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Rev Sci Instrum ; 94(1): 014712, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725567


We describe the newest generation of the SLAC Microresonator RF (SMuRF) electronics, a warm digital control and readout system for microwave-frequency resonator-based cryogenic detector and multiplexer systems, such as microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers (µmux) or microwave kinetic inductance detectors. Ultra-sensitive measurements in particle physics and astronomy increasingly rely on large arrays of cryogenic sensors, which in turn necessitate highly multiplexed readout and accompanying room-temperature electronics. Microwave-frequency resonators are a popular tool for cryogenic multiplexing, with the potential to multiplex thousands of detector channels on one readout line. The SMuRF system provides the capability for reading out up to 3328 channels across a 4-8 GHz bandwidth. Notably, the SMuRF system is unique in its implementation of a closed-loop tone-tracking algorithm that minimizes RF power transmitted to the cold amplifier, substantially relaxing system linearity requirements and effective noise from intermodulation products. Here, we present a description of the hardware, firmware, and software systems of the SMuRF electronics, comparing achieved performance with science-driven design requirements. In particular, we focus on the case of large-channel-count, low-bandwidth applications, but the system has been easily reconfigured for high-bandwidth applications. The system described here has been successfully deployed in lab settings and field sites around the world and is baselined for use on upcoming large-scale observatories.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529769


Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and detection of unexpected structures in externally sourced chips, among other applications. Here, we report on a non-destructive, tabletop approach that addresses this imaging problem through x-ray tomography, which we uniquely realize with an instrument that combines a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer. Our approach uses the highly focused SEM electron beam to generate a small x-ray generation region in a carefully designed target layer that is placed over the sample being tested. With the high collection efficiency and resolving power of a TES spectrometer, we can isolate x-rays generated in the target from background and trace their paths through regions of interest in the sample layers, providing information about the various materials along the x-ray paths through their attenuation functions. We have recently demonstrated our approach using a 240 Mo/Cu bilayer TES prototype instrument on a simplified test sample containing features with sizes of ∼ 1 µm. Currently, we are designing and building a 3000 Mo/Au bilayer TES spectrometer upgrade, which is expected to improve the imaging speed by factor of up to 60 through a combination of increased detector number and detector speed.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456289


We are designing an array of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for a soft X-ray spectrometer at the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to coincide with upgrades to the free electron laser facility. The complete spectrometer will have 1000 TES pixels with energy resolution of 0.5 eV full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for incident energies below 1 keV while maintaining pulse decay-time constants shorter than 100 µs. Historically, TES pixels have often been designed for a particular scientific application via a combination of simple scaling relations and trial-and-error experimentation with device geometry. We have improved upon this process by using our understanding of transition physics to guide TES design. Using the two-fluid approximation of the phase-slip line model for TES resistance, we determine how the geometry and critical temperature of a TES will affect the shape of the transition. We have used these techniques to design sensors with a critical temperature of 55 mK. The best sensors achieve an energy resolution of 0.75 eV FWHM at 1.25 keV. Building upon this result, we show how the next generation of sensors can be designed to reach our goal of 0.5 eV resolution.

Magn Reson Med ; 72(6): 1793-800, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281979


PURPOSE: Prototype phantoms were designed, constructed, and characterized for the purpose of calibrating ultralow field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI) systems. The phantoms were designed to measure spatial resolution and to quantify sensitivity to systematic variation of proton density and relaxation time, T1 . METHODS: The phantoms were characterized first with conventional magnetic resonance scanners at 1.5 and 3 T, and subsequently with a prototype ULF MRI scanner between 107 and 128 µT . RESULTS: The ULF system demonstrated a 2-mm spatial resolution and, using T1 measurements, distinguished aqueous solutions of MnCl2 differing by 20 µM [Mn(2+) ]. CONCLUSION: The prototype phantoms proved well-matched to ULF MRI applications, and allowed direct comparison of the performance of ULF and clinical systems.

Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imagens de Fantasmas , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Projetos Piloto , Doses de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade