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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an appreciable increase in the number of people in Africa with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in recent years as a result of a number of factors. Factors include lifestyle changes, urbanisation, and the growing consumption of processed foods coupled with increasing levels of obesity. Currently there are 19 million adults in Africa with diabetes, mainly T2DM (95%), estimated to grow to 47 million people by 2045 unless controlled. This has a considerable impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the region. There are a number of issues to address to reduce the impact of T2DM including improving detection rates and current access to services alongside addressing issues of adherence to prescribed medicines. There are also high rates of co-morbidities with infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis in patients in Africa with T2DM that require attention. OBJECTIVE: Document ongoing activities across Africa to improve the care of patients with T2DM especially around issues of identification, access, and adherence to changing lifestyles and prescribed medicines. In addition, discussing potential ways forward to improve the care of patients with T2DM based on ongoing activities and experiences including addressing key issues associated with co-morbidities with infectious diseases. OUR APPROACH: Contextualise the findings from a wide range of publications including internet based publications of national approaches coupled with input from senior level government, academic and other professionals from across Africa to provide future guidance. ONGOING ACTIVITIES: A number of African countries are actively instigating programmes to improve the care of patients with T2DM starting with improved diagnosis. This recognises the growing burden of non-communicable diseases across Africa, which has been neglected in the past. Planned activities include programmes to improve detection rates and address key issues with diet and lifestyle changes, alongside improving monitoring of care and activities to enhance adherence to prescribed medicines. In addition, addressing potential complexities involving diabetes patients with infectious disease co-morbidities. It is too early to fully assess the impact of such activities. CONCLUSION: There are a number of ongoing activities across Africa to improve the management of patients with diabetes including co-morbidities. However, more needs to be done considering the high and growing burden of T2DM in Africa. Ongoing research will help further benefit resource allocation and subsequent care.

2.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 48(2): 51-67, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently about 19 million people in Africa are known to be living with diabetes, mainly Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (95%), estimated to grow to 47 million people by 2045. However, there are concerns with early diagnosis of patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) as often patients present late with complications. There are also challenges with access and affordability of insulin, monitoring equipment and test strips with typically high patient co-payments, which can be catastrophic for families. These challenges negatively impact on the quality of care of patients with T1DM increasing morbidity and mortality. There are also issues of patient education and psychosocial support adversely affecting patients' quality of life. These challenges need to be debated and potential future activities discussed to improve the future care of patients with T1DM across Africa. METHODOLOGY: Documentation of the current situation across Africa for patients with T1DM including the epidemiology, economics, and available treatments within public healthcare systems as well as ongoing activities to improve their future care. Subsequently, provide guidance to all key stakeholder groups going forward utilizing input from senior-level government, academic and other professionals from across Africa. RESULTS: Whilst prevalence rates for T1DM are considerably lower than T2DM, there are concerns with late diagnosis as well as the routine provision of insulin and monitoring equipment across Africa. High patient co-payments exacerbate the situation. However, there are ongoing developments to address the multiple challenges including the instigation of universal health care and partnerships with non-governmental organizations, patient organizations, and pharmaceutical companies. Their impact though remains to be seen. In the meantime, a range of activities has been documented for all key stakeholder groups to improve future care. CONCLUSION: There are concerns with the management of patients with T1DM across Africa. A number of activities has been suggested to address this and will be monitored.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 103, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) system was established to provide information that effectively guides actions to eliminate preventable maternal mortality. In 2016, Hwange district sent six maternal death notification forms (MDNF) to the province without maternal death audit reports. Timeliness of MDNF reaching the province is a challenge. Two MDNF for deaths that occurred in February and May 2016 only reached the provincial office in September 2016 meaning the MDNF were seven and four months late respectively. We evaluated the MDSR system in Hwange district. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Health workers in the sampled facilities were interviewed using questionnaires. Resource availability was assessed through checklists. Epi Info 7 was used to calculate frequencies, means and proportions. RESULTS: We recruited 36 respondents from 11 facilities, 72.2% were females. Inadequate health worker knowledge, lack of induction on MDSR, unavailability of guidelines and notification forms and lack of knowledge on the flow of information in the system were reasons for late notification of maternal deaths. Workers trained in MDSR were 83.8%. Only 36.1% of respondents had completed an MDNF before. Respondents who used MDSR data at their level were 91.7%, and they reported that MDSR system was useful. Responsibility to complete the MDNF was placed on health workers. Maternal death case definitions were available in 2/11 facilities, 4/11 facilities had guidelines for maternal death audits. It costs $60.78 to notify a maternal death. CONCLUSION: Reasons for late notification of maternal deaths were inadequate knowledge, lack of induction, unavailability of guidelines and notification forms at facilities. The MDSR system is useful, acceptable, flexible, unstable, reliable but not simple. Maternal case definitions and maternal death audit guidelines should be distributed to all facilities. Training of all health workers involved in MDSR is recommended.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
4.
Lancet HIV ; 5(8): e417-e426, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthening engagement of female sex workers with health services is needed to eliminate HIV. We assessed the efficacy of a targeted combination intervention for female sex workers in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised trial from 2014 to 2016. Clusters were areas surrounding female sex worker clinics and were enrolled in matched pairs. Sites were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive usual care (free sexual-health services supported by peer educators, including HIV testing on demand, referral for antiretroviral therapy [ART], and health education) or an intervention that supported additional regular HIV testing, on-site initiation of ART, pre-exposure prophylaxis, adherence, and intensified community mobilisation. The primary outcome was the proportion of all female sex workers with HIV viral load 1000 copies per mL or greater, assessed through respondent-driven sampling surveys. We used an adapted cluster-summary approach to estimate risk differences. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, number PACTR201312000722390. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 14 clusters to usual care or the intervention (seven in each group). 3612 female sex workers attended clinics in the usual-care clusters and 4619 in the intervention clusters during the study. Half as many were tested (1151 vs 2606) and diagnosed as being HIV positive (546 vs 1052) in the usual-care clusters. The proportion of all female sex workers with viral loads of 1000 copies per mL or greater fell in both study groups (from 421 [30%] of 1363 to 279 [19%] of 1443 in the usual-care group and from 399 [30%] of 1303 to 240 [16%] of 1439 in the intervention group), but with a risk difference at the end of the assessment period of only -2·8% (95% CI -8·1 to 2·5, p=0·23). Among HIV-positive women, the proportions with viral loads less than 1000 copies per mL were 590 (68%) of 869 in the usual-care group and 588 (72%) of 828 in the intervention group at the end of the assessment period, adjusted risk difference of 5·3% (95% CI -4·0 to 14·6, p=0·20). There were no adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Our intervention of a dedicated programme for female sex workers led to high levels of HIV diagnosis and treatment. Further research is needed to optimise programme content and intensity for the broader population. FUNDING: UN Population Fund (through Zimbabwe's Integrated Support Fund funded by UK Department for International Development, Irish Aid, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação , Profissionais do Sexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 31: 196, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086640

RESUMO

Introduction: While there are many studies assessing the pre-treatment loss to follow-up (LFU) among tuberculosis patients in public sector, there is no evidence from private-for-profit health sector and pre-diagnostic LFU from Zimbabwe. We aimed to assess the gaps in the cascade of care of presumptive TB patients registered during January-June 2017 in different types of health facilities in Hwange district, Zimbabwe. Methods: This was a cohort study involving review of routine programme data. Pre-diagnostic LFU was defined as the proportion of presumptive TB patients not tested using sputum microscopy or Xpert MTB/RIF. A log binomial regression was done to assess factors associated with pre-diagnostic LFU. Results: Of 1279 presumptive TB patients, 955(75%) were tested for TB and 102(8%) were diagnosed as having TB. All TB patients were started on treatment. Pre-diagnostic LFU (overall 25%) was significantly higher among patients visiting private-for-profit health facilities (36%), local self-government run council health facilities (35%) and church-run mission health facilities (25%) compared to government health facilities (14%). Pre-diagnostic LFU was significantly higher among patients in rural areas (30%) compared to urban areas (18%). Type of health facility was associated with pre-diagnostic LFU after adjusting for HIV status and area of residence. Conclusion: While pre-diagnostic LFU was high, there was no pre-treatment LFU. Pre-diagnostic LFU was especially high in private-for-profit and council health facilities and rural areas. National TB Programme should take immediate steps to improve access in rural areas and support the private-for-profit and council health facilities by improving sputum collection and transport.


Assuntos
Perda de Seguimento , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75 Suppl 2: S190-S197, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scale-up of Option B+ in Zimbabwe has increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage but patient loss-to-follow-up remains high; thus, effective strategies to improve retention in care are needed. Evidence for Elimination, a cluster randomized controlled trial, evaluated the impact of point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing with CD4 count-specific adherence counseling on rates of retention among 1150 HIV-positive pregnant women initiating ART in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Thirty-two primary care health facilities were randomized to offer either standard-of-care (SOC) or POC CD4 testing plus CD4-specific counseling to clients (POC Plus). The primary outcome was the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women retained on ART after 12 months, calculated by cluster-adjusted proportions, unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RR and aRR, respectively). RESULTS: Retention in care 12 months after initiation was 50.7% and 54.5% in the POC Plus and SOC arms, respectively (RR 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 1.11; aRR 0.91, 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.07). Although considered not retained, 9.7% transferred to another facility and 0.2% died. Most women, 95.3% in POC Plus and 92.9% in SOC, initiated ART within 1 month of antenatal booking (RR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.97 to 1.08). DISCUSSION: Although patient retention was similar in both arms, women in the POC Plus arm were more likely to have received a CD4 test at booking and a repeat CD4 test later in care. CD4 is no longer required for treatment initiation but is still recommended in national guidelines and is of value in clinical management. Further work is needed to identify effective strategies to increase patient retention in ART care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Mães , Testes Imediatos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Gestantes , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
8.
S Afr Med J ; 107(5): 420-423, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria cases at Wadzanayi Clinic in Shamva District, Zimbabwe, increased drastically, surpassing the epidemic threshold, in week four of December 2013. This rise was sustained, which necessitated an investigation of the outbreak. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors and system weaknesses to improve epidemic preparedness and response. METHODS: An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was conducted in Ward 29 of Shamva District in Zimbabwe. Epidemic preparedness and response were assessed using the Zimbabwean epidemic preparedness and response guidelines. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of all participants were similar, except for gender. The risk factors for contracting malaria were performing early morning chores (odds ratio (OR) 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20 - 6.32), having a body of water near the home (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.62 - 7.20) and having long grass near the home (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.10 - 6.37). Protective factors were staying indoors at night (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.06 - 0.28) and staying in a sprayed home (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.21 - 0.92). All cases were diagnosed with a malaria rapid diagnostic test. All complicated cases were treated with quinine. Four out of 58 uncomplicated cases were treated with quinine. The rest were treated with co-artemether. There was no documentation of the outbreak response by the district health executive. Respraying (indoor residual spraying) was carried out, with a coverage of 78% of rooms sprayed. One nurse out of seven at Wadzanayi Clinic was trained in integrated disease surveillance and response, and malaria case management. District malaria thresholds were outdated. Malaria commodities such as drugs and sprays did not have reorder limits. CONCLUSION: This study re-emphasises the importance of environmental- and personal-level factors as determinants of malaria. Poor out-break preparedness and response may have propagated the malaria outbreak in this setting. Health education and the use of mosquito repellants should be emphasised. Larvicide may reduce the malaria burden. Epidemic preparedness and response need to be strengthened. Outbreak investigation remains important. This study emphasises the need for malaria interventions to be tailored to locally prevailing determinants to avert outbreaks.

9.
Tuberc Res Treat ; 2017: 6232071, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352474

RESUMO

Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35-4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10-1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44-2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22-0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 74(4): 375-382, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa have a higher prevalence of HIV than other women of reproductive age. Social, legal, and structural barriers influence their access to care. Little is known about the HIV diagnosis and care cascade in most countries in Southern Africa. We aimed to describe the HIV diagnosis and care cascade among FSW in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys of FSW in 14 sites across Zimbabwe as the baseline for a cluster-randomised controlled trial investigating a combination HIV prevention and care package. We administered a questionnaire, tested women for HIV and measured viral load. We report the mean, minimum, and maximum respondent-driven sampling-2 weighted site values. RESULTS: The survey included 2722 women, approximately 200 per site. The mean HIV prevalence was 57.5% (42.8-79.2 site minimum and maximum). Of HIV-positive women, 64.0% (51.6-73.7) were aware of their status, 67.7% (53.4-84.1) of these reported taking antiretroviral therapy, and 77.8% (64.4-90.8) of these had a suppressed HIV viral load (<1000 copies/mL). Among all HIV-positive women, 49.5% had a viral load < 1000 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HIV-positive women aware of their status are accessing antiretroviral therapy, 36.0% of HIV-positive women are unaware of their status and 29.3% of all FSW have an unsuppressed HIV viral load. Investigation and investment into models of testing, treatment, and care are necessary to reach UNAIDS targets for HIV elimination.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 20: 27, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26015847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. RESULTS: We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. CONCLUSION: The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 703, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25297796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of hypertensive patients reviewed at Lupane District Hospital during the first half of 2011 had uncontrolled hypertension. This prompted an investigation on the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among hypertensives on treatment. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Three hundred fifty-four consenting participants were consecutively selected from eligible hypertensive patients on treatment attending the outpatients department at Lupane District Hospital for their reviews. An interviewer administered questionnaire adapted from the World Health Organization was used to collect data on risk factors. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken as per World Health Organization guidelines. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg in a patient taking anti-hypertensive medication. RESULTS: Mean systolic BP was 151.0 mmHg and mean diastolic BP was 92.6 mmHg. Prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was (238) 67.2%. Independent risk factors for uncontrolled hypertension were obesity (AOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.39-7.75) and adding salt to food at the table (AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.41-5.43) whilst being compliant with the drug treatment regimen (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.16-0.72) and having received health education on hypertension (AOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25- 0.97) were protective against uncontrolled hypertension. CONCLUSION: There prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension is high despite all the participants being on treatment. The findings suggest that interventions at the patient, the provider and the health delivery system are needed to improve hypertension control in Lupane, Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 67 Suppl 2: S139-44, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310120

RESUMO

Evidence for Elimination (E4E) is a collaborative project established in 2012 as part of the INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch) initiative. E4E is a cluster-randomized trial with 2 arms; Standard of care and "POC Plus" [in which point-of-care (POC) CD4 devices and related counseling support are provided]; aimed at improving retention-in-care of HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers. In November 2013, Zimbabwe adopted Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women under which antiretroviral treatment eligibility is no longer based on CD4 count. However, Ministry of Health and Child Care guidelines still require baseline and 6-monthly CD4 testing for treatment monitoring, until viral load testing becomes widely available. Considering the current limited capacity for viral-load testing, the significant investments in CD4 testing already made and the historical reliance on CD4 by health care workers for determining eligibility for antiretroviral treatment, E4E seeks to compare the impact of the provision of POC CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels on retention-in-care at 12 months, with the current standard of routine, laboratory-based CD4 testing. The study also compares rates of initiation and time-to-initiation between the 2 arms and according to level of maternal CD4 count, the cost of retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and the acceptability and feasibility of POC CD4 in the context of Option B+. Outcome measures are derived from routine health systems data. E4E will provide data on POC CD4 testing and retention-in-care associated with Option B+ and serve as an early learning platform to inform implementation of Option B+ in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Amostra
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 623, 2014 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 20th of June 2012, 31 pupils from Kwite primary school reported to the local clinic complaining of passing bloody urine. A study was conducted to identify factors, the etiology and risks of contracting the disease. METHODS: An unmatched 1:2 case control study was conducted at Kwite primary school. A case was defined as any child aged between seven to fifteen years, resident in Empandeni Ward for not less than two months, who had passed bloody urine with or without dysuria, fever, fatigue or lower abdominal pains from the 01/06/12 to 07/07/12. A control was a classmate of a case, staying in the same ward, who had not passed bloody urine. Controls were chosen by lottery method. A pretested questionnaire was administered to pupils and their caregivers. Environmental assessment was conducted; line lists, case notes, and district outbreak preparedness and response were reviewed using standard checklists. RESULTS: All the 42 cases, and 84 controls were enrolled into the study. The median age for cases and controls was 10 years (Q1 = 9, Q3 = 12) and 10 years (Q1 = 8, Q3 = 11), respectively. Swimming in Kwite dam [AOR = 9.02, 95% CI (2.29-35.53)] and bathing in the dam [AOR = 3.22, 95% CI (1.10-9.41)] were independent factors associated with contracting schistosomiasis. Schistosoma hematobium was isolated in 31 out of 100 urine specimens examined. Bulinus globosus snails were identified at Kwite dam. CONCLUSION: The outbreak was driven by human contact with S. hematobium infested Kwite dam water, while poor knowledge on prevention of schistosomiasis by the Kwite community was evident. As a result of this study, health education to pupils and the community, mass drug administration on school pupils and mollusciding at the dam were done. The provincial health team adopted as on-going activities, the inclusion of schistosomiasis prevention and control in malaria pre-elimination activities.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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