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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1717, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741967

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are pathologically activated neutrophils and monocytes with potent immune suppressive activity. These cells play an important role in accelerating tumor progression and undermining the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. The natural mechanisms limiting MDSC activity are not well understood. Here, we present evidence that type I interferons (IFN1) receptor signaling serves as a universal mechanism that restricts acquisition of suppressive activity by these cells. Downregulation of the IFNAR1 chain of this receptor is found in MDSC from cancer patients and mouse tumor models. The decrease in IFNAR1 depends on the activation of the p38 protein kinase and is required for activation of the immune suppressive phenotype. Whereas deletion of IFNAR1 is not sufficient to convert neutrophils and monocytes to MDSC, genetic stabilization of IFNAR1 in tumor bearing mice undermines suppressive activity of MDSC and has potent antitumor effect. Stabilizing IFNAR1 using inhibitor of p38 combined with the interferon induction therapy elicits a robust anti-tumor effect. Thus, negative regulatory mechanisms of MDSC function can be exploited therapeutically.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Medula Óssea , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
2.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566112

RESUMO

In this study, using single-cell RNA-seq, cell mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, and functional analysis, we characterized the heterogeneity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in cancer. We describe three populations of PMNs in tumor-bearing mice: classical PMNs, polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs), and activated PMN-MDSCs with potent immune suppressive activity. In spleens of mice, PMN-MDSCs gradually replaced PMNs during tumor progression. Activated PMN-MDSCs were found only in tumors, where they were present at the very early stages of the disease. These populations of PMNs in mice could be separated based on the expression of CD14. In peripheral blood of cancer patients, we identified two distinct populations of PMNs with characteristics of classical PMNs and PMN-MDSCs. The gene signature of tumor PMN-MDSCs was similar to that in mouse activated PMN-MDSCs and was closely associated with negative clinical outcome in cancer patients. Thus, we provide evidence that PMN-MDSCs are a distinct population of PMNs with unique features and potential for selective targeting opportunities.

3.
Oncologist ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594771

RESUMO

ECOG-ACRIN EA5181 is a phase III prospective, randomized trial that randomizes patients undergoing chemo/radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) to concomitant durvalumab or no additional therapy, with both arms receiving 1 year of consolidative durvalumab. Radiation dose escalation failed to improve overall survival in RTOG 0617. However, conventionally fractionated radiation to 60 Gy with concomitant chemotherapy is associated with a high risk of local failure (38%-46%). It is hoped that concomitant immunotherapy during chemo/radiation can help decrease the risk of local failure, thereby improving overall survival and progression-free survival with acceptable toxicity. In this article, we review conventional chemo/radiation therapy for LA-NSCLC, as well as the quickly evolving world of immunotherapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and discuss the rationale and study design of EA5181. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This article provides an up-to-date assessment of how immunotherapy is reshaping the landscape of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and how the impact of this therapy is now rapidly moving into the treatment of patients with locally advanced NSCLC who are presenting for curative treatment. This article reviews the recent publications of chemo/radiation as well as those combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy and chemo/radiation, and provides a strategy for improving overall survival of patients with locally advanced NSCLC by using concomitant immunotherapy with standard concurrent chemo/radiation.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(9): 1040-1091, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with driver alterations. A guideline update for systemic therapy for patients with stage IV NSCLC without driver alterations was published separately. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from December 2015 to January 2020 and meeting abstracts from ASCO 2020. RESULTS: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous update. Twenty-seven RCTs, 26 observational studies, and one meta-analysis provide the evidence base (total 54). Outcomes of interest included efficacy and safety. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed. RECOMMENDATIONS: All patients with nonsquamous NSCLC should have the results of testing for potentially targetable mutations (alterations) before implementing therapy for advanced lung cancer, regardless of smoking status recommendations, when possible, following other existing high-quality testing guidelines. Most patients should receive targeted therapy for these alterations: Targeted therapies against ROS-1 fusions, BRAF V600e mutations, RET fusions, MET exon 14 skipping mutations, and NTRK fusions should be offered to patients, either as initial or second-line therapy when not given in the first-line setting. New or revised recommendations include the following: Osimertinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (exon 19 deletion, exon 21 L858R, and exon 20 T790M); alectinib or brigatinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions. For the first time, to our knowledge, the guideline includes recommendations regarding RET, MET, and NTRK alterations. Chemotherapy is still an option at most stages.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines.

5.
Cell Rep ; 33(13): 108571, 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378668

RESUMO

Here, we report that functional heterogeneity of macrophages in cancer could be determined by the nature of their precursors: monocytes (Mons) and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs). Macrophages that are differentiated from M-MDSCs, but not from Mons, are immune suppressive, with a genomic profile matching that of M-MDSCs. Immune-suppressive activity of M-MDSC-derived macrophages is dependent on the persistent expression of S100A9 protein in these cells. S100A9 also promotes M2 polarization of macrophages. Tissue-resident- and Mon-derived macrophages lack expression of this protein. S100A9-dependent immune-suppressive activity of macrophages involves transcription factor C/EBPß. The presence of S100A9-positive macrophages in tumor tissues is associated with shorter survival in patients with head and neck cancer and poor response to PD-1 antibody treatment in patients with metastatic melanoma. Thus, this study reveals the pathway of the development of immune-suppressive macrophages and suggests an approach to their selective targeting.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(14): 1608-1632, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990617

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver alterations. A guideline update for patients with stage IV NSCLC with driver alterations will be published separately. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel made updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials from December 2015 to 2019. RESULTS: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline update. Five randomized controlled trials provide the evidence base. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations apply to patients without driver alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor or ALK. For patients with high programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (tumor proportion score [TPS] ≥ 50%) and non-squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC), the Expert Panel recommends single-agent pembrolizumab. Additional treatment options include pembrolizumab/carboplatin/pemetrexed, atezolizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab, or atezolizumab/carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel. For most patients with non-SCC and either negative (0%) or low positive (1% to 49%) PD-L1, the Expert Panel recommends pembrolizumab/carboplatin/pemetrexed. Additional options are atezolizumab/carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel, atezolizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab, platinum-based two-drug combination chemotherapy, or non-platinum-based two-drug therapy. Single-agent pembrolizumab is an option for low positive PD-L1. For patients with high PD-L1 expression (TPS ≥ 50%) and SCC, the Expert Panel recommends single-agent pembrolizumab. An additional treatment option is pembrolizumab/carboplatin/(paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel). For most patients with SCC and either negative (0%) or low positive PD-L1 (TPS 1% to 49%), the Expert Panel recommends pembrolizumab/carboplatin/(paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel) or chemotherapy. Single-agent pembrolizumab is an option in select cases of low positive PD-L1. Recommendations are conditional on the basis of histology, PD-L1 status, and/or the presence or absence of contraindications. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/lung-cancer-guidelines.

8.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 29(1): 15-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757310

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains second most common cancer in men and women in the United States. More than 50% of patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Traditionally, chemotherapy has been the backbone of management of stage IV lung cancer. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis has led to rapid development of targeted therapy and immunotherapy. This has led to significant improvement in survival of patients with lung cancer stages III to IV. These drugs are being studied in early stage lung cancer. Several trials are ongoing to improve the survival and quality of life of our patients.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 706-714, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: RTOG 0617 compared standard-dose (SD; 60 Gy) versus high-dose (HD; 74 Gy) radiation with concurrent chemotherapy and determined the efficacy of cetuximab for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The study used a 2 × 2 factorial design with radiation dose as 1 factor and cetuximab as the other, with a primary end point of overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5.1 years. There were 3 grade 5 adverse events (AEs) in the SD arm and 9 in the HD arm. Treatment-related grade ≥3 dysphagia and esophagitis occurred in 3.2% and 5.0% of patients in the SD arm v 12.1% and 17.4% in the HD arm, respectively (P = .0005 and < .0001). There was no difference in pulmonary toxicity, with grade ≥3 AEs in 20.6% and 19.3%. Median OS was 28.7 v 20.3 months (P = .0072) in the SD and HD arms, respectively, 5-year OS and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 32.1% and 23% and 18.3% and 13% (P = .055), respectively. Factors associated with improved OS on multivariable analysis were standard radiation dose, tumor location, institution accrual volume, esophagitis/dysphagia, planning target volume and heart V5. The use of cetuximab conferred no survival benefit at the expense of increased toxicity. The prior signal of benefit in patients with higher H scores was no longer apparent. The progression rate within 1 month of treatment completion in the SD arm was 4.6%. For comparison purposes, the resultant 2-year OS and PFS rates allowing for that dropout rate were 59.6% and 30.7%, respectively, in the SD arms. CONCLUSION: A 60-Gy radiation dose with concurrent chemotherapy should remain the standard of care, with the OS rate being among the highest reported in the literature for stage III NSCLC. Cetuximab had no effect on OS. The 2-year OS rates in the control arm are similar to the PACIFIC trial.

10.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2150-2169, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239386

RESUMO

We have identified a precursor that differentiates into granulocytes in vitro and in vivo yet belongs to the monocytic lineage. We have termed these cells monocyte-like precursors of granulocytes (MLPGs). Under steady state conditions, MLPGs were absent in the spleen and barely detectable in the bone marrow (BM). In contrast, these cells significantly expanded in tumor-bearing mice and differentiated to polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs). Selective depletion of monocytic cells had no effect on the number of granulocytes in naive mice but decreased the population of PMN-MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice by 50%. The expansion of MLPGs was found to be controlled by the down-regulation of Rb1, but not IRF8, which is known to regulate the expansion of PMN-MDSCs from classic granulocyte precursors. In cancer patients, putative MLPGs were found within the population of CXCR1+CD15-CD14+HLA-DR-/lo monocytic cells. These findings describe a mechanism of abnormal myelopoiesis in cancer and suggest potential new approaches for selective targeting of MDSCs.


Assuntos
Monócitos/patologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo
11.
Cureus ; 11(3): e4264, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139523

RESUMO

As immunotherapy continues to translate to the clinic and is combined with existing modalities, such as radiation therapy, novel treatment response patterns have been observed which complicate conventional clinical assessment and management. Herein, we describe a case study of a patient with non-small cell lung cancer treated initially with definitive chemoradiation who subsequently developed oligorecurrent disease which was managed with nivolumab and then comprehensive salvage stereotactic radiation. Serial radiographic assessment had shown worsening at these limited sites of disease after initiating immunotherapy, improvement after radiation, and then heterogeneous response behavior across sites during longer-term follow-up. Given the dual effects ablative radiation may have in the context of global immune checkpoint inhibition, both cytotoxic and synergistic immune-related, assessment of treatment response to such treatment is complicated. Such assessment is further complicated by novel immunotherapy response phenomena, e.g. pseudoprogression, which are being uncovered and are not fully characterized. Current clinical and radiologic assessment strategies are inadequate to interrogate and discern between immunomodulation-influenced response behavior and further diagnostic innovation is warranted to meet the needs of evolving clinical practice in the era of immunotherapy.

12.
Nature ; 569(7754): 73-78, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996346

RESUMO

Polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) are pathologically activated neutrophils that are crucial for the regulation of immune responses in cancer. These cells contribute to the failure of cancer therapies and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Despite recent advances in the understanding of PMN-MDSC biology, the mechanisms responsible for the pathological activation of neutrophils are not well defined, and this limits the selective targeting of these cells. Here we report that mouse and human PMN-MDSCs exclusively upregulate fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2). Overexpression of FATP2 in PMN-MDSCs was controlled by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, through the activation of the STAT5 transcription factor. Deletion of FATP2 abrogated the suppressive activity of PMN-MDSCs. The main mechanism of FATP2-mediated suppressive activity involved the uptake of arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. The selective pharmacological inhibition of FATP2 abrogated the activity of PMN-MDSCs and substantially delayed tumour progression. In combination with checkpoint inhibitors, FATP2 inhibition blocked tumour progression in mice. Thus, FATP2 mediates the acquisition of immunosuppressive activity by PMN-MDSCs and represents a target to inhibit the functions of PMN-MDSCs selectively and to improve the efficiency of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo
13.
Nat Immunol ; 19(11): 1236-1247, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323345

RESUMO

Although neutrophils have been linked to the formation of the pre-metastatic niche, the mechanism of their migration to distant, uninvolved tissues has remained elusive. We report that bone marrow neutrophils from mice with early-stage cancer exhibited much more spontaneous migration than that of control neutrophils from tumor-free mice. These cells lacked immunosuppressive activity but had elevated rates of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, and increased production of ATP, relative to that of control neutrophils. Their enhanced spontaneous migration was mediated by autocrine ATP signaling through purinergic receptors. In ectopic tumor models and late stages of cancer, bone marrow neutrophils demonstrated potent immunosuppressive activity. However, these cells had metabolic and migratory activity indistinguishable from that of control neutrophils. A similar pattern of migration was observed for neutrophils and polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells from patients with cancer. These results elucidate the dynamic changes that neutrophils undergo in cancer and demonstrate the mechanism of neutrophils' contribution to early tumor dissemination.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905018

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death throughout the world. Despite new chemotherapeutic, immunomodulating and molecularly targeted agents, patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease still have a poor prognosis. This trial looked to combine antiangiogenic therapy with a first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy doublet, hoping to extend median progression-free survival (PFS) while minimizing toxicity in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this single institution, single-arm study, 51 patients (age >18 yo) were followed from 2007 to 2012. Patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC and patients with recurrent unresectable disease (nonradiation candidates) were eligible. Treatment consisted of carboplatin AUC 5 IV 30-60 minutes, pemetrexed 500/mg2 IV 10 minutes, bevacizumab 15 mg/kg IV (90 minutes 1st dose, 60 minutes 2nd dose, 30 minutes subsequent doses). Treatment was administered every 21 days and planned for 6 cycles, in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicities. Growth factor support was not permitted prophylactically but allowed for toxicities, as were dose reductions. Maintenance treatment for those with stable disease or better consisted of Bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks for up to 1 year. Between November 2007 and March 2012, 51 patients were followed in the phase II trial of carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab. Patients were enrolled over a 24-month period. After the end of treatment visits, subjects were followed at least every 3 months for survival data. The median follow-up period was 49 weeks (6 weeks to 178), and the median number of treatment cycles was 6 (range, 1-6). Among the 50 patients assessable for response, median overall survival was 49 weeks (95% CI, 0-62.7) with median PFS of 28 weeks (95% CI, 0-132.4). A complete or partial response was seen in 28 (59.5%) patients. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 9 (17.6%) of 51 patients; the most common were thrombocytopenia (4 [7.8%]) and neutropenia (3 [5.9%]). Three (5.8%) of 51 patients were discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events (grade 3 diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, dehydration, fatigue, and grade 4 respiratory distress), and 1 patient (1.9%) was found to be ineligible due to anticoagulation use. A novel 3-drug combination for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC shows promising efficacy with modest toxicity.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(1): 101-114, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EGFR antibodies have shown promise in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly with squamous cell histology. We hypothesised that EGFR copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) can identify patients most likely to benefit from these drugs combined with chemotherapy and we aimed to explore the activity of cetuximab with chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC who are EGFR FISH-positive. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 3 study (SWOG S0819) at 277 sites in the USA and Mexico. We randomly assigned (1:1) eligible patients with treatment-naive stage IV NSCLC to receive paclitaxel (200 mg/m2; every 21 days) plus carboplatin (area under the curve of 6 by modified Calvert formula; every 21 days) or carboplatin plus paclitaxel and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg; every 21 days), either with cetuximab (250 mg/m2 weekly after loading dose; cetuximab group) or without (control group), stratified by bevacizumab treatment, smoking status, and M-substage using a dynamic-balancing algorithm. Co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival in patients with EGFR FISH-positive cancer and overall survival in the entire study population. We analysed clinical outcomes with the intention-to-treat principle and analysis of safety outcomes included patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00946712). FINDINGS: Between Aug 13, 2009, and May 30, 2014, we randomly assigned 1313 patients to the control group (n=657; 277 with bevacizumab and 380 without bevacizumab in the intention-to-treat population) or the cetuximab group (n=656; 283 with bevacizumab and 373 without bevacizumab in the intention-to-treat population). EGFR FISH was assessable in 976 patients and 400 patients (41%) were EGFR FISH-positive. The median follow-up for patients last known to be alive was 35·2 months (IQR 22·9-39·9). After 194 progression-free survival events in the cetuximab group and 198 in the control group in the EGFR FISH-positive subpopulation, progression-free survival did not differ between treatment groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0·92, 95% CI 0·75-1·12; p=0·40; median 5·4 months [95% CI 4·5-5·7] vs 4·8 months [3·9-5·5]). After 570 deaths in the cetuximab group and 593 in the control group, overall survival did not differ between the treatment groups in the entire study population (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·83-1·04; p=0·22; median 10·9 months [95% CI 9·5-12·0] vs 9·2 months [8·7-10·3]). In the prespecified analysis of EGFR FISH-positive subpopulation with squamous cell histology, overall survival was significantly longer in the cetuximab group than in the control group (HR 0·58, 95% CI 0·36-0·86; p=0·0071), although progression-free survival did not differ between treatment groups in this subgroup (0·68, 0·46-1·01; p=0·055). Overall survival and progression-free survival did not differ among patients who were EGFR FISH non-positive with squamous cell histology (HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·78-1·40; p=0·77; and 1·02, 0·77-1·36; p=0·88 respectively) or patients with non-squamous histology regardless of EGFR FISH status (for EGFR FISH-positive 0·88, 0·68-1·14; p=0·34; and 0·99, 0·78-1·27; p=0·96; respectively; and for EGFR FISH non-positive 1·00, 0·85-1·17; p=0·97; and 1·03, 0·88-1·20; p=0·69; respectively). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were decreased neutrophil count (210 [37%] in the cetuximab group vs 158 [25%] in the control group), decreased leucocyte count (103 [16%] vs 74 [20%]), fatigue (81 [13%] vs 74 [20%]), and acne or rash (52 [8%] vs one [<1%]). 59 (9%) patients in the cetuximab group and 31 (5%) patients in the control group had severe adverse events. Deaths related to treatment occurred in 32 (6%) patients in the cetuximab group and 13 (2%) patients in the control group. INTERPRETATION: Although this study did not meet its primary endpoints, prespecified subgroup analyses of patients with EGFR FISH-positive squamous-cell carcinoma cancers are encouraging and support continued evaluation of anti-EGFR antibodies in this subpopulation. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute and Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(30): 3484-3515, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806116

RESUMO

Purpose Provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2015 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The ASCO NSCLC Expert Panel made recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials from February 2014 to December 2016 plus the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-Based Care's update of a previous ASCO search. Results This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline update. Fourteen randomized controlled trials provide the evidence base; earlier phase trials also informed recommendation development. Recommendations New or revised recommendations include the following. Regarding first-line treatment for patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma (without positive markers, eg, EGFR/ALK /ROS1), if the patient has high programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, pembrolizumab should be used alone; if the patient has low PD-L1 expression, clinicians should offer standard chemotherapy. All other clinical scenarios follow 2015 recommendations. Regarding second-line treatment in patients who received first-line chemotherapy, without prior immune checkpoint therapy, if NSCLC tumor is positive for PD-L1 expression, clinicians should use single-agent nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab; if tumor has negative or unknown PD-L1 expression, clinicians should use nivolumab or atezolizumab. All immune checkpoint therapy is recommended alone plus in the absence of contraindications. For patients who received a prior first-line immune checkpoint inhibitor, clinicians should offer standard chemotherapy. For patients who cannot receive immune checkpoint inhibitor after chemotherapy, docetaxel is recommended; in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC, pemetrexed is recommended. In patients with a sensitizing EGFR mutation, disease progression after first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, and T790M mutation, osimertinib is recommended; if NSCLC lacks the T790M mutation, then chemotherapy is recommended. Patients with ROS1 gene rearrangement without prior crizotinib may be offered crizotinib, or if they previously received crizotinib, they may be offered chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , American Medical Association , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Oncologia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(19): 5711-5719, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679770

RESUMO

Purpose: We evaluated a Trop-2-targeting antibody conjugated with SN-38 in metastatic small cell lung cancer (mSCLC) patients.Experimental Design: Sacituzumab govitecan was studied in patients with pretreated (median, 2; range, 1-7) mSCLC who received either 8 or 10 mg/kg i.v. on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycles. The primary endpoints were safety and objective response rate (ORR); duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints.Results: Sixty percent of patients showed tumor shrinkage from baseline CTs. On an intention-to-treat basis (N = 50), the ORR was 14% (17% for the 10-mg/kg group); the median response duration, 5.7 months; the clinical benefit rate (CBR ≥4 months), 34%; median PFS, 3.7 months; and median OS, 7.5 months. There was a suggested improvement in PR, CBR, and PFS with sacituzumab govitecan in second-line patients who were sensitive to first-line therapy, but no difference between first-line chemosensitive versus chemoresistant patients in the overall population. There was a statistically significant higher OS in those patients who received prior topotecan versus no topotecan therapy in a small subgroup. Grade ≥3 adverse events included neutropenia (34%), fatigue (13%), diarrhea (9%), and anemia (6%). Trop-2 tumor staining was not required for patient selection. No antibodies to the drug conjugate or its components were detected on serial blood collections.Conclusions: Sacituzumab govitecan appears to have a safe and effective therapeutic profile in heavily pretreated mSCLC patients, including those who are chemosensitive or chemoresistant to first-line chemotherapy. Additional studies as a monotherapy or combination therapy are warranted. Clin Cancer Res; 23(19); 5711-9. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Imunoconjugados/química , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/imunologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/efeitos adversos
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