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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527138

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained two-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance, and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403511

RESUMO

There are unexplained geographical variations in the incidence of kidney cancer with the high rates reported in Baltic countries, as well as eastern and central Europe. Having access to a large and well-annotated collection of "tumor/non-tumor" pairs of kidney cancer patients from the Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, UK, and Russia, we aimed to analyze the morphology of non-neoplastic renal tissue in nephrectomy specimens. By applying digital pathology, we performed a microscopic examination of 1012 frozen non-neoplastic kidney tissues from patients with renal cell carcinoma. Four components of renal parenchyma were evaluated and scored for the intensity of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and arterial wall thickening, globally called chronic renal parenchymal changes. Moderate or severe changes were observed in 54 (5.3%) of patients with predominance of occurrence in Romania (OR = 2.67, CI 1.07-6.67) and Serbia (OR = 4.37, CI 1.20-15.96) in reference to those from Russia. Further adjustment for comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and stage did not change risk estimates. In multinomial regression model, relative probability of non-glomerular changes was 5.22 times higher for Romania and Serbia compared to Russia. Our findings show that the frequency of chronic renal parenchymal changes, with the predominance of chronic interstitial nephritis pattern, in kidney cancer patients varies by country, significantly more frequent in countries located in central and southeastern Europe where the incidence of kidney cancer has been reported to be moderate to high. The observed association between these pathological features and living in certain geographic areas requires a larger population-based study to confirm this association on a large scale.

3.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101615, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(5): 397-404, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between head and neck cancer (HNC) risk and occupations. METHODS: We harmonized data on occupations in a pooled analysis of 8839 HNC cases and 13,730 controls in International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations of occupations and HNC risk. Population attributable fraction (PAF) for occupations was calculated using the formula PEC × (OR - 1)/OR. RESULTS: Trend of increasing HNC risk was found with increasing duration of employment for many occupations, including cooks (OR = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.68), cleaners (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.69), painters (OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.35). The PAF for a priori occupations was 14.5% (95% CI 7.1% to 21.9%) for HNC. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between certain occupations and HNC risks, including for subsites, with a duration-response relationship.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Oral Oncol ; 94: 47-57, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at re-evaluating the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the combined (or joint) effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). We explored this issue considering bivariate spline models, where smoking intensity and duration were treated as interacting continuous exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled individual-level data from 33 case-control studies (18,260 HNC cases and 29,844 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. In bivariate regression spline models, exposures to cigarette smoking intensity and duration (compared with never smokers) were modeled as a linear piecewise function within a logistic regression also including potential confounders. We jointly estimated the optimal knot locations and regression parameters within the Bayesian framework. RESULTS: For oral-cavity/pharyngeal (OCP) cancers, an odds ratio (OR) >5 was reached after 30 years in current smokers of ∼20 or more cigarettes/day. Patterns of OCP cancer risk in current smokers differed across strata of alcohol intensity. For laryngeal cancer, ORs >20 were found for current smokers of ≥20 cigarettes/day for ≥30  years. In former smokers who quit ≥10  years ago, the ORs were approximately halved for OCP cancers, and ∼1/3 for laryngeal cancer, as compared to the same levels of intensity and duration in current smokers. CONCLUSION: Referring to bivariate spline models, this study better quantified the joint effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking on HNC risk, further stressing the need of smoking cessation policies.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(12): 6068-6076, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324682

RESUMO

Two familial forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), Lynch syndrome (LS) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), are caused by rare mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2) and the genes APC and MUTYH, respectively. No information is available on the presence of high-risk CRC mutations in the Romanian population. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 61 Romanian CRC cases with a family history of cancer and/or early onset of disease, focusing the analysis on candidate variants in the LS and FAP genes. The frequencies of all candidate variants were assessed in a cohort of 688 CRC cases and 4567 controls. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 was performed on tumour tissue. We identified 11 candidate variants in 11 cases; six variants in MLH1, one in MSH6, one in PMS2, and three in APC. Combining information on the predicted impact of the variants on the proteins, IHC results and previous reports, we found three novel pathogenic variants (MLH1:p.Lys84ThrfsTer4, MLH1:p.Ala586CysfsTer7, PMS2:p.Arg211ThrfsTer38), and two novel variants that are unlikely to be pathogenic. Also, we confirmed three previously published pathogenic LS variants and suggest to reclassify a previously reported variant of uncertain significance to pathogenic (MLH1:c.1559-1G>C).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia
12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(10): 1483-1495, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are widely used to map genomic regions contributing to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility, but they typically do not identify the precise disease-causing genes/variants. To unveil the inherited genetic variants that cause LC, we performed focused exome-sequencing analyses on genes located in 121 genome-wide association study-identified loci previously implicated in the risk of LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function level, and smoking behavior. METHODS: Germline DNA from 260 case patients with LC and 318 controls were sequenced by utilizing VCRome 2.1 exome capture. Filtering was based on enrichment of rare and potential deleterious variants in cases (risk alleles) or controls (protective alleles). Allelic association analyses of single-variant and gene-based burden tests of multiple variants were performed. Promising candidates were tested in two independent validation studies with a total of 1773 case patients and 1123 controls. RESULTS: We identified 48 rare variants with deleterious effects in the discovery analysis and validated 12 of the 43 candidates that were covered in the validation platforms. The top validated candidates included one well-established truncating variant, namely, BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2) K3326X (OR = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.99), and three newly identified variations, namely, lymphotoxin beta gene (LTB) p.Leu87Phe (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 1.01-16.56), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 gene (P3H2) p.Gln185His (OR = 5.39, 95% CI: 0.75-15.43), and dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 2 gene (DAAM2) p.Asp762Gly (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Burden tests revealed strong associations between zinc finger protein 93 gene (ZNF93), DAAM2, bromodomain containing 9 gene (BRD9), and the gene LTB and LC susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with LC and highlight the importance of germline rare coding variants in LC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 27(1): 1-5, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045934

RESUMO

Alterations in global DNA methylation have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. We evaluated the association of global DNA methylation in peripheral blood with the risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking women from six countries in Central and Eastern Europe. This multicenter case-control study included primary, incident lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1998 to 2001 and controls frequency-matched for geographic area, sex, and age. Global methylation was assessed in peripheral blood DNA from 83 nonsmoking female cases and 181 nonsmoking female controls using the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between DNA methylation in the blood and the risk of lung cancer. LUMA methylation level was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking women. Associations were not significantly different according to different strata of age, BMI, alcohol drinking, or second-hand tobacco smoke exposure status. In our study of nonsmoking women, the LUMA methylation level in peripheral blood was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. Our findings do not support an association of global blood DNA methylation with the risk of lung cancer in nonsmoking women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Buffy Coat , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(3): 1574-1582, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266682

RESUMO

To find sequence variants affecting prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility in an unscreened Romanian population we use a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The study population included 990 unrelated pathologically confirmed PCA cases and 1034 male controls. DNA was genotyped using Illumina SNP arrays, and 24.295.558 variants were imputed using the 1000 Genomes data set. An association test was performed between the imputed markers and PCA. A systematic literature review for variants associated with PCA risk identified 115 unique variants that were tested in the Romanian sample set. Thirty of the previously reported SNPs replicated (P-value < 0.05), with the strongest associations observed at: 8q24.21, 11q13.3, 6q25.3, 5p15.33, 22q13.2, 17q12 and 3q13.2. The replicated variants showing the most significant association in Romania are rs1016343 at 8q24.21 (P = 2.2 × 10-4 ), rs7929962 at 11q13.3 (P = 2.7 × 10-4 ) and rs9364554 at 6q25.2 (P = 4.7 × 10-4 ). None of the variants tested in the Romanian GWAS reached genome-wide significance (P-value <5 × 10-8 ) but 807 markers had P-values <1 × 10-4 . Here, we report the results of the first GWAS of PCA performed in a Romanian population. Our study provides evidence that a substantial fraction of previously validated PCA variants associate with risk in this unscreened Romanian population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Risco , Romênia
15.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15724, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598434

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P=3.1 × 10-10), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P=2.5 × 10-8), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P=8.8 × 10-9), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P=5.8 × 10-9), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P=3.9 × 10-8), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P=2.1 × 10-10) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P=2.2 × 10-24). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44876, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332632

RESUMO

Recent genomic studies of sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have uncovered novel driver genes and pathways. Given the unequal incidence rates among men and women (male:female incidence ratio approaches 2:1), we compared the genome-wide distribution of the chromosomal abnormalities in both sexes. We observed a higher frequency for the somatic recurrent chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs) of autosomes in male subjects, whereas somatic loss of chromosome X was detected exclusively in female patients (17.1%). Furthermore, somatic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) was detected in about 40% of male subjects, while mosaic LOY was detected in DNA isolated from peripheral blood in 9.6% of them, and was the only recurrent CNV in constitutional DNA samples. LOY in constitutional DNA, but not in tumor DNA was associated with older age. Amongst Y-linked genes that were downregulated due to LOY, KDM5D and KDM6C epigenetic modifiers have functionally-similar X-linked homologs whose deficiency is involved in ccRCC progression. Our findings establish somatic LOY as a highly recurrent genetic defect in ccRCC that leads to downregulation of hitherto unsuspected epigenetic factors, and suggest that different mechanisms may underlie the somatic and mosaic LOY observed in tumors and peripheral blood, respectively.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Int J Cancer ; 140(9): 1976-1984, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120396

RESUMO

It is not clear whether alcohol consumption is associated with lung cancer risk. The relationship is likely confounded by smoking, complicating the interpretation of previous studies. We examined the association of alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in a large pooled international sample, minimizing potential confounding of tobacco consumption by restricting analyses to never smokers. Our study included 22 case-control and cohort studies with a total of 2548 never-smoking lung cancer patients and 9362 never-smoking controls from North America, Europe and Asia within the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) and SYNERGY Consortium. Alcohol consumption was categorized into amounts consumed (grams per day) and also modelled as a continuous variable using restricted cubic splines for potential non-linearity. Analyses by histologic sub-type were included. Associations by type of alcohol consumed (wine, beer and liquor) were also investigated. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk with evidence most strongly supporting lower risk for light and moderate drinkers relative to non-drinkers (>0-4.9 g per day: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90; 5-9.9 g per day: OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99; 10-19.9 g per day: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.96). Inverse associations were found for consumption of wine and liquor, but not beer. The results indicate that alcohol consumption is inversely associated with lung cancer risk, particularly among subjects with low to moderate consumption levels, and among wine and liquor drinkers, but not beer drinkers. Although our results should have no relevant bias from the confounding effect of smoking we cannot preclude that confounding by other factors contributed to the observed associations. Confounding in relation to the non-drinker reference category may be of particular importance.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nat Genet ; 48(12): 1544-1550, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749845

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association study of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer in 6,034 cases and 6,585 controls from Europe, North America and South America. We detected eight significantly associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8), seven of which are new for these cancer sites. Oral and pharyngeal cancers combined were associated with loci at 6p21.32 (rs3828805, HLA-DQB1), 10q26.13 (rs201982221, LHPP) and 11p15.4 (rs1453414, OR52N2-TRIM5). Oral cancer was associated with two new regions, 2p23.3 (rs6547741, GPN1) and 9q34.12 (rs928674, LAMC3), and with known cancer-related loci-9p21.3 (rs8181047, CDKN2B-AS1) and 5p15.33 (rs10462706, CLPTM1L). Oropharyngeal cancer associations were limited to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and classical HLA allele imputation showed a protective association with the class II haplotype HLA-DRB1*1301-HLA-DQA1*0103-HLA-DQB1*0603 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.59, P = 2.7 × 10-9). Stratified analyses on a subgroup of oropharyngeal cases with information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) status indicated that this association was considerably stronger in HPV-positive (OR = 0.23, P = 1.6 × 10-6) than in HPV-negative (OR = 0.75, P = 0.16) cancers.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias Faríngeas/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Antígenos HLA , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/metabolismo , Boca/patologia , Boca/virologia , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/virologia
20.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 57(2): 467-75, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27516020

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to examine a large dataset of single nucleotide polymorphism known to be associated with prostate cancer from previous genome-wide association studies and create a dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used in replication studies for the Romanian population. This study will define a list of markers showing a significant association with this phenotype. We propose the results of this study as a starting point for any Romanian genome-wide association studies researching the genetic susceptibility for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Romênia
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