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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527144

RESUMO

Introduction: Zimbabwe is one of the 30 countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant TB or rifampicin-resistant TB. The World Health Organization recommended that patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB be treated with 20-24 month standardized second-line drugs since 2010. However, factors associated with mortality and treatment success have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. The Objective of the study was to assess factors associated with Mortality and treatment success among multidrug-resistant-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis programme in Zimbabwe. Methods: the study was conducted using secondary data routinely collected from the National tuberculosis (TB) programme. Categorical variables were summarised using frequencies and a generalized linear model with a log-link function and a Poisson distribution was used to assess factors associated with mortality and treatment success. The level of significance was set at P-Value < 0.05. Results: patient antiretroviral therapy (ART) status was a significant associated factor of treatment success or failure (RRR = 3.92, p < 0.001). Patients who were not on ART had a high risk of death by 3.92 times compared to patients who were on ART. In the age groups 45 - 54 years (relative risk ratios (RRR) = 1.41, p = 0.048), the risk of death was increased by 1.41 times compared to other age groups. Patients aged 55 years and above (RRR = 1.55, p = 0.017), had a risk of dying increased by 1.55 times compared to other age groups. Diagnosis time duration of 8 - 30 days (RRR = 0.62, p = 0.022) was found to be protective, a shorter diagnosis time duration between 8 to 30 days reduced the risk of TB deaths by 0.62 times compared to longer periods. Missed TB doses of > 10% (RRR = 2.03, p < 0.001) increased the risk of MDR/RR-TB deaths by 2.03 times compared to missing TB doses of ≤ 10%. Conclusion: not being on ART when HIV positive was a major significant predictor of mortality. Improving ART uptake among those ART-naïve and strategies aimed at improving treatment adherence are important in improving treatment success rates.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466199

RESUMO

Introduction: an estimated 25% of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2017, new tuberculosis cases were estimated at 10 million, while 1.6 million tuberculosis related deaths were recorded, 25% residing in Africa. Treatment outcomes of multi drug resistant Tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe has been well documented but the role of bacteriological monitoring on treatment outcomes has not been systematically evaluated. The objective of the study was to determine the role of bacteriological monitoring using culture and drug susceptibility tests on treatment outcomes among patients with multi drug resistant tuberculosis. Methods: a retrospective, secondary data analysis was conducted using routinely collected data of patients with multi drug resistant TB in Zimbabwe. Frequencies were used to summarize categorical variables and a generalized linear model with a log-link function and a Poisson distribution was used to assess factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. The level of significance was set at P-Value<0.05. Results: about the study collected data from 473 records of patients with an average age of 36.35 years. Forty-nine percent (49%) were male and 51% were female. Results showed that when a patient has baseline culture result missing, has no culture conversion result, regardless of having a follow up culture and drug susceptibility test result, the risk of developing unfavourable outcomes increase by 3.9 times compared to a patient who has received all the three (3) bacteriological monitoring tests. Conclusion: results highlights the need for consistent bacteriological monitoring of patients to avert unfavourable treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe is one of the thirty countries globally with a high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). Since 2010, patients diagnosed with MDR/RR-TB are being treated with 20-24 months of standardized second-line drugs (SLDs). The profile, management and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes of MDR/RR TB have not been systematically evaluated in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment outcomes and factors associated with unfavourable outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients registered and treated under the National Tuberculosis Programme in all the district hospitals and urban healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe between January 2010 and December 2015. METHODS: A cohort study using routinely collected programme data. The 'death', 'loss to follow-up' (LTFU), 'failure' and 'not evaluated' were considered as "unfavourable outcome". A generalized linear model with a log-link and binomial distribution or a Poisson distribution with robust error variances were used to assess factors associated with "unfavourable outcome". The unadjusted and adjusted relative risks were calculated as a measure of association. A 𝑝value< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients in the study, the median age was 34 years [interquartile range, 29-42] and 230 (49%) were males. There were 352 (74%) patients co-infected with HIV, of whom 321 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Severe adverse events (SAEs) were recorded in 118 (25%) patients; mostly hearing impairments (70%) and psychosis (11%). Overall, 184 (39%) patients had 'unfavourable' treatment outcomes [125 (26%) were deaths, 39 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 4 (<1%) were failures and 16 (3%) not evaluated]. Being co-infected with HIV but not on ART [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.33-5.09] was independently associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The high unfavourable treatment outcomes among MDR/RR-TB patients on standardized SLDs were coupled with a high occurrence of SAEs in this predominantly HIV co-infected cohort. Switching to individualized all oral shorter treatment regimens should be considered to limit SAEs and improve treatment outcomes. Improving the ART uptake and timeliness of ART initiation can reduce unfavourable outcomes.


Assuntos
Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223076, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581271

RESUMO

SETTING: Four primary health care clinics providing tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVES: To assess isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) initiation and completion, factors associated with IPT uptake and incidence of TB, and TB and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV). DESIGN: This was a cohort study using routine data in the records for PLHIV initiated on ART from October 2013 to March 2014 with 31 December 2017 as the end of the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 408 PLHIV were eligible for IPT, 214 (52%) were initiated on IPT and 201 (94%) completed IPT. No person in the IPT-initiated group developed Tuberculosis (TB). Six persons with TB were reported among the non-IPT-initiated group leading to an incidence of 9 cases/1,000 person-years of follow-up. About 70% of those who developed and were treated for TB had a successful TB treatment outcome. The survival on ART at four years of follow-up was 88% among the IPT-initiated PLHIV that was significantly higher than the 75% survival in the group not- initiated on IPT. CONCLUSION: The study revealed low IPT initiation among eligible PLHIV who, if started on IPT, completed the six month regimen. TB was reported only among the PLHIV not-initiated on IPT and the four year ART survival was higher in the IPT-initiated group than in the non-initiated group. These findings reinforce the need to strengthen IPT uptake among PLHIV in Bulawayo.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 87: 119-125, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of resistance to rifampicin alone; rifampicin and isoniazid, and second-line anti-TB drugs among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A health facility-based cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: In total, 1114 (87.6%) new and 158 (12.4%) retreatment TB patients were enrolled. MTB was confirmed by Xpert MTB/RIF among 1184 (93%) smear-positive sputum samples. There were 64 samples with Xpert MTB/RIF-determined rifampicin resistance. However, two were rifampicin susceptible on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The prevalence of RR-TB was [4.0% (95% CI, 2.9, 5.4%), n=42/1043) and 14.2% (95% CI, 8.9, 21.1%; n=20/141) among new and retreatment patients, respectively. The prevalence of MDR-TB was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3, 3.1%) and 6.4% (95% CI, 2.4, 10.3%) among new and retreatment TB patients, respectively. Risk factors for RR-TB included prior TB treatment, self-reported HIV infection, travel outside Zimbabwe for ≥one month (univariate), and age <15 years. Having at least a secondary education was protective against RR-TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zimbabwe has remained stable since the 1994 subnational survey. However, the prevalence of rifampicin mono-resistance was double that of MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
AIDS ; 21(4): 483-9, 2007 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17301567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate HIV incidence during a trial of two voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) strategies. Counselling may promote beneficial behavioural change, although knowledge of negative status does not appear to contribute further benefit. DESIGN: The parent cluster-randomized trial demonstrated much greater uptake of VCT when counselling and rapid testing were available on-site (intensive VCT) than through pre-paid vouchers to an external provider (standard VCT). Anonymous HIV tests had been requested from all employees at enrolment and after 2 years intervention. METHODS: The study setting was 22 businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants were 3146 HIV-negative individuals remaining in employment at the end of intervention, of whom 2966 (94.3%) consented to repeat testing. VCT linked to basic HIV care was provided and the main outcome measures were HIV incidence under each study arm, as a retrospective secondary analysis. RESULTS: Mean VCT uptake in this cohort was 70.7 and 5.2%, respectively, in the intensive and standard arms. Crude HIV incidence was 1.21 per 100 person-years, with non-significantly higher rates in the intensive VCT arm [mean site incidence 1.37 and 0.95 per 100 person-years, respectively; adjusted rate ratio 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.79-2.80). CONCLUSIONS: Highly acceptable VCT did not reduce HIV incidence in this predominantly male cohort. HIV incidence was highest in the high uptake VCT arm, lending support to a US trial in which rapid testing appeared to have adverse behavioural consequences in some HIV-negative clients. Careful comparison of outcomes under different counselling and testing strategies is needed to maximize HIV prevention from global scale-up of VCT.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/psicologia , Adulto , Testes Anônimos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Med ; 3(7): e238, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16796402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV counselling and testing is a key component of both HIV care and HIV prevention, but uptake is currently low. We investigated the impact of rapid HIV testing at the workplace on uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was a cluster-randomised trial of two VCT strategies, with business occupational health clinics as the unit of randomisation. VCT was directly offered to all employees, followed by 2 y of open access to VCT and basic HIV care. Businesses were randomised to either on-site rapid HIV testing at their occupational clinic (11 businesses) or to vouchers for off-site VCT at a chain of free-standing centres also using rapid tests (11 businesses). Baseline anonymised HIV serology was requested from all employees. HIV prevalence was 19.8% and 18.4%, respectively, at businesses randomised to on-site and off-site VCT. In total, 1,957 of 3,950 employees at clinics randomised to on-site testing had VCT (mean uptake by site 51.1%) compared to 586 of 3,532 employees taking vouchers at clinics randomised to off-site testing (mean uptake by site 19.2%). The risk ratio for on-site VCT compared to voucher uptake was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.8) after adjustment for potential confounders. Only 125 employees (mean uptake by site 4.3%) reported using their voucher, so that the true adjusted risk ratio for on-site compared to off-site VCT may have been as high as 12.5 (95% confidence interval 8.2 to 16.8). CONCLUSIONS: High-impact VCT strategies are urgently needed to maximise HIV prevention and access to care in Africa. VCT at the workplace offers the potential for high uptake when offered on-site and linked to basic HIV care. Convenience and accessibility appear to have critical roles in the acceptability of community-based VCT.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Testes Anônimos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento Diretivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Testes Anônimos/organização & administração , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Soroprevalência de HIV , Educação em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Ocupações , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 42(4): 569-71, 2006 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16421803

RESUMO

Three hundred eighty-eight human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative clients in Zimbabwe were retested at 3 months using 2 parallel rapid tests. One operator error (risk, 0.26%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0065%-1.4%) and no "true" seroconversions (upper 95% confidence limit, 0.96%) were detected. High-risk behavior was not significantly reduced. Policies recommending routine retesting need to be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Adulto , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Zimbábue
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