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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 102671, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is the main treatment for resectable esophageal cancer but not for advanced esophageal cancer with distant metastasis. PDT is a novel therapeutic strategy for dysphagia and unresectable esophageal cancer, with tremendous advantages of minimal invasiveness and organ-preserving treatment modality. PDT prevents tumor progression and growth by inducing vascular injury and local acute inflammatory responses. Immunotherapy, combined with PDT, may contribute to the efficacy of PDT in the treatment of esophageal cancer and reduce the probability of tumor recurrence. CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old male patient with advanced esophageal cancer was hospitalized in the author's hospital on 20th April 2020, who had been treated with two cycles of chemotherapy at the local hospital but failed. In this case, after metal stent implantation, the patient underwent a remarkable and successful treatment of PDT combined with sintilimab, a PD-1 inhibitor. An additional immune checkpoint inhibitor and chemotherapy offer the opportunity to eliminate residual and invisible tumors. The patient had an excellent prognosis that not only the primary lesion was cured, but also the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly reduced, with no tumor recurrence in the last endoscopic review. CONCLUSION: PDT in combination with immunotherapy is a promising strategy to eliminate primary and metastatic esophageal cancer by generating local and systemic antitumor responses, especially after interventional esophageal stent implantation for relief of obstruction.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 751086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722305

RESUMO

In the past decade, cancer immunotherapy has achieved great success owing to the unravelling of unknown molecular forces in cancer immunity. However, it is critical that we address the limitations of current immunotherapy, including immune-related adverse events and drug resistance, and further enhance current immunotherapy. Lipids are reported to play important roles in modulating immune responses in cancer. Cancer cells use lipids to support their aggressive behaviour and allow immune evasion. Metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells destroys the equilibrium between lipid anabolism and catabolism, resulting in lipid accumulation within the tumour microenvironment (TME). Consequently, ubiquitous lipids, mainly fatty acids, within the TME can impact the function and phenotype of infiltrating immune cells. Determining the complex roles of lipids and their interactions with the TME will provide new insight for improving anti-tumour immune responses by targeting lipids. Herein, we present a review of recent literature that has demonstrated how lipid metabolism reprogramming occurs in cancer cells and influences cancer immunity. We also summarise the potential for lipid-based clinical translation to modify immune treatment.

3.
Front Surg ; 8: 655805, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604291

RESUMO

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for resectable gallbladder cancer. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using ICG is an innovation in laparoscopic surgery, which can provide real-time navigation during the whole operation. In this article, we present a 56-year older woman with gallbladder cancer, in which we evaluated the applicability of NIRF imaging using ICG for tumor and biliary tree visualization during the operative procedure of gallbladder cancer. The tumor and biliary tree were clearly visualized by utilizing a green fluorescence dye. The patient was successfully operated radical resection of gallbladder cancer under fluorescence laparoscope, without any complications. According to this case, the utilization of ICG based NIRF imaging is feasible and beneficial in identifying tumors and the biliary tree during radical resection. It can assist in the achievement of a negative margin and lymphatic clearance around the biliary tree. However, further studies are needed to corroborate the results of this case.

4.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1206, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584551

RESUMO

Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models are established by transferring patient tumors into immunodeficient mice. In these murine models, the characteristics of the primary tumor are retained, including the microenvironment of tumor cell growth and histopathology. Due to this, it has become the most reliable in vivo human cancer model. However, the success rates differ by type of tumor, site of transplantation and tumor aggressiveness. Subcutaneous transplantation is a standard method for PDTX, and subrenal capsule transplantation improves the engraftment rate. Recently, PDTX models are frequently used in the fields of precision medicine, predictive biomarkers, evaluation of drug efficacy and preclinical research on tumor immunotherapeutic drugs. The aim of the present article was to review the establishment, clinical applications and limitations of the PDTX model in tumor research.

5.
Biosci Rep ; 41(9)2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369557

RESUMO

In clinical practice, intestinal autologous diseases, ailments and organ transplants can cause severe congestive damage to the intestinal tract. However, after the etiological factor is gotten rid of and blood flow is free without any hinderance, further damage to the intestinal wall often occurs, causing other related organ dysfunctions. This ultimately results in intestinal congestion reperfusion injury (ICRI). When the structure and function of the intestine are destroyed, bacteria, metabolites and endotoxins in the intestinal tract perfuse and enter the portal vein through the already compromised intestinal mucosa, to the other organs via the liver. Nevertheless, this gives rise to further aggravation of the injury, and reperfusion injury syndrome occurs. ICRI is a very common complication encountered by clinicians, and its harm is more severe and serious as compared with that caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Quite a few number of studies on ICRI have been reported to date. The exact mechanism of the injury is still idiopathic, and effective treatment strategies are still limited. Based on recent studies, this article is aimed at reviewing the destruction, damage mechanisms resulting from ICRI to the intestinal anatomical sites and distant organs. It is geared towards providing new ideas for the prevention and therapeutic approaches of ICRI.

6.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5567392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422135

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal type of gastric cancer (IGC) is the largest subtype of gastric cancer (GC) by Lauren classification. The purpose of this present study was to construct a prognostic signature for IGC patients, based on the high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and IGC tissues, to improve and enhance the prognostic accuracy. Methods: The microarray datasets and associated clinical characteristics of HGD and IGC were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Based on the differential expression analysis between HGD and IGC, the prognostic-related differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified in a training set by univariate COX regression analysis. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to construct an optimal prognostic signature. The enrichment analysis was performed by using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). The performance of the nomogram was assessed by the calibration curve and concordance index (C-index). The results were validated by using a testing set. Results: We identified 35 prognostic-related DGEs in the training set. The nine-gene signature was established by LASSO analysis. The nine-gene signature was an independent risk factor in both the training and testing sets. The areas under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were 0.733 and 0.700 for the training and testing sets, respectively. In GSEA analysis, the gene expression in high-risk group was enriched in hedgehog signaling, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. The nomogram for IGC showed good performance with C-index of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63-0.77) in the training and testing sets, respectively. Conclusion: We identified and verified a nine-gene signature for the prognostic prediction of IGC patients, which might identify subgroups of IGC patients and select more suitable therapeutic options.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e037431, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive digestive system tumour with poor prognosis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-known complication of pancreatic cancer, and tissue factor (TF) contributes to the generation of a hypercoagulable state and thrombotic disease in pancreatic cancer. Several studies showed that an elevated TF level was related to the development of VTE and influenced the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Thus, we wish to conduct a systematic review of literature to clarify the prognostic significance of TF in pancreatic cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Studies comparing the circulating microparticle-associated TF (MP TF) level between patients who had pancreatic cancer with and without VTE will be included to evaluate the roles of TF in VTE development. Studies comparing the survival data between patients with high TF expression and low TF expression will also be included to explore the association of TF expression with patient survival. The outcomes are plasma MP TF level and survival endpoints (overall and progression-free survival), respectively. Primary studies of any type published in English will be included. Two reviewers will search Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to June 2020, retrieve relevant studies, and independently select the literatures and extract data from the included studies. The quality of each included study will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score. The HR and 95% CI of each study will be pooled for survival outcome, and the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs will be used for continuous outcomes. If meta-analysis is inappropriate, the result will only be reported qualitatively. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be considered to identify sources of heterogeneity. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation method will be applied to assess the level of evidence of this systematic review. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no concerning ethical issues. The results will be published. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019133665.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Prognóstico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tromboplastina
8.
Biomaterials ; 192: 323-333, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468999

RESUMO

Osteochondral defects are most commonly characterized by damages to both cartilage and bone tissues as a result of serious traumas or physical diseases; because these two tissues have their own unique biological properties, developing a single monophasic scaffold that can concurrently regenerate these two specific lineages becomes a challenge. To address this concern, a silicon-based bioceramic (SiCP) scaffold was fabricated. The efficiency and underlying mechanisms of SiCP for osteochondral defect regeneration were investigated. At 8 and 16 weeks post-implantation in a rabbit model of osteochondral defect, gross morphology, histological, and micro-CT images showed that SiCP scaffolds distinctly promoted subchondral bone and cartilage regeneration when compared to calcium-phosphate based bioceramics (CP) scaffolds without silicon. In vitro, SiCP was also shown to promote bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) osteogenesis (ALP, RUNX2, OCN) and help maintain chondrocytes phenotype (Acan, Sox9, Col2a1), validated by qPCR, western blot, and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Additionally, the descriptive analysis of RNA-seq using Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis revealed biological processes related to cartilage and bone development and extracellular matrices in chondrocytes, as well as related to early osteogenesis in BMSC, indicating that Si ions play an important role in the regeneration of both tissues. Conclusively, the development of silicon-based bioceramic scaffolds may be a promising approach for osteochondral defect regeneration due to their unique dual-lineage bioactivity.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Condrogênese , Silicatos/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cerâmica/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteogênese , Coelhos , Engenharia Tecidual
9.
Oncol Rep ; 40(6): 3551-3560, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272358

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and its development involves multi­gene driven processes that affect the digestive system. The objective of this study was to identify tumorigenesis­associated gene signatures using microarray expression profiling data. The gene expression profiling of GSE39582, a dataset containing 566 colon cancer samples and 19 non­tumoral colorectal mucosae was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. A total of 439 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were extracted by GEO2R. Many of these DEGs were cancer­related, involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM)­receptor interaction and phosphatidylinositol 3­kinase (PI3K)­Akt signaling pathway according to the results of pathway enrichment analysis in Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Then, 10 genes were predicted to play an important role in the development of CRC. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, and member 6 (TRPM6), a member of 10 hub genes, was confirmed to be downregulated in 16 (80%) of 20 colon cancer tissues using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technology. Furthermore, high expression of TRPM6 was indicative of a prolonged overall survival (OS) in CRC patients through the analysis of GSE39582. Hsa­let­7g and hsa­let­7f­1 were believed to be the regulatory miRNAs of TRPM6 by TCGA and miRanda database. In conclusion, this study may play a critical role in promoting the discovery of potential targets for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
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