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1.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(10-11): 889-906, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415498

RESUMO

How climate change will modify belowground tritrophic interactions is poorly understood, despite their importance for agricultural productivity. Here, we manipulated the three major abiotic factors associated with climate change (atmospheric CO2, temperature, and soil moisture) and investigated their individual and joint effects on the interaction between maize, the banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata), and the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Changes in individual abiotic parameters had a strong influence on plant biomass, leaf wilting, sugar concentrations, protein levels, and benzoxazinoid contents. Yet, when combined to simulate a predicted climate scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, RCP 8.5), their effects mostly counter-balanced each other. Only the sharp negative impact of drought on leaf wilting was not fully compensated. In both current and predicted scenarios, root damage resulted in increased leaf wilting, reduced root biomass, and reconfigured the plant sugar metabolism. Single climatic variables modulated the herbivore performance and survival in an additive manner, although slight interactions were also observed. Increased temperature and CO2 levels both enhanced the performance of the insect, but elevated temperature also decreased its survival. Elevated temperatures and CO2 further directly impeded the EPN infectivity potential, while lower moisture levels improved it through plant- and/or herbivore-mediated changes. In the RCP 8.5 scenario, temperature and CO2 showed interactive effects on EPN infectivity, which was overall decreased by 40%. We conclude that root pest problems may worsen with climate change due to increased herbivore performance and reduced top-down control by biological control agents.

2.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(8): 2672-2686, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748996

RESUMO

Plant leaves that are exposed to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) respond by increasing their defenses, a phenomenon referred to as priming. Whether this phenomenon also occurs in the roots is unknown. Using maize plants, Zea mays, whose leaves respond strongly to leaf HIPVs, we measured the impact of belowground HIPVs, emanating from roots infested by the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, on constitutive and herbivore-induced levels of defense-related gene expression, phytohormones, volatile and non-volatile primary and secondary metabolites, growth and herbivore resistance in roots of neighbouring plants. HIPV exposure did not increase constitutive or induced levels of any of the measured root traits. Furthermore, HIPV exposure did not reduce the performance or survival of D. balteata on maize or its ancestor teosinte. Cross-exposure experiments between HIPVs from roots and leaves revealed that maize roots, in contrast to maize leaves, neither emit nor respond strongly to defense-regulating HIPVs. Together, these results demonstrate that volatile-mediated defense regulation is restricted to the leaves of maize. This finding is in line with the lower diffusibility of volatiles in the soil and the availability of other, potentially more efficient, information conduits below ground.

3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073385

RESUMO

The above article was published in error by the publisher before a final editorial decision had been reached. It has therefore been removed temporarily while the editorial process concludes. The publisher apologizes for the inconvenience.

4.
Elife ; 62017 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171835

RESUMO

Highly adapted herbivores can phenocopy two-component systems by stabilizing, sequestering and reactivating plant toxins. However, whether these traits protect herbivores against their enemies is poorly understood. We demonstrate that the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, the most damaging maize pest on the planet, specifically accumulates the root-derived benzoxazinoid glucosides HDMBOA-Glc and MBOA-Glc. MBOA-Glc is produced by D. virgifera through stabilization of the benzoxazinoid breakdown product MBOA by N-glycosylation. The larvae can hydrolyze HDMBOA-Glc, but not MBOA-Glc, to produce toxic MBOA upon predator attack. Accumulation of benzoxazinoids renders D. virgifera highly resistant to nematodes which inject and feed on entomopathogenic symbiotic bacteria. While HDMBOA-Glc and MBOA reduce the growth and infectivity of both the nematodes and the bacteria, MBOA-Glc repels infective juvenile nematodes. Our results illustrate how herbivores combine stabilized and reactivated plant toxins to defend themselves against a deadly symbiosis between the third and the fourth trophic level enemies.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Animais , Zea mays/parasitologia
5.
J Org Chem ; 82(23): 12318-12327, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056051

RESUMO

A simple procedure for the conversion of tertiary lactams to 2-monoalkylated cyclic amines is described. The reaction sequence involves conversion of a lactam to a thioiminium ion followed by reaction with an organocopper (RCu) reagent and final reduction with triacetoxyborohydride. The reaction is high yielding and shows an excellent functional group tolerance. Its utility is demonstrated by a rapid synthesis of indolizidine 167B. The excellent chemoselectivity of the process, where only monoalkylation products are formed, is rationalized by a mechanism involving the formation of a transient enamine.

6.
Org Lett ; 18(19): 4814-4817, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618124

RESUMO

A silver-catalyzed cycloisomerization reaction of a series of o-alkynylbenzohydroxamic acids is reported. Several 5-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig modes of cyclization were observed with the nitrogen or oxygen atoms of the amide group acting as nucleophiles. The selectivity was strongly dependent on the silver salt used and on the presence of triphenylphosphine as an additive. Indeed, while the use of Ag2O at room temperature allowed the isolation of isobenzofuran-1-one oximes (7 compounds, 48-92% yield), [Ag(Im)]n with the concomitant addition of 2 equiv of PPh3 led to a switch in selectivity and to a family of isoindolin-1-ones (10 compounds, 59-87%).

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