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1.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825436

RESUMO

AIM: After the hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak among men who have sex with men (MSM) around 2018, the importance of HAV vaccination was emphasized, especially for MSM-living with human immunodeficiency virus (MSM-LWHIV). Aimmugen® is licensed and distributed exclusively in Japan. While administration of three doses is recommended, 85% of recipients in the general population were reported to acquire seroprotection after the second dose. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two or three vaccine doses along with predictors associated with the response to Aimmugen® in MSM-LWHIV. METHODS: We retrospectively examined anti-HA-IgG titers of MSM-LWHIV vaccinated with Aimmugen® in our hospital. Patients' data were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and October 2019, 141 subjects whose median age was 46 years old, were examined. All the subjects were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the median CD4 count was 615/µL. The acquisition rate of protectable anti-HA-IgG titers after the second and third dose was 71.1% and 98.6%, respectively. In 114 subjects whose anti-HA-IgG titers were tested after the second-dose, factors significantly associated with better response were prolonged ART duration and higher CD4 count. The titers of anti-HA-IgG after the third dose were higher in those who became seropositive after the second-dose than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dose of Aimmugen® for MSM-LWHIV was effective while two-dose was less effective compared to non-HIV-infected people. People-LWHIV with shorter duration of ART and lesser CD4 cell count achieved lower titers of anti-HA-IgG and might require an additional vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Med Primatol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750827

RESUMO

Acute-phase neutralizing antibody (NAb) passive immunization in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) can confer stringent viremia control with T-cell augmentation. In one NAb-infused SIV partial controller, we identify chronic-phase Nef-specific CD107a+ CD4+ T-cell response maintenance, implicating that NAb infusion modulates long-term T-cell responses even within viremic control.

3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696531

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes transient acute infection, and little is known of viral shedding via the duodenum and into the intestinal environment, including the gut microbiome, from the period of infection until after the recovery of symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to comprehensively observe the amount of virus excreted into the intestinal tract, the changes in the intestinal microbiome, and the level of inflammation during the healing process. We used blood and stool specimens from patients with human immunodeficiency virus who were infected with HAV during the HAV outbreak in Japan in 2018. Moreover, we observed changes in fecal HAV RNA and quantified the plasma cytokine level and gut microbiome by 16S rRNA analysis from clinical onset to at least 6 months after healing. HAV was detected from clinical onset up to a period of more than 150 days. Immediately after infection, many pro-inflammatory cytokines were elicited, and some cytokines showed different behaviors. The intestinal microbiome changed significantly after infection (dysbiosis), and the dysbiosis continued for a long time after healing. These observations suggest that the immunocompromised state is associated with prolonged viral shedding into the intestinal tract and delayed recovery of the intestinal environment.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0070821, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378948

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a risk factor for the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although HIV-associated gut dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in sustained chronic inflammation, there remains a limited understanding of the association between gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Here, we investigated compositional changes in the gut microbiome and its role in chronic inflammation in patients infected with HIV. We observed that the gut microbiomes of patients with low CD4 counts had reduced alpha diversity compared to those in uninfected controls. Following CD4 recovery, alpha diversity was restored, but intergroup dissimilarity of bacterial composition remained unchanged between patients and uninfected controls. Patients with HIV had higher abundance of the classes Negativicutes, Bacilli, and Coriobacteriia, as well as depletion of the class Clostridia. These relative abundances positively correlated with inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with anti-inflammatory cytokines. We found that gut dysbiosis accompanying HIV infection was characterized by a depletion of obligate anaerobic Clostridia and enrichment of facultative anaerobic bacteria, reflecting increased intestinal oxygen levels and intestinal permeability. Furthermore, it is likely that HIV-associated dysbiosis shifts the immunological balance toward inflammatory Th1 responses and encourages proinflammatory cytokine production. Our results suggest that gut dysbiosis contributes to sustaining chronic inflammation in patients with HIV infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy and that correcting gut dysbiosis will be effective in improving long-term outcomes in patients. IMPORTANCE Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection and is associated with the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion, the role of HIV-associated imbalance of gut microbiome in chronic inflammation is unclear. Here, we aimed to understand the causal relationship between abnormalities in the gut microbiome and chronic inflammation in patients with HIV. Our results suggest HIV-associated gut dysbiosis presents a more aerobic environment than that of healthy individuals, despite prolonged viral suppression. This dysbiosis likely results from a sustained increase in intestinal permeability, which supports sustained bacterial translocation in HIV patients, despite effective therapy. Additionally, we observed that several bacterial taxa enriched in HIV patients were associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that gut dysbiosis plays an important role in chronic inflammation in HIV patients.

5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205728

RESUMO

Antibody responses are crucial for the control of virus infection. Understanding of the mechanism of antibody induction is important for the development of a vaccine eliciting effective anti-virus antibodies. Virus-specific B cell receptor (BCR)/antibody repertoires are different among individuals, but determinants for this difference remain largely unclear. We have recently reported that a germline BCR immunoglobulin (IgG) gene polymorphism (VH3.33_ET or VH3.33_VI) in rhesus macaques is the determinant for induction of potent B404-class anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) neutralizing antibodies in neutralization-sensitive SIVsmH635FC infection. In the present study, we examined whether neutralization-resistant SIVsmE543-3 infection can induce the anti-SIV neutralizing antibodies associated with the germline VH3.33 polymorphism. Anti-SIVsmE543-3 neutralizing antibodies were induced in all the macaques possessing the VH3.33_ET allele, but not in those without VH3.33_ET, in the chronic phase of SIVsmE543-3 infection. Next generation sequencing analysis of BCR VH genes found B404-class antibody sequences only in those with VH3.33_ET. These results indicate that anti-SIVsmE543-3 neutralizing antibody induction associated with the germline BCR IgG gene polymorphism can be triggered by infection with neutralization-resistant SIVsmE543-3. This animal model would be useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of potent antibody induction against neutralization-resistant viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Polimorfismo Genético , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Células Germinativas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Macaca mulatta , Filogenia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify how SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is related to COVID-19 critical condition development and mortality in comparison with other predictive markers and scoring systems. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital and National Institute of Infectious Diseases. We recruited adult patients with COVID-19 admitted between March 2020 and January 2021. We compared RNAemia with clinical status on admission including scoring systems such as the 4C Mortality, CURB-65, and A-DROP, as well as the Ct value of the nasopharyngeal PCR, in predicting COVID-19 mortality and critical condition development. RESULTS: Of the 92 recruited patients (median age, 58; interquartile range, 45-71 years), 14 (14.9%) had RNAemia. These patients had an older age (median, 68 years vs. 55.5 years; p = 0.011), higher values of lactated dehydrogenase (median, 381 U/L vs. 256.5 U/L, p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (median, 10.9 mg/dL vs. 3.8 mg/dL; p < 0.001), D-dimer (median, 2.07 µg/mL vs. 1.28 µg/mL; p = 0.015), lower values of lymphocyte (median, 802/µL vs. 1007/µL, p = 0.025) and Ct of the nasopharyngeal PCR assay (median, 20.59 vs. 25.54; p = 0.021) than those without RNAemia. Univariate analysis showed RNAemia was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR], 18.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.92-89.76; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.7851; p = 0.002) and critical condition (OR, 72.00; 95% CI, 12.98-399.29; AUC, 0.8198; p < 0.001). Plus, multivariate analysis also revealed the association of RNAemia with critical condition (adjusted OR, 125.71; 95% CI, 11.47-1377.32; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: On-admission SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is a potent predictive marker of COVID-19 critical condition and mortality. The adjusted OR for critical condition was as high as 125.71.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/normas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/mortalidade , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009668, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280241

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection presents clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal respiratory failure. Despite the induction of functional SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in convalescent individuals, the role of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the control of SARS-CoV-2 replication remains unknown. In the present study, we show that subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques. Eight macaques were intranasally inoculated with 105 or 106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2, and three of the eight macaques were treated with a monoclonal anti-CD8 antibody on days 5 and 7 post-infection. In these three macaques, CD8+ T cells were undetectable on day 7 and thereafter, while virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced in the remaining five untreated animals. Viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs for 10-17 days post-infection in all macaques, and the kinetics of viral RNA levels in pharyngeal swabs and plasma neutralizing antibody titers were comparable between the anti-CD8 antibody treated and untreated animals. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the pharyngeal mucosa and/or retropharyngeal lymph node obtained at necropsy on day 21 in two of the untreated group but undetectable in all macaques treated with anti-CD8 antibody. CD8+ T-cell responses may contribute to viral control in SARS-CoV-2 infection, but our results indicate possible containment of subacute viral replication in the absence of CD8+ T cells, implying that CD8+ T-cell dysfunction may not solely lead to viral control failure.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Depleção Linfocítica/veterinária , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
9.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1841-1852.e4, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246326

RESUMO

Antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 slowly wane over time. Here, we examined how time affects antibody potency. To assess the impact of antibody maturation on durable neutralizing activity against original SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants of concern (VOCs), we analyzed receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in convalescent plasma taken 1-10 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Longitudinal evaluation of total RBD IgG and neutralizing antibody revealed declining total antibody titers but improved neutralization potency per antibody to original SARS-CoV-2, indicative of antibody response maturation. Neutralization assays with authentic viruses revealed that early antibodies capable of neutralizing original SARS-CoV-2 had limited reactivity toward B.1.351 (501Y.V2) and P.1 (501Y.V3) variants. Antibodies from late convalescents exhibited increased neutralization potency to VOCs, suggesting persistence of cross-neutralizing antibodies in plasma. Thus, maturation of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 potentiates cross-neutralizing ability to circulating variants, suggesting that declining antibody titers may not be indicative of declining protection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Carga Viral
10.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2281-2288, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the quantity and quality of epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell responses is crucial for understanding the mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication control. We have previously shown that acute-phase passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) results in augmented broad T-cell responses and robust SIVmac239 control in rhesus macaques. Analyzing long-term dynamics of CD8+ T-cell responses in these SIV controllers provides important insights into designing lasting anti-HIV immunity. DESIGN: We analyzed dynamics and metabolic/functional profiles of SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in rhesus macaques that controlled SIVmac239 replication following acute-phase passive NAb infusion. METHODS: SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in peripheral blood at multiple chronic-phase time points were investigated in four passive NAb-infused SIV controllers. In particular, expression patterns of Eomesodermin (Eomes), phosphorylated AMP kinase (pAMPK), CD28 and programmed death-1 (PD-1) were examined. RESULTS: In the NAb-infused SIV controllers, a single epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell response detected from acute infection and maintaining low levels up to year 1 showed a surge thereafter, up to year 2 postchallenge. Retention of an effector-skewed and unexhausted Eomes-high/pAMPK-low/CD28-negative/PD-1-low subpopulation in these epitope-specific CD8+ T cells implicated their front-line commitment in residual viral replication control. CONCLUSION: In long-term SIV control following acute-phase passive NAb infusion, a single-epitope, high-quality CTL response was dominantly induced in the chronic phase. These results likely describe one favorable pattern of immunodominant epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell preservation and suggest the importance of incorporating metabolic marker signatures for understanding NAb/T-cell synergism-based HIV/SIV control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Epitopos , Macaca mulatta
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 646467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084754

RESUMO

HIV-1 infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy can control viremia but often develop non-AIDS diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Gut microbiome dysbiosis has been indicated to be associated with progression of these diseases. Analyses of gut/fecal microbiome in individual regions are important for our understanding of pathogenesis in HIV-1 infections. However, data on gut/fecal microbiome has not yet been accumulated in West Africa. In the present study, we examined fecal microbiome compositions in HIV-1 infected adults in Ghana, where approximately two-thirds of infected adults are females. In a cross-sectional case-control study, age- and gender-matched HIV-1 infected adults (HIV+; n = 55) and seronegative controls (HIV-; n = 55) were enrolled. Alpha diversity of fecal microbiome in HIV+ was significantly reduced compared to HIV- and associated with CD4 counts. HIV+ showed reduction in varieties of bacteria including Faecalibacterium, the most abundant in seronegative controls, but enrichment of Proteobacteria. Ghanaian HIV+ exhibited enrichment of Dorea and Blautia; bacteria groups whose depletion has been reported in HIV-1 infected individuals in several other cohorts. Furthermore, HIV+ in our cohort exhibited a depletion of Prevotella, a genus whose enrichment has recently been shown in men having sex with men (MSM) regardless of HIV-1 status. The present study revealed the characteristics of dysbiotic fecal microbiome in HIV-1 infected adults in Ghana, a representative of West African populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Microbiota , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Disbiose , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 397-405, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE is the second major subtype in Japan. Our previous study indicated that CRF01_AE was predominantly circulating in heterosexuals/injecting drug users (IDUs). With implications of increased CRF01_AE infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), this study sought to investigate whether the transmission dynamics of CRF01_AE infections in Japan have changed. METHODS: Sequences from 8032 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals were analysed. For 614 (7.6%) of CRF01_AE cases, clusters were identified and categorised by transmission risks. Median times to the most recent common ancestors (tMRCA) were estimated. RESULTS: The individuals were predominantly Japanese (64%) and male (72%). MSM became the predominant transmission risk from 2014. Thirty transmission clusters (TCs) and 48 pairs, including 40% of individuals, were identified. MSM were approximately five times more likely to be in a TC compared to heterosexuals, and were the major contributors to TCs. tMRCA data suggest that MSM TCs emerged from 1996 and became predominant around 2000. CONCLUSIONS: CRF01_AE has spread among MSM, with frequent and continuous cluster formations, and MSM has become the predominant transmission risk. Our study suggested that CRF01_AE transmission has shifted from heterosexuals/IDUs to MSM. Prevention measures targeting key populations should be considered for controlling CRF01_AE spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia
13.
iScience ; 24(4): 102367, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817567

RESUMO

Antiviral treatments targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 are urgently required. We screened a panel of already approved drugs in a cell culture model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and identified two new agents having higher antiviral potentials than the drug candidates such as remdesivir and chroloquine in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells: the anti-inflammatory drug cepharanthine and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir. Cepharanthine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry through the blocking of viral binding to target cells, while nelfinavir suppressed viral replication partly by protease inhibition. Consistent with their different modes of action, synergistic effect of this combined treatment to limit SARS-CoV-2 proliferation was highlighted. Mathematical modeling in vitro antiviral activity coupled with the calculated total drug concentrations in the lung predicts that nelfinavir will shorten the period until viral clearance by 4.9 days and the combining cepharanthine/nelfinavir enhanced their predicted efficacy. These results warrant further evaluation of the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharanthine and nelfinavir.

14.
HLA ; 98(1): 37-42, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734601

RESUMO

HLA-A, -C, -B, and -DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in 178 Japanese COVID-19 patients to investigate the association of HLA with severe COVID-19. Analysis of 32 common HLA alleles at four loci revealed a significant association between HLA-DRB1*09:01 and severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 3.62; 95% CI, 1.57-8.35; p = 0.00251 [permutation p value = 0.0418]) when age, sex, and other common HLA alleles at the DRB1 locus were adjusted. The DRB1*09:01 allele was more significantly associated with risk for severe COVID-19 compared to preexisting medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results indicate a potential role for HLA in predisposition to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Alelos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Humanos
15.
Int Immunol ; 33(4): 241-247, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538817

RESUMO

An expanded myeloid cell compartment is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, data regarding myeloid cell expansion have been collected in Europe, where the mortality rate by COVID-19 is greater than those in other regions including Japan. Thus, characteristics of COVID-19-induced myeloid cell subsets remain largely unknown in the regions with low mortality rates. Here, we analyzed cellular dynamics of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subsets and examined whether any of them correlate with disease severity and prognosis, using blood samples from Japanese COVID-19 patients. We observed that polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, but not other MDSC subsets, transiently expanded in severe cases but not in mild or moderate cases. Contrary to previous studies in Europe, this subset selectively expanded in survivors of severe cases and subsided before discharge, but such transient expansion was not observed in non-survivors in Japanese cohort. Analysis of plasma cytokine/chemokine levels revealed positive correlation of PMN-MDSC frequencies with IL-8 levels, indicating the involvement of IL-8 on recruitment of PMN-MDSCs to peripheral blood following the onset of severe COVID-19. Our data indicate that transient expansion of the PMN-MDSC subset results in improved clinical outcome. Thus, this myeloid cell subset may be a predictor of prognosis in cases of severe COVID-19 in Japan.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Interleucina-8/sangue , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Japão , Contagem de Leucócitos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia
16.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441342

RESUMO

Virus infection induces B cells with a wide variety of B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires. Patterns of induced BCR repertoires are different in individuals, while the underlying mechanism causing this difference remains largely unclear. In particular, the impact of germ line BCR immunoglobulin (Ig) gene polymorphism on B cell/antibody induction has not fully been determined. In the present study, we found a potent antibody induction associated with a germ line BCR Ig gene polymorphism. B404-class antibodies, which were previously reported as potent anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) neutralizing antibodies using the germ line VH3.33 gene-derived Ig heavy chain, were induced in five of 10 rhesus macaques after SIVsmH635FC infection. Investigation of VH3.33 genes in B404-class antibody inducers (n = 5) and non-inducers (n = 5) revealed association of B404-class antibody induction with a germ line VH3.33 polymorphism. Analysis of reconstructed antibodies indicated that the VH3.33 residue 38 is the determinant for B404-class antibody induction. B404-class antibodies were induced in all the macaques possessing the B404-associated VH3.33 allele, even under undetectable viremia. Our results show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in germ line VH genes could be a determinant for induction of potent antibodies against virus infection, implying that germ line VH-gene polymorphisms can be a factor restricting effective antibody induction or responsiveness to vaccination.IMPORTANCE Vaccines against a wide variety of infectious diseases have been developed mostly to induce antibodies targeting pathogens. However, small but significant percentage of people fail to mount potent antibody responses after vaccination, while the underlying mechanism of host failure in antibody induction remains largely unclear. In particular, the impact of germ line B cell receptor (BCR)/antibody immunoglobulin (Ig) gene polymorphism on B cell/antibody induction has not fully been determined. In the present study, we found a potent anti-simian immunodeficiency virus neutralizing antibody induction associated with a germ line BCR/antibody Ig gene polymorphism in rhesus macaques. Our results demonstrate that a single nucleotide polymorphism in germ line Ig genes could be a determinant for induction of potent antibodies against virus infection, implying that germ line BCR/antibody Ig gene polymorphisms can be a factor restricting effective antibody induction or responsiveness to vaccination.

17.
Immunogenetics ; 73(2): 175-186, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447871

RESUMO

Rhesus macaque is one of the most widely used primate model animals for immunological research of infectious diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is well known that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genotypes affect the susceptibility and disease progression to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus macaques, which is resembling to HIV in humans. It is required to convincingly determine the MHC genotypes in the immunological investigations, that is why several next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods have been established. In general, NGS-based genotyping methods using short amplicons are not often applied to MHC because of increasing number of alleles and inevitable ambiguity in allele detection, although there is an advantage of short read sequencing systems that are commonly used today. In this study, we developed a new high-throughput NGS-based genotyping method for MHC class I alleles in rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques. By using our method, 95% and 100% of alleles identified by PCR cloning-based method were detected in rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques, respectively, which were highly correlated with their expression levels. It was noted that the simulation of new-allele detection step using artificial alleles differing by a few nucleotide sequences from a known allele could be identified with high accuracy and that we could detect a real novel allele from a rhesus macaque sample. These findings supported that our method could be adapted for primate animal models such as macaques to reduce the cost and labor of previous NGS-based MHC genotyping.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Alelos , Animais , Genes MHC Classe I/genética , Genótipo , Macaca , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Cytometry A ; 99(3): 278-288, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713108

RESUMO

A vaccine to ameliorate cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related pathogenicity in transplantation patients is considered a top priority. A therapeutic vaccine must include components that elicit both neutralizing antibodies, and highly effective CD8 T-cell responses. The most important translational model of vaccine development is the captive-bred rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) of Indian origin. There is a dearth of information on rhesus cytomegalovirus (rhCMV)-specific CD8 T cells due to the absence of well-defined CD8 T-cell epitopes presented by classical MHC-I molecules. In the current study, we defined two CD8 T-cell epitopes restricted by high-frequency Mamu alleles: the Mamu-A1*002:01 restricted VY9 (VTTLGMALY aa291-299) epitope of protein IE-1, and the Mamu-A1*008:01 restricted NP8 (NPTDRPIP aa96-103) epitope of protein phosphoprotein 65-2. We developed tetramers and determined the level, phenotype, and functional capability of the two epitope-specific T-cell populations in circulation and various tissues. We demonstrated the value of these tetramers for in situ tetramer staining. Here, we first provided critical reagents and established a flow cytometric staining strategy to study rhCMV-specific T-cell responses in up to 40% of captive-bred rhesus macaques. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citomegalovirus , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Macaca mulatta
19.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(1): 42-47, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611986

RESUMO

Recent studies have indicated an association between gut microbiome composition and various disorders, including infectious diseases. The composition of the microbiome differs among ethnicities and countries, possibly resulting in diversified interactions between host immunity and the gut microbiome. Characterization of baseline microbiome composition in healthy people is an essential step for better understanding of the biological interactions associated with individual populations. However, data on the gut/fecal microbiome have not been accumulated for individuals in West Africa. In the present study, we examined the fecal microbiome composition in healthy adults in Ghana. Toward this, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared using bacterial fractions derived from 55 Ghanaian adults, which were then subjected to next-generation sequencing. The fecal microbiome of the Ghanaian adults was dominated by Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014), Proteobacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella), and Bacteroidetes (Prevotella 9 and Bacteroides), consistent with previous observations in African cohorts. Further, our analysis revealed differences in microbiome composition and a lower diversity of the fecal microbiome in the Ghanaian cohort compared with those reported in non-African countries. This is the first study to describe substantial fecal microbiome data obtained using high-throughput metagenomic tools on samples derived from a cohort in Ghana. The data may provide a valuable basis for determining the association between the fecal microbiome and progression of various diseases in West African populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Adulto , Bacteroidetes/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Gana , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980705

RESUMO

Accurate monitoring of epidemics is a key strategy for the control of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. To delineate the characteristic of newly-diagnosed cases of HIV-1 infection, we assessed the proportion of recent HIV-1 infections using a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA). In 2015, 248 cases were newly diagnosed with HIV infection in Reginal Hospital Koforidua, Ghana. Of these, 234 cases (94.4%) were infected with HIV-1 only, four (1.6%) were infected with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) were co-infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. All the HIV-1 single seropositive samples were applied to HIV-1 LAg avidity assay for RITA. Our analysis revealed that 18 cases (7.7%) were determined as recent infections, indicating that early diagnosis has not been achieved in Ghana. This is the first report assessing the proportion of recent infections in Ghana using a biomarker approach. Accumulation of these data would contribute to accurate estimation of HIV-1 incidence and prevalence in Ghana.

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