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1.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807712

RESUMO

Implicit motor learning paradigms aim to minimize verbal-analytical engagement in motor performance. Some paradigms do this by decreasing working memory activity during practice, which reduces explicit processes associated with the search for motor solutions (e.g., hypothesis testing). Here we designed a mentally demanding motor task to fatigue working memory prior to motor practice and then tested whether it reduced hypothesis testing. Fifty-nine participants were randomly assigned to complete the mentally demanding motor task (cognitive fatigue group) or to complete an undemanding motor task (nonfatigued control group). Feelings of fatigue, working memory functions, electroencephalography (EEG) Fz power, and vagal control were assessed pre- and posttask to quantify the effect of the mentally demanding motor task on cognitive fatigue. Thereafter, an adapted shuffleboard task was completed to determine the impact on hypothesis testing. Hypothesis testing was assessed by self-report, technique changes, and equipment-use solutions. Additionally, verbal-analytical engagement in motor performance was (indirectly) gauged with EEG T7-Fz connectivity and T7 power measures. Participants in the cognitive fatigue group reported more fatigue and displayed moderated working memory functions and Fz theta power. During practice of the shuffleboard task, participants also displayed more technique changes and higher verbal-analytical engagement in motor planning (EEG T7-Fz connectivity), compared with participants in the control group. The mentally demanding motor task suppressed working memory functions, but resulted in more, rather than less, hypothesis testing during shuffleboard practice. The implications are discussed in the context of implicit motor learning theory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 719788, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489736

RESUMO

In an immersion incident, a person may be required to tread water for extended periods of time in order to survive. Treading water, or maintaining a stable head position above the water surface, can be achieved in several different ways. Determining which treading water techniques are economic (energetically and cognitively) is an important first step in approaching evidence-based water safety instruction. The present study investigated the cognitive and metabolic demands associated with four main techniques for treading water in experienced water treaders. Skilled water treaders (n=21) performed four common treading techniques for 3min each: "running" in the water, "flutter kick" with hands sculling, "upright breaststroke," and "egg-beater." Self-reported rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and task load index (TLX) score, as well as objective measures of probe reaction time (PRT; i.e., response to auditory cues while treading), oxygen consumption and heart rate were assessed. The "egg-beater" technique and the "upright breaststroke" technique were linked to significantly lower cognitive and energetic demands compared to the other techniques (VO2: p<0.001 - "Running" M=29.02, SD=7.40/"Flutter kick" M=29.37, SD=8.56, "Breaststroke" M=23.47, SD=7.28, and "Eggbeater" M=23.18, SD=6.31). This study lays the groundwork for future research that may establish the ideal movement behavior in drowning situations and investigate movement instruction to less experienced treaders.

3.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-14, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553678

RESUMO

This research project aimed to develop and validate a rowing-specific reinvestment scale. In Study 1, a 24-item questionnaire was developed and the content validity was assessed using experts (N = 7) and pilot-tested in rowers (N = 24). Next, rowers (N = 282) completed the questionnaire with the remaining items, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted. This further reduced the number of items and revealed two factors, rowing specific conscious motor processing (RS-CMP) and movement self-consciousness (RS-MSC). In Study 2, rowers (N = 270) completed the scale that was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Moreover, the construct validity of the scale was investigated by asking them to complete measures of movement-specific reinvestment, perceived performance, self-consciousness, and state anxiety. Actual performance was also determined based on their race finishing position. Study 1 EFA resulted in a 2-factor model with six items assessing RS-CMP and six items assessing RS-MSC. Study 2 supported the factor structure of scale; CFA indicated an acceptable model fit with good internal consistency. Content validity was also supported, with evidence of concurrent, convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. In conclusion, these studies provided good initial evidence for the validity and reliability of the RSRS.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 678874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335392

RESUMO

Background: Decades of research, largely from associational studies, show that the relationships of movement proficiency with the cognitive and social aspects of development are particularly strong in early childhood. Children who move proficiently tend to have better cognitive skills and social behaviors. However, the mechanisms that underpin these relationships remain unclear and research that explores causation is necessary. This study will explore the antecedent role of movement proficiency in the cognitive and social domains of child development, by examining whether a targeted movement skills training program facilitates improvements in cognitive and social skills. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial will be conducted, implementing a fundamental movement skills training program in Hong Kong kindergartens. Participants will consist of children aged 3-5 years (N = 158) who will be randomly allocated by class to either a training or active control condition. The training program (10 weeks × 2 bouts) will be informed by an error-reduced approach to skills learning, which will involve careful design and manipulation of equipment and training environment to minimize practice errors. The active control condition will consist of typical movement activities implemented in the kindergartens in the context of the local curriculum guide. Outcomes will be measured using standardized tests of gross motor skills proficiency, executive functioning, and social skills. Measurements will occur at baseline, mid-training, post-training, and follow-up. Latent variable longitudinal modeling will be used to analyze changes in the outcomes, with covariates that include sex, body composition, fine motor skills, and physical activity. Expected Results: The findings will subsequently be reported consistent with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. Contributions to knowledge and understanding of child development are expected, through evidence of causal mechanisms surrounding the relationship of motor with cognitive and social development. The findings will also inform policy and practice related to early childhood development and education.

5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(4): 963-982, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310711

RESUMO

Purpose A speech-specific reinvestment scale (SSRS) is a psychometric measure of the propensity to consciously control and monitor speech production. This study develops and validates an SSRS as well as examines its relationship with speech performance with the moderating effects of trait social anxieties (i.e., social interaction anxiety, public speaking anxiety, and social phobia). Method Scale development involves the following stages: (a) initial item generation based on relevant literature, (b) item evaluation through cognitive interviews with 24 healthy respondents, (c) scale reliability and validity tests using cross-sectional survey data from 498 healthy respondents, and (d) test-retest reliability assessment using longitudinal survey data from 185 healthy respondents. Respondents' speech performance is quantified using speech examination scores. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses are conducted to examine the moderating effects of trait social anxieties. Results The validated SSRS comprises 35 items, which can be categorized into four subdimensions, namely, speech movement self-consciousness, public consciousness of speech content, speech manner, and speech movement. Results show that respondents with low trait social anxieties indicate a generally positive relationship between public consciousness of speech movement and speech performance, whereas respondents with high trait social anxieties exhibit a nonsignificant relationship. Conclusions SSRS offers a reliable and valid method for assessing the predisposition for conscious speech control and monitoring, which plays a role in speech performance and is moderated by an individual's level of trait social anxiety. SSRS is a potential assessment tool for speech-language pathologists to evaluate the impacts of conscious speech control and monitoring on individuals with speech impairment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Fala , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Hum Mov Sci ; 70: 102566, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957667

RESUMO

We examined the effect of verbalization of a phylogenetic motor skill, balance, in older and young adults with a low or a high propensity for conscious verbal engagement in their movements (reinvestment). Seventy-seven older adults and 53 young adults were categorized as high or low reinvestors, using the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale, which assesses propensity for conscious processing of movements. Participants performed a pre- and post-test balance task that required quiet standing on a force-measuring plate. Prior to the post-test, participants described their pre-test balancing performance (verbalization) or listed animals (non-verbalization). Only young adults were affected by verbalization, with participants with a high propensity for reinvestment displaying increased medial-lateral entropy and participants with a low propensity for reinvestment displaying increased area of sway and medial-lateral sway variability following the intervention. The possible explanations for these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Cognição , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(2): 282-292, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between conscious monitoring and control of movements (i.e., movement-specific reinvestment) and visuomotor control during walking by older adults. METHOD: The Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS) was administered to 92 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65-81 years, who were required to walk along a 4.8-m walkway and step on the middle of a target as accurately as possible. Participants' movement kinematics and gaze behavior were measured during approach to the target and when stepping on it. RESULTS: High scores on the MSRS were associated with prolonged stance and double support times during approach to the stepping target, and less accurate foot placement when stepping on the target. No associations between MSRS and gaze behavior were observed. DISCUSSION: Older adults with a high propensity for movement-specific reinvestment seem to need more time to "plan" future stepping movements, yet show worse stepping accuracy than older adults with a low propensity for movement-specific reinvestment. Future research should examine whether older adults with a higher propensity for reinvestment are more likely to display movement errors that lead to falling.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimento , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Caminhada/psicologia
8.
Exp Aging Res ; 45(5): 410-423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514583

RESUMO

Background/Study Context: Adjustments of posture in response to balance challenges may lead to subsequent increases in conscious posture processing. If cognitive resources are stretched by conscious processing of postural responses fewer resources will be available to attend to environmental trip or fall hazards. The objective of the study was to explore brain activity related to conscious processing of posture as a function of movement specific reinvestment and fear of falling. Method: Forty-three older adults (M = 71.4, SD = 4.1) stood with a wide or narrow stance on a force-plate while neural coherence between verbal-analytical (T3) and motor planning (Fz) regions of the brain was assessed using electroencephalography. The propensity for movement specific reinvestment was assessed using the Chinese version Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS-C) and fear of falling was assessed using the Chinese version Fall Efficacy Scale International (FES-I[CH]). Results: Scores from the MSRS-C were negatively correlated with changes in T3-Fz coherence that occurred when participants shifted from wide to narrow stance. Together, MSRS-C and FES-I(CH) uniquely predicted the percentage change in T3-Fz coherence between the two stance conditions. Conclusion: Presented with two postural tasks of different complexities, participants with a lower propensity for conscious control of their movements (movement specific reinvestment) exhibited larger changes in real-time brain activity (neural coherence) associated with conscious postural processing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Eletroencefalografia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
9.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 19(6): 834-841, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430921

RESUMO

The ability to make fast, accurate decisions is an essential skill for all who play sport. However, measuring this ability has proved difficult for coaches and talent identification practitioners. Pattern recognition (a key factor in decision making) has commonly been measured using pattern recall tasks. This study aimed to understand whether accuracy when recalling rugby union patterns is a valid measure of on-field decision making performance. In Study 1, professional players recalled structured patterns of players from still images (N = 20) viewed for 5 s. On-field decision-making markers, including coaches' rankings of decision-making ability, playing position, number of years playing professionally and total number of years playing rugby union, were used as predictor variables of recall accuracy. Results showed that only total number of years playing rugby union was correlated with recall accuracy, suggesting that caution is necessary when adopting these tasks for talent identification purposes. The structured stimuli used in Study 1 were not representative of a true rugby union game, so Study 2 tested novice and expert players on a pattern recall task that included structured, semi-structured and unstructured rugby union patterns. Experts were significantly more accurate than novices when recalling structured and semi-structured patterns; however, there were no differences when recalling unstructured patterns. It was concluded that structured and semi-structured patterns should be used in future studies to test whether pattern recall tasks can be used for talent identification in rugby union.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 22(4): e706-e714, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043548

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Explicit instruction (conscious knowledge/rules) is generally used for learning dental operative skills; however, recent work has demonstrated advantages of learning skills implicitly with minimal accrual of conscious knowledge and reduced attentional demands. Therefore, this study examined the effects of learning handpiece manipulation skills explicitly (errorful) and implicitly (errorless: limited error detection/correction) under conditions of increased attentional demands (ie multitasking and additional instructions). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-dental university students were randomly assigned to errorless (n = 11) or errorful (n = 8) groups. They used pencil lead instead of a bur, with errorless learners shading shapes from simple (small circle) to complex (cross), while errorful learners shaded the shapes in reverse. During testing, they completed simulated cavities in baseline, additional instructions and multitask conditions. Learning performance was calculated as per cent of the shape shaded successfully. Test performance was computed as error in cavity length/depth and was compared with dental students who had completed their operative technique course (n = 14). RESULTS: Errorless learners were more accurate than errorful learners especially when shading difficult shapes (P = 0.042). With additional instructions, errorless and errorful learners did not differ in cavity depth (P = 0.057) or length (P = 0.540). When multitasking, errorless learners prepared the cavity length (P = 0.048) but not depth (P = 0.920) more accurately than errorful learners. Overall, performance of errorless learners was comparable to dental students. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest handpiece skills can be acquired implicitly via errorless learning, and it is less attentionally demanding than errorful learning, as evident by maintenance of preparation performance when processing additional relevant instructions and multitasking.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Aprendizagem , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes de Odontologia , Humanos
11.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 34(12): 926-930, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368972

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the propensity for conscious monitoring and control of movement (i.e. movement specific reinvestment) influences the acquisition of movement skills. Physiotherapists, whose primary function is to promote effective human movement, also develop specialized movement skills that are necessary to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. To explore the implications for promoting expertise, this current study examined physiotherapists' propensity for movement-specific reinvestment. Practitioners and students in physiotherapy, and other rehabilitation, and non-health professionals, completed the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale, which measures two dimensions of reinvestment: 1) conscious motor processing (CMP); and 2) movement self-consciousness (MS-C). Physiotherapists scored significantly higher than other professionals on both CMP and MS-C. Specifically among physiotherapists, those with relatively fewer years of practice tended to have higher MS-C scores. Movement-specific reinvestment appears to be a characteristic of physiotherapists that could be relevant for understanding the ways in which novices think and act as they progress to expertise. Further research is recommended to examine the role of reinvestment in performance of different tasks of varying complexity by novice physiotherapists.


Assuntos
Fisioterapeutas/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fisioterapeutas/educação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Gait Posture ; 60: 258-261, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of below-knee compression garments on proprioception accuracy under, information processing constraints designed to cause high or low conscious attention to the task. METHODS: In a counterbalanced, single-blinded, crossover trial, 44 healthy participants (26 male/18 female) with a mean age of 22.7±6.9 years performed an active joint repositioning task using their nondominant and their dominant leg, with and without below-knee compression and with and without conducting a secondary task. RESULTS: Analysis of variance revealed no main effect of leg dominance and no interactions (p's>0.05). However, a main effect was evident for both compression (F1, 43=84.23, p<0.001, ηp2=0.665) and secondary task (F1, 43=4.391, p=0.04, ηp2=0.093). CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to evaluate the effects of a belowknee compression garment on knee proprioception under differential information processing constraints. We conclude that proprioception accuracy of the knee joint is significantly enhanced post application of below-knee compression garments and when a secondary task is conducted concurrently with active joint repositioning. The findings suggest that below-knee compression garments may improve proprioception of the knee, regardless of leg dominance, and that secondary tasks that direct attention away from proprioceptive judgments may also improve proprioception, regardless of the presence of compression. Clinical implications are discussed with respect to proprioception in modern.sports and rehabilitation settings.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Meias de Compressão , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Pressão , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Disabil Rehabil ; 40(23): 2790-2797, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the capacity for explicit and implicit learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. PARTICIPANTS: Children with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children shuffled disks toward a target. DESIGN: A prism-adaptation design was implemented, consisting of pre-exposure, prism exposure, and post-exposure phases. Half of the participants were instructed about the function of the prism glasses, while the other half were not. MEASURES: For each trial, the distance between the target and the shuffled disk was determined. Explicit learning was indicated by the rate of adaptation during the prism exposure phase, whereas implicit learning was indicated by the magnitude of the negative after-effect at the start of the post-exposure phase. Results No significant effects were revealed between typically developing participants and participants with unilateral cerebral palsy. Comparison of participants with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy demonstrated that participants with right unilateral cerebral palsy had a significantly lower rate of adaptation than participants with left unilateral cerebral palsy, but only when no instructions were provided. The magnitude of the negative after-effects did not differ significantly between participants with right and left unilateral cerebral palsy. CONCLUSIONS: The capacity for explicit motor learning is reduced among individuals with right unilateral cerebral palsy when accumulation of declarative knowledge is unguided (i.e., discovery learning). In contrast, the capacity for implicit learning appears to remain intact among individuals with left as well as right unilateral cerebral palsy. Implications for rehabilitation Implicit motor learning interventions are recommended for individuals with cerebral palsy, particularly for individuals with right unilateral cerebral palsy Explicit motor learning interventions for individual with cerebral palsy - if used - best consist of singular verbal instruction.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Hum Mov Sci ; 57: 442-450, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074307

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relationship between conscious control of movements, as defined by the Theory of Reinvestment (Masters & Maxwell, 2008; Masters, Polman, & Hammond, 1993), and both traditional and complexity-based COP measures. Fifty-three young adults (mean age=20.93±2.53years), 39 older adults with a history of falling (mean age=69.23±3.84years) and 39 older adults without a history of falling (mean age=69.00±3.72years) were asked to perform quiet standing balance in single- and dual-task conditions. The results showed that higher scores on the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale (MSRS; Masters, Eves, & Maxwell, 2005; Masters & Maxwell, 2008), a psychometric measure of the propensity for conscious involvement in movement, were associated with larger sway amplitude and a more constrained (less complex) mode of balancing in the medial-lateral direction for young adults only. Scores on MSRS explained approximately 10% of total variation in the medial-lateral sway measures. This association was not apparent under dual-task conditions, during which a secondary task was used to limit the amount of cognitive resources available for conscious processing. No relationship between postural control and score on the MSRS was found for either older adult fallers or non-fallers. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Movimento/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multivariada , Postura , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prog Brain Res ; 234: 245-261, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031466

RESUMO

This study explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, corticocortical communication (EEG coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement during the performance of a complex far-aiming task. We were specifically interested in the role of these variables in predicting motor performance by novices. Forty-eight participants completed (a) an assessment of WM capacity (an adapted Rotation Span task), (b) a questionnaire that assessed the propensity to consciously control movement (the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale), and (c) a hockey push-pass task. The hockey push-pass task was performed in a single task (movement only) condition and a combined task (movement plus decision) condition. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine brain activity during the single task. WM capacity best predicted single task performance. WM capacity in combination with T8-Fz coherence (between the visuospatial and motor regions of the brain) best predicted combined task performance. We discuss the implied roles of visuospatial information processing capacity, neural coactivation, and propensity for conscious processing during performance of complex motor tasks.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Hóquei , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1350, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878701

RESUMO

Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM) when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24) and higher WM capacity (n = 24) groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

17.
Prog Brain Res ; 232: 197-200, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28648243

RESUMO

A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. STUDY: Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure. We discuss attention control from the perspective of working memory and hypothesize that a culture of striving trains individuals to maximize their working memory capacity.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Atenção , Memória de Curto Prazo , Motivação , Humanos
18.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(4): 407-416, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038502

RESUMO

The benefits of implicit and explicit motor learning approaches in young adults have been studied extensively, but much less in children. This study investigated the relationship between fundamental motor ability and implicit/explicit learning in children using the errorless learning paradigm. First, the motor ability of 261 children (142 boys, 119 girls) aged 9-12 years (M = 9.74, SD = 0.67) was measured. Second, children with motor ability scores in the upper and lower quartile learned a golf-putting skill in either an errorless (implicit) or errorful (explicit) learning condition. Four groups were formed: Errorless High-Ability (n = 13), Errorless Low-Ability (n = 11), Errorful High-Ability (n = 10), and Errorful Low-Ability (n = 11). Learning consisted of 300 practice trials, while testing included a 50-trial retention test, followed by a 50-trial secondary task transfer test, and another 50-trial retention test. The results showed that for high- and low-ability errorless learners, motor performance was unaffected by the secondary task, as was the case for high-ability errorful learners. Low-ability errorful learners performed worse with a secondary task and were significantly poorer than the corresponding high-ability group. These results suggest that implicit motor learning (errorless) may be beneficial for children with low motor ability. The findings also show a trend that children of high motor ability might benefit from learning explicitly (errorful). Further research is recommended to examine the compatibility of implicit and explicit approaches for children of different abilities.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Golfe/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia
19.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 20(3): 179-183, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27002246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper reports the effects of error-reduced learning on movement components and mastery of overhand throwing in children with and without intellectual disability. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed on two samples of children (typically developing, TD; intellectual disability, ID) who practiced overhand throwing in either an error-reduced (ER) or error-strewn (ES) condition. Movement pattern components were assessed using a sub-skill of Test of Gross Motor Development-2. RESULTS: In TD participants, ER learners displayed improved follow-through while ES learners did not. Among children with ID, ER learners displayed greater improvements of hip/shoulder rotation and follow-through, than ES learners. Discriminant function analysis confirmed that changes in these components differentiated learning groups. Greater percentage of ER, compared to ES, participants progressed to mastery. CONCLUSIONS: With suppressed errors, the follow-through component of overhand throwing is likely to emerge, particularly in children with inferior abilities, and cognitive limitations. Error-reduced learning facilitates mastery.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 87(4): 414-420, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research supporting the skill acquisition benefits of scaling sports equipment for children in a real-world setting where child-to-coach ratios are high is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of scaling the tennis racquet on children's skill acquisition in a primary school setting. METHOD: Children aged 6 to 7 years old practiced for 5 weeks during physical education classes using either a small racquet (SR group; n = 23) or a large racquet (LR group; n = 23). Measures of hitting technique, hitting performance, and general hand-eye coordination were administered before and after the practice period. RESULTS: The high child-to-coach ratio (22:2) seemingly led to a small number of practice opportunities for children. Despite this finding, children in the SR group displayed greater improvements in hitting technique for the forehand and backhand. This finding did not translate to better hitting performance (i.e., skill outcome), however, with similar results found for both groups during the pretest and posttest. Conversely, the LR group showed greater improvements in the hand-eye coordination measure of bouncing the ball on the ground. CONCLUSION: Scaling equipment for children enhanced the acquisition of a more desirable technique in a real-world setting. We speculate that this technique acquisition would also lead to improved hitting performance following a longer practice period, whereby children are exposed to more practice opportunities.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Equipamentos Esportivos , Tênis/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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