(20): 9052-60, 2011 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21910443

RESUMO

Atmospheric emissions of gas and particulate matter from a large ocean-going container vessel were sampled as it slowed and switched from high-sulfur to low-sulfur fuel as it transited into regulated coastal waters of California. Reduction in emission factors (EFs) of sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter, particulate sulfate and cloud condensation nuclei were substantial (≥ 90%). EFs for particulate organic matter decreased by 70%. Black carbon (BC) EFs were reduced by 41%. When the measured emission reductions, brought about by compliance with the California fuel quality regulation and participation in the vessel speed reduction (VSR) program, are placed in a broader context, warming from reductions in the indirect effect of SO4 would dominate any radiative changes due to the emissions changes. Within regulated waters absolute emission reductions exceed 88% for almost all measured gas and particle phase species. The analysis presented provides direct estimations of the emissions reductions that can be realized by California fuel quality regulation and VSR program, in addition to providing new information relevant to potential health and climate impact of reduced fuel sulfur content, fuel quality and vessel speed reductions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Clima , Navios , Emissões de Veículos/análise , California , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
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