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2.
Circulation ; 132(8): 741-7, 2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objectives were to identify correlates of mortality and congestive heart failure after aortic valve replacement (AVR) according to preoperative left ventricular (LV) function and to describe the incidence, time course, and correlates of LV recovery and mass regression postoperatively. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3112 patients with AVR were assessed in a follow-up clinic with echocardiography (median follow-up, 6.0 years). At operation, their mean age was 67.8±13.4 years, one third were female, and 29% had LV dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%). In severe patients with severe aortic stenosis and LV dysfunction, transaortic valve mean pressure gradient <40 mm Hg, longer cardiopulmonary bypass duration, and prosthesis-patient mismatch (indexed effective orifice area ≤0.85 cm(2)/m(2)) were independent correlates of the composite outcome of death or congestive heart failure after AVR. In patients with severe aortic regurgitation and LV dysfunction, older age and higher preoperative LV mass were identified. LV recovery correlated with better survival and freedom from heart failure in patients with aortic stenosis. Maximum LV mass regression took 24 months in patients with aortic stenosis and nearly 5 years with aortic regurgitation; independent correlates included smaller LV end-systolic diameter in patients with aortic stenosis and low New York Heart Association class with aortic regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete LV recovery, prosthesis-patient mismatch, low transaortic valve pressure gradient, and higher LV mass are associated with increased mortality or heart failure after AVR in patients with LV dysfunction. Higher LV end-systolic diameter and symptoms correlate with less LV mass regression, which takes at least 2 years. These findings help surgeons and cardiologists refine the indications, timing, prognostication, and follow-up of patients before and after AVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 92(4): 1284-90; discussion 1290-1, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend statin therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to attain low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels less than 100 mg/dL. Whether achieving LDL levels less than 70 mg/dL improves postoperative graft patency remains unknown. METHODS: The CASCADE (Clopidogrel after Surgery for Coronary Artery Disease) trial was a randomized study that evaluated the addition of clopidogrel to aspirin on the development of saphenous vein graft disease after CABG. Patients received the standard of care regarding postoperative statin therapy with targeted LDL levels less than 100 mg/dL. Twelve months postoperatively, patients returned for a coronary angiogram and saphenous vein graft (SVG) intravascular ultrasonogram. In this post hoc analysis, the impact of statin therapy on graft patency and vein graft intimal hyperplasia was assessed. RESULTS: LDL levels significantly declined over the period of the trial (p = 0.002). Twelve months postoperatively, 58.4% patients achieved LDL levels less than 70 mg/dL. Twelve-month graft patency was higher for patients with LDL levels less than 100 mg/dL (96.5%) compared with patients with LDL levels >100 mg/dL (83.3%, p = 0.03), even after adjustment in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-21.6; p = 0.02). However, no improvement in graft patency was noted with further LDL reduction to less than 70 mg/dL (p = 1.00). Consistent statin use throughout the trial period was independently associated with less vein graft intimal hyperplasia documented by intravascular ultrasound at 12 months (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Statin therapy to achieve LDL levels less than 100 mg/dL was independently associated with improved graft patency in the CASCADE trial. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to prospectively evaluate postoperative LDL reduction to less than 70 mg/dL and its impact on graft patency after CABG.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Veia Safena/transplante , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Veia Safena/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Circulation ; 124(11 Suppl): S75-80, 2011 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21911822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting the use of bioprostheses for heart valve replacement in young adults is accumulating. However, reoperation data, which may help guide clinical decision making in young patients, remains poorly defined in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the need for reoperation in 3975 patients who underwent first-time bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) (n=3152) or mitral valve replacement (MVR) (n=823). There were 895 patients below the age of 60 years at bioprosthesis implant (AVR, n=636; MVR, n=259). The median interval to reoperation of contemporary, stented aortic bioprostheses was 7.74 years (95% CI 7.28 to 9.97 years) in patients less than 40 years, and 12.93 years (95% CI 11.10 to 15.76 years) in patients between 40 and 60 years of age. Multivariable risk factors associated with reoperation following bioprosthetic AVR include age (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per year, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.96, P<0.001) and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.99, P=0.04). The median interval to reoperation of contemporary mitral bioprostheses was 8.11 years (95% CI 5.79 to 16.50 years) in patients less than 40 years, and 10.14 years (95% CI 8.64 to 11.14 years) in patients between 40 and 60 years of age. As for AVR, age (HR 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, P<0.001) and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.93, P=0.03) were associated with decreased reoperation risk following bioprosthetic MVR. CONCLUSIONS: These data constitute clinically relevant age-specific prognostic information regarding reoperation in young patients, who may wish to select a bioprosthesis at initial left heart valve replacement.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 37(1): 139-44, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19674916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bioprosthesis structural valve deterioration (SVD) is an incompletely understood process involving the accumulation of calcium and lipids. Whether this process could be delayed with lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is currently unknown. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate if an association exists between early LLT and a slowing of bioprosthesis SVD, with a view to designing a prospective trial. METHODS: We followed 1193 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with contemporary bioprostheses between 1990 and 2006 (mean follow-up 4.5+/-3.1 years, maximum 17.3 years). Of these patients, 150 received LLT (including statins) early after surgery. Prosthetic valve haemodynamics on echocardiography and freedom from re-operation for SVD were compared between patients who did and did not receive postoperative LLT. RESULTS: After bioprosthetic implantation, the progression of peak and mean trans-prosthetic gradients during echocardiographic follow-up (mean 3.3 years) was equivalent between patients treated with and without LLT (peak increase: 0.9+/-7.7 vs 1.1+/-10.9 mmHg, LLT vs no LLT, P=0.87; mean increase: 0.8+/-4.1 vs 0.2+/-5.9 mmHg, LLT vs no LLT, P=0.38). The annualised linear rate of gradient progression following valve replacement was also similar between groups (peak increase per year: 2.0+/-12.1 vs 1.0+/-12.9 mmHg per year, LLT vs no LLT, P=0.52; mean increase per year: 0.5+/-2.2 vs 0.6+/-6.0 mmHg per year, LLT vs no LLT, P=0.94). The incidence of mild or greater aortic insufficiency on the most recent echocardiogram was comparable (16.3% vs 13.8%, LLT vs no LLT, P=0.44), and there was no difference in the 10-year freedom from re-operation for SVD between the two groups [98.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.9%, 99.8%) vs 95.4% (95% CI 90.5%, 97.9%), LLT vs no LLT, P=0.72]. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study, there was no association demonstrated between early postoperative LLT and a slowing of bioprosthesis SVD. With the excellent durability of bioprostheses in the current era, a prospective randomised trial of statin therapy to prevent bioprosthetic SVD does not appear to be justified, let alone feasible.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Falha de Prótese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Ultrassonografia
7.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 27(1): 31-7, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18187084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are polypeptide hormones secreted by the heart. Previously, we found that BNP, but not ANF, plasma levels may increase during an acute cellular cardiac allograft rejection episode. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) produced a selective increase of BNP gene expression and secretion. Other pro-inflammatory cytokines had no such effects. METHODS: We identified cytokines associated with the selective upregulation of BNP during cardiac allograft rejection using a proteomics approach to measure 120 cytokines and related substances in the plasma of 16 transplant patients before, during and after an acute rejection episode. The values obtained were correlated with BNP plasma levels. Cytokines identified as being significantly related to BNP plasma levels were tested in neonatal rat ventricular cardiocytes in culture for their ability to selectively promote BNP secretion. The signaling pathway related to this phenomenon was pharmacologically characterized. RESULTS: Regulated-on-activation, normal T-expressed and secreted (RANTES), neutrophil-activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) had significant correlations with BNP plasma levels during Grade 3A (Grade 2 revised [2R]) or above rejection as diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy score according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grading system. In rat neonatal ventricular cardiocyte cultures, IGFBP-1 and RANTES were capable of promoting BNP, but not ANF secretion, as observed in rejecting patients. The BNP-promoting secretion activity of the identified cytokines was abolished by SB203580, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows that cytokines other than pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with BNP plasma levels observed during acute cardiac allograft rejection, and that the substances identified have in common p38 signaling. This finding provides a unifying mechanistic explanation regarding the relationship between inflammation and cardiac hormone production in acute cardiac allograft rejection.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Transplante de Coração , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Biópsia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Prognóstico , Radioimunoensaio , Ratos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Homólogo
8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 85(1): 94-100, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18154789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic root enlargement (ARE) at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR) is an often proposed but still unproven technique to prevent prosthesis-patient mismatch. To evaluate the risks and benefits of ARE, we examined the outcomes of patients with small aortic roots who underwent AVR with or without the use of ARE. METHODS: Patients (n = 712) with small aortic roots who underwent AVR were prospectively followed (follow-up, 3,730 patient-years; mean, 5.2 +/- 4.1 years). All patients had a small aortic annulus that would have led to the insertion of an aortic prosthesis of 21 or less in size. Multivariate techniques were used to compare outcomes between patients who underwent AVR alone (n = 540) versus AVR plus ARE (n = 172). RESULTS: Aortic cross-clamp times were 9.9 minutes longer in the AVR+ARE group (p = 0.0002). There were no differences in reopening or stroke rates or perioperative mortality (all p = not significant). All patients in the AVR-alone group received size 19 to 21 prostheses, whereas 51% of the AVR+ARE patients received size 23 prostheses. Postoperative gradients were reduced (p < 0.01) and indexed effective orifice areas were larger (p < 0.0001) in the AVR+ARE group. While the incidence of postoperative prosthesis-patient mismatch (indexed effective orifice area < or = 0.85 cm2/m2) was lower in the AVR+ARE group (p < 0.0001), the presence of mismatch did not significantly impact long-term outcomes after surgery. The ARE was associated with a trend toward better freedom from late congestive heart failure (p = 0.19), but not an improvement in long-term survival (p = 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with small aortic roots, ARE at the time of AVR is a safe procedure that reduces postoperative gradients and the incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch. However, ARE does not appreciably improve long-term clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Expansão de Tecido/métodos , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Intervalos de Confiança , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Seguimentos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Circulation ; 116(11 Suppl): I294-300, 2007 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17846320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several centers favor replacing a diseased native heart valve with a tissue rather than a mechanical prosthesis, even in younger adult patients. However, long-term data supporting this approach are lacking. We examined the survival implications of selecting a tissue versus a mechanical prosthesis at initial left-heart valve replacement in a cohort of adults <60 years of age who were followed for over 20 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comorbid and procedural data were available from 6554 patients who underwent valve replacement at our institution over the last 35 years. Of these, 1512 patients contributed follow-up data beyond 20 years, of whom 567 were adults <60 years of age at first left-heart valve operation (mean survivor follow-up, 24.0+/-3.1 years). Late outcomes were examined with Cox regression. Valve reoperation, often for prostheses that are no longer commercially available, occurred in 89% and 84% of patients by 20 years after tissue aortic and mitral valve replacement, respectively, and was associated with a mortality of 4.3%. There was no survival difference between patients implanted with a tissue versus a mechanical prosthesis at initial aortic valve replacement (hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3; P=0.7). For mitral valve replacement patients, long-term survival was poorer than after aortic valve replacement (hazard ratio 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8; P=0.003), but again no detrimental effect was associated with use of a tissue versus a mechanical prosthesis (hazard ratio 0.9; 95% CI 0.5, 1.4; P=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, selecting a tissue prosthesis at initial operation in younger adults does not negatively impact survival into the third decade of follow-up, despite the risk of reoperation.


Assuntos
Bioprótese/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tempo
10.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 30(3): 485-91, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16857373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current trend towards decreasing the age for selection of a tissue over a mechanical prosthesis has led to a dilemma for patients aged 50-65 years. This cohort study examines the long-term outcomes of mechanical versus bioprosthetic valves in middle-aged patients. METHODS: Patients (N = 659) aged between 50 and 65 years who had first-time aortic valve replacement (AVR) and/or mitral valve replacement (MVR) with contemporary prostheses were followed prospectively after surgery. The total follow-up was 3,402 patient-years (mean 5.1 +/- 4.1 years; maximum 18.3 years). Outcomes were examined with multivariate actuarial methods. A composite outcome of major adverse prosthesis-related events (MAPE) was defined as the occurrence of reoperation, endocarditis, major bleeding, or thromboembolism. RESULTS: Ten-year survival was 73.2 +/- 4.2% after mechanical AVR, 75.1 +/- 12.6% after bioprosthetic AVR, 74.1 +/- 4.6% after mechanical MVR, and 77.9 +/- 7.4% after bioprosthetic MVR (P=NS). Ten-year reoperation rates were 35.4% and 21.3% with aortic and mitral bioprostheses, respectively. Major bleeding occurred more often following mechanical MVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 9.0; P = 0.022), and the incidence of any thromboembolic event was more common after mechanical MVR (HR: 4.7; CI 1.4, 13.3; P = 0.01). Overall freedom from MAPE at 10 years was 70.2 +/- 4.1% for mechanical AVR patients, 41.0+/-30.3% for bioprosthetic AVR patients, 53.3 +/- 8.8% for mechanical MVR patients, and 61.2 +/- 9.2% for bioprosthetic MVR patients. Although a trend existed towards more MAPE amongst middle-age patients with tissue valves, multivariate analysis did not identify the presence of a bioprosthesis as an independent risk factor for MAPE (HR: 1.3; CI 0.9, 2.0; P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged patients, MAPE may occur more often in patients with bioprosthetic valves, but definitive conclusions necessitate the accumulation of additional follow-up. At present, these data do not support lowering the usual cutoff for implantation of a tissue valve below the age of 65.


Assuntos
Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Endocardite/etiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 22(6): 509-10, 2006 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16685317

RESUMO

There is a lack of information regarding the diagnosis and management of papillary fibroelastoma of the pulmonary valve due to the rarity of the tumour at this location. A case of pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma in a 60-year-old woman is reported and the approach for diagnosis and management is described.


Assuntos
Fibroma/diagnóstico , Fibroma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Feminino , Fibroma/patologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Pulmonar
12.
J Heart Valve Dis ; 15(1): 73-8; discussion 79, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16480015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: This ongoing, longitudinal, multi-center, North American study was designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the On-X valve. METHODS: The On-X valve was implanted in isolated aortic (AVR) and mitral (MVR) valve replacement patients at nine North American centers. Follow up was 98.6% complete. Anticoagulation compliance was evaluated by collection of international normalized ratio (INR) results in all patients throughout their postoperative follow up. Adverse events were recorded according to the AATS/STS guidance criteria. Hematologic studies were conducted postoperatively to evaluate hemodynamics and hemolysis. RESULTS: In total, 142 AVR and 142 MVR implants were performed; the mean follow up was 4.5 years; total follow up was 1,273 patient-years (pt-yr). At implant, the mean patient age was 59.2 years (range: 28 to 85 years); 71.8% of patients who underwent AVR and 33.1% who underwent MVR were males. Preoperatively, 89.4% of AVR patients and 56.3% of MVR patients were in sinus rhythm. The cardiac disease etiology was primarily stenotic, calcific degeneration in AVR and rheumatic or degenerative regurgitation in MVR. Hemolysis represented by postoperative elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase was very low (median 217 IU after AVR and 251 IU after MVR at one year (82% AVR and 98% MVR of upper normal). Late adverse event rates were low, most notably thromboembolism (0.9%/pt-yr after AVR; 1.6%/pt-yr after MVR) and thrombosis. Kaplan-Meier event-free rates at five years were correspondingly high. Anticoagulation compliance analysis showed only about 40% of INR readings to be within target ranges postoperatively; thus, the control range achieved was much greater than the desired target, as might generally be expected for clinic-controlled INR. CONCLUSION: The On-X valve performed well in this study, confirming the original design intent of minimal hemolysis and low adverse event rates.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Segurança de Equipamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 24(8): 1046-54, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16102440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated changes in circulating hormones and markers of cardiac status after heart transplantation in humans. As a result, plasma levels of various hormones and autocoids have been associated with cardiac allograft rejection status. However, no clear associations can be defined given the highly contradictory nature of the available literature. METHODS: In this study of 69 consecutive heart transplant patients followed for >2 years we examine the relationship between neurohumors potentially related to allograft rejection and endomyocardial biopsy grade of rejection (according to the ISHLT) and hemodynamic status. Markers assessed include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), amino-terminal pro-BNP (N-BNP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), adrenomedullin, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, troponin C and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: The highest plasma levels for most neurohumors were found shortly after surgery and showed a trend towards normalization with time. BNP and N-BNP were the only significantly elevated plasma analytes for patients with Grade 3 rejection as compared with other ISHLT grades. ANF plasma levels correlated with BNP and N-BNP in Grades 0 to 2, but not in Grade 3, suggesting that in this rejection grade the usual coordinated changes observed in BNP and ANF secretion no longer exist. Cardiac filling pressures were correlated with plasma BNP, N-BNP and ANF levels only for Grades 0 and 1. CONCLUSIONS: The timing of blood sampling after transplantation influences the level of the neurohumors measured, which may help explain the conflicting literature reports on the association between neurohumor levels and rejection grade. The significant increase in circulating levels of BNP and N-BNP observed in most cases of Grade 3 rejection occurred with no apparent relationship to post-transplantation time, which suggests a specific influence of acute rejection on BNP gene expression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Miocárdio/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transplante Homólogo , Troponina C/sangue , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/sangue
15.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 27(3): 425-33; discussion 433, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15740951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the multiple impacts of valve replacement on the lives of young adults. METHODS: Patients (N=500) between age 18 and 50 who had aortic valve replacement (AVR) and/or mitral valve replacement (MVR) with contemporary prostheses were followed annually. Events, functional status, and quality of life were examined with regression models. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 7.1+/-5.3 years (maximum 26.7 years). Five, 10, and 15-year survival was 92.7+/-1.7, 88.3+/-2.4 and 80.1+/-4.7% after AVR, and 93.1+/-2.3, 79.5+/-4.3 and 71.5+/-5.4% after MVR, respectively. Survival decreased with concomitant coronary disease (hazard ratio (HR): 4.5) and preoperative LV grade (HR: 2.0/grade increase) in AVR patients, and with atrial fibrillation (HR: 5.5), coronary disease (HR: 5.7), preoperative left atrial diameter (HR: 3.0/cm increase) and NYHA class (HR: 2.1/class increase) in MVR patients. Despite reoperation, late survival was equivalent between bioprostheses and mechanical valves in both implant positions. The ten-year cumulative incidence of embolic stroke was 6.3+/-2.4% for mechanical AVR patients, 6.4+/-2.9% for bioprosthetic AVR patients, 12.7+/-3.9% for mechanical MVR patients, and 3.1+/-3.1% for bioprosthetic MVR patients. Atrial fibrillation (HR: 2.8) and smoking (HR: 4.0) were risk factors for stroke in MVR patients. In AVR patients, SF-12 physical scores, freedom from recurrent heart failure, and freedom from disability were significantly higher in bioprosthetic than mechanical valve patients. Career or income limitations were more often subjectively linked to a mechanical prosthesis in both implant positions. CONCLUSIONS: Late outcomes of modern prosthetic valves in young adults remain suboptimal. Bioprostheses deserve consideration in the aortic position, as mechanical valves are associated with lower physical capacity, a higher prevalence of disability, and poorer disease perception. Early surgical referral and atrial fibrillation surgery may improve survival after MVR.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Bioprótese , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/reabilitação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/psicologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/psicologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Falha de Prótese , Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 4(5): 415-9, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17670446

RESUMO

Induction immunosuppression after heart transplantation is believed to reduce the risk of acute graft rejection. While monoclonal and polyclonal antithymoglobulins are considered the optimal induction agents, controversy remains regarding their relative superiority. This article presents a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis in order to assess the relative benefits and side-effects of monoclonal vs. polyclonal antithymoglobulins as induction immunosuppression agents. Pooled analysis demonstrated a small but statistically insignificant difference in the average time to first rejection between the groups (6.7+/-15.5 days, P=0.39). No statistically significant differences in the proportion of patients who developed rejection or infection episodes at 6 months were observed (Relative Risk 0.97, P=0.82 and Relative Risk 0.85, P=0.14, respectively). In addition, no statistically significant difference in survival was found between the groups at 6 months (Relative Risk 0.98, P=0.58). A greater number of drug related side-effects was observed, however, in the monoclonal group, including episodes of acute pulmonary edema and hypotension. In conclusion, this review revealed no statistically significant differences in rejection, infection, or survival rates between the monoclonal and polyclonal groups. The increased rate of side-effects with monoclonal antibodies might suggest a superiority of polyclonal over monoclonal antibodies.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 78(5): 1818-20, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15511482

RESUMO

Mechanical circulatory support is currently indicated for patients with cardiac insufficiency as a bridge to transplantation or as a bridge to recovery. These systems continue to evolve and improve, and many patients (after they are stabilized) are now able to be discharged from the hospital. This article reports our experience with the intercontinental transportation of a patient while being supported with a Novacor left ventricular assist system (WorldHeart Corp, Ottawa, Canada). While in Japan, the Canadian patient suffered a myocardial infarction and despite coronary artery bypass grafting, the patient remained in a low cardiac output state. After implantation of the left ventricular assist system in Japan, the patient was stabilized and transported by a commercial airline to Canada where he underwent successful heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Coração Auxiliar , Transporte de Pacientes , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/cirurgia , Baixo Débito Cardíaco/terapia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Trombose Coronária/cirurgia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Japão , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Ontário , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Diálise Renal , Trombocitose/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia
18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 78(3): 832-6, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15337001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hancock II bioprosthetic valve, which was first introduced to clinical use in 1978, differs from its predecessor in several ways. This study was designed to evaluate the durability and outcomes with this valve in patients who had isolated aortic or mitral valve replacements. METHODS: From 1991 to 1999, 459 patients underwent aortic valve replacement and 138 patients underwent mitral valve replacement with the Hancock II bioprosthesis (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN). The mean age was 73.2 +/- 0.4 and 72.6 +/- 0.8 years in the aortic and mitral groups, respectively. Most patients were in New York Heart Association Class III or IV (50% aortic group and 69% mitral group) and concomitant coronary artery bypass was performed in 49.4% and 52.8% of patients, respectively. Patients were assessed annually and follow-up was up to 129 months in the aortic group and 100 months in the mitral group. RESULTS: At 8 years, actuarial survival was 52% +/- 5% in the aortic group and 57% +/- 8% in the mitral group. Furthermore, the actuarial freedom from structural failure necessitating reoperation was 99% +/- 0.5% in the aortic group and 98% +/- 2% in the mitral group, and the actuarial freedom from repeat valve surgery due to all causes was 97% +/- 2% and 96% +/- 2%, respectively. Actuarial freedom from thromboembolic events was 89% +/- 2% in the aortic group and 90% +/- 5% in the mitral group. CONCLUSIONS: The Hancock II valve has excellent midterm durability and clinical performance in older patients.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Análise Atuarial , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Ajuste de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 128(2): 278-83, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15282466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study's objective was to examine factors associated with persistent or recurrent congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement. METHODS: Patients who underwent mitral valve replacement with contemporary prostheses (N = 708) were followed with annual clinical assessment and echocardiography. Cox proportional hazard models were developed to evaluate the impact of demographic, comorbid, and valve-related variables on the occurrence of congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement, defined as the composite outcome of New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms or death caused by congestive heart failure postoperatively. Factors associated with all-cause mortality were also examined. Models were bootstrapped 1000 times. RESULTS: The total follow-up was 3376 patient-years (mean 4.8 +/- 3.7 years, range 60 days to 17.1 years). Freedom from New York Heart Association III or IV symptoms or death caused by congestive heart failure was 96.1% +/- 0.8%, 82.7% +/- 1.7%, 66.4% +/- 3.0%, and 38.8% +/- 6.9% at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Preoperative New York Heart Association class, left ventricular grade, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, smoking, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and redo status predicted congestive heart failure postoperatively (all P <.05). Patients who underwent mitral valve replacement for pure mitral stenosis had less congestive heart failure events after surgery than those with regurgitation or mixed disease. Prosthesis size and elevated transprosthesis gradients were not predictive of freedom from congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement. Atrial fibrillation, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and surgical referral for mitral valve replacement at an advanced functional stage were also risk factors for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the incidence of and risk factors for congestive heart failure and death late after mitral valve replacement. Although prosthesis size has no effect, other potentially modifiable factors such as atrial fibrillation, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and late surgical referral have a negative impact on freedom from congestive heart failure and overall survival after mitral valve replacement.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 78(1): 77-83; discussion 83-4, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15223407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a devastating complication in patients with prosthetic valves, but characterization of its late occurrence from a large cohort is lacking. METHODS: Three thousand one hundred eighty-nine adult patients who underwent a total of 3,576 operations for left-heart valve replacement were managed with contemporary anticoagulation guidelines and prospectively followed in a dedicated clinic. Total follow-up was 20,096 patient years. Bootstrapped survival analysis was used to determine the impact of patient and valve related factors on the incidence of stroke. RESULTS: Most strokes were embolic. Linearized embolic stroke rates were 1.3% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic bioprostheses, 1.4% +/- 0.2% per year for aortic mechanical valves, 1.3% +/- 0.3% per year for mitral bioprostheses, and 2.3% +/- 0.4% per year for mitral mechanical valves (p = 0.002, vs other implant types). Age more than 75 years, female gender, and smoking were independent risk factors after aortic and mitral valve replacement. Atrial fibrillation, coronary disease, and tilting-disc mechanical prostheses were independent predictors of embolic stroke after aortic valve replacement. Preoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was an independent risk factor in patients with mitral prostheses. Primary operative indication, diabetes, redo status, or the presence of two prosthetic valves were not associated with an increased hazard. The addition of acetyl salicylic or dipyridamole to warfarin anticoagulation did not significantly lower embolic stroke risk in patients with mechanical prostheses. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 20% of patients with valve prostheses have an embolic stroke by 15 years after valve replacement. Some risk factors such as the avoidance of smoking, mitral mechanical prostheses, aortic tilting-disc valves, and proceeding to mitral surgery before LV dysfunction occurs are potentially modifiable.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Dipiridamol/administração & dosagem , Dipiridamol/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
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