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3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477211

RESUMO

Hydatid disease of the lungs is common in endemic regions. It can be suspected clinically by non-specific respiratory symptoms in children living in endemic regions, especially when they are close to sheep or dogs. Chest imaging X-ray or computed tomography may show characteristic cysts in some cases, but typical findings are absent in many children. Hydatid serology may contribute to the diagnosis, but does not have sufficient sensitivity for pulmonary cysts. Thus, there is no confirmatory diagnostic test, other than surgical excision and histopathologic examination. Hence, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tests. We present a series of children, both with and without suspected pulmonary hydatid, wherein flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFOB) performed under conscious sedation, revealed hydatid membranes in the airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis revealed hydatid in most of them. Thus the diagnosis could be confirmed even before surgical excision of cysts was performed. We propose that FFOB with BAL could be useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid in children. This will be particularly helpful in children without characteristic radiological or serological findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is a completely novel approach to the condition with potential to alter the diagnostic paradigm Lay summary Hydatid disease of the lungs is commonly encountered in endemic regions. However, there is no confirmatory diagnostic test for pulmonary hydatid cyst, other than surgical excision and histopathologic examination. Imaging including chest X-ray and computed tomography may not be typical, especially in complicated cysts and hydatid serology does not have a satisfactory sensitivity for diagnosing lung cysts. Thus, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tests. We present a series of children, both with and without suspected pulmonary hydatid, wherein flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FFOB) under conscious sedation, revealed hydatid membranes in the airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis confirmed hydatid in most of them. We propose FFOB with BAL as a useful diagnostic modality to confirm pulmonary hydatid in children, prior to surgical excision. To the best of our knowledge, this is a completely novel approach to the condition with potential to alter the diagnostic paradigm.


Assuntos
Equinococose Pulmonar , Pneumopatias , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Broncoscopia , Criança , Cães , Equinococose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão , Ovinos
4.
Indian J Pediatr ; 88(11): 1064-1065, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533760
5.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 253, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The upper respiratory tract of children is colonized by various microbial species during the healthy state, whereas the lungs are believed to be sterile. In children with respiratory infections, micro-organisms can be recovered from the upper respiratory sites, as well as the lungs. However, the correlation of microbial yield between the two sites is unclear. This systematic review is designed to explore the microbial composition of the respiratory system in healthy children, comparing the organisms identified in the upper airways versus the lungs. We will also compare the prevalence and pattern of upper respiratory micro-organisms in healthy children versus those with various respiratory diseases. We will additionally compare the organisms identified in the upper airway versus the lungs in children with respiratory disease. METHODS: We will search the following electronic databases: Epistemonikos and Cochrane Library for systematic reviews and MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, LIVIVO, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL databases for primary studies. Reference lists of relevant studies will be examined for links to potential related articles. Two reviewers will independently determine eligibility for inclusion. The methodological quality and risk of bias of the included observational studies will be scored using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool, and JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for case series. We will present the data with descriptive statistics and provide pooled estimates of outcomes, wherever it is feasible to perform a meta-analysis. Heterogeneity in studies will be explored by using the Higgins and Thompson I2 method. Sensitivity analysis will be done to explore the impact of study quality, and subgroup analysis will be done based on age, health condition, type of respiratory specimen, and method of identifying organisms. We will prepare a summary of findings' table and assess the confidence in the evidence using the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: This is a protocol; hence, there are no results at this stage. DISCUSSION: The proposed systematic review will provide comparisons of the microbiota in the upper respiratory tract versus the lungs, in children, during health as well as respiratory disease. Similarly, the site-specific yield will be compared between healthy children and those with respiratory disease. This will provide clinicians, microbiologists, and respiratory therapists a better understanding of the respiratory system microbiota, suitability (or otherwise) of upper airway specimens in various respiratory diseases, and the potential role of upper airway colonization on specific respiratory diseases. We will disseminate the review through a peer-reviewed journal publication. Data that cannot be included in the published version will be made available on request. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020202115 .

6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To propose a taxonomy and framework that identifies and presents actionable statements in guidelines. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We took an iterative approach reviewing case studies of guidelines produced by the World Health Organization and the American Society of Hematology to develop an initial conceptual framework. We then tested it using randomly selected recommendations from published guidelines addressing COVID-19 from different organizations, evaluated its results, and refined it before retesting. The urgency and availability of evidence for development of these recommendations varied. We consulted with experts in research methodology and guideline developers to improve the final framework. RESULTS: The resulting taxonomy and framework distinguishes five types of actional statements: formal recommendations; research recommendations; good practice statements; implementation considerations, tools and tips; and informal recommendations. These statements should respond to a priori established criteria and require a clear structure and recognizable presentation in a guideline. Most importantly, this framework identifies informal recommendations that differ from formal recommendations by how they consider evidence and in their development process. CONCLUSION: The identification, standardisation and explicit labelling of actionable statements according to the framework may support guideline developers to create actionable statements with clear intent, avoid informal recommendations and improve their understanding and implementation by users.

7.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-5, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is challenging because of the paucibacillary nature of the disease, due to which more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests are needed. In this study, we determined the accuracy of WHO endorsed TB-LAMP assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted between March to July, 2018. A total of 177 samples from consecutive suspected TB children were received for microbiological diagnosis of TB. All tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection were performed in parallel (smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and TB-LAMP). The diagnostic accuracy of index test i.e. TB LAMP were determined using mycobacterial culture as a reference standard. RESULTS: Of the 177 samples, 2 (1.1%) were excluded from the study. Among 175 samples, TB-LAMP and Xpert MTB/RIF were positive in 27 (15.4%) and 25 (14.3%) samples, respectively. The sensitivity of both Xpert MTB/RIF and TB-LAMP was same, i.e. 84% (95%CI: 63.9-95.5%), when culture was considered as the reference standard. The specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TB-LAMP assay was 96% (95%CI: 91.5-98.5%), 77.8% (95%CI: 61.1-88.6%) and 97.3% (95%CI: 93.6-98.9%), respectively. CONCLUSION: For the detection of M. tuberculosis in paediatric samples, TB-LAMP showed a sensitivity and specificity comparable to Xpert MTB/RIF.

10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(10): 3189-3199, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an umbrella review collating the existing evidence to determine whether there is an association between exposure of Paracetamol in-utero or in infancy and the development of childhood Asthma. METHODS: In this review, systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that reported the association between paracetamol and asthma in children were included. To identify relevant reviews, a search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Ovid MEDLINE. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO CRD42020156023. A separate search was conducted for primary studies from the last 5 years not yet included in systematic reviews reporting the association from January 2016 to March 2021. RESULTS: The electronic searches identified 1966 review titles. After the removal of 493 duplicates, 1475 titles and abstracts were screened against the eligibility criteria. Full-text screening yielded six systematic reviews to be included in this review. The search for primary studies in the last 5 years yielded 1214 hits, out of which 5 studies were found suitable for inclusion. Three of them, that were not included in the systematic reviews, and have been summarised in this paper. The odds ratios (ORs) for the outcome of asthma in offspring of mothers with prenatal paracetamol consumption in any trimester were 1.28 (1.13-1.39) and 1.21 (1.02-1.44). For first trimester exposures, they were 1.12 (0.99-1.27), 1.39 (1.01-1.91), and 1.21 (1.14-1.28), for the second or third trimester, they were 1.49 (1.37-1.63) and 1.13 (1.04-1.23). For the third trimester only, the figure was 1.17 (1.04-1.31). Of the six reviews included, 1 had a low risk of bias, 2 had an unclear risk while 3 had a high risk of bias assessed using the ROBIS tool. There was no significant increased risk of asthma with early infancy exposure. The inter-study heterogeneity varied from I2 = 41% to I2 = 76% across reviews. In the primary studies, the OR for prenatal exposure ranged from 1.12 (0.25-4.98) to 4.66 (1.92-11.3) and for infancy exposure was 1.56 (1.06-2.30). All three included primary studies were adjudged to be of high quality using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. CONCLUSIONS: There is a modest association between paracetamol exposure in-utero and the future development of asthma. Exposure in infancy has a less consistant association. All the studies done thus far are observational in nature, with their inherent biases. Further research, preferably randomized controlled trials are recommended to answer this pertinent question.

12.
Indian Pediatr ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183469

RESUMO

Systematic reviews involve the application of scientific methods to reduce bias in review of literature. The key components of a systematic review are a well-defined research question, comprehensive literature search to identify all studies that potentially address the question, systematic assembly of the studies that answer the question, critical appraisal of the methodological quality of the included studies, data extraction and analysis (with and without statistics), and considerations towards applicability of the evidence generated in a systematic review. These key features can be remembered as six 'A'; Ask, Access, Assimilate, Appraise, Analyze and Apply. Meta-analysis is a statistical tool that provides pooled estimates of effect from the data extracted from individual studies in the systematic review. The graphical output of meta-analysis is a forest plot which provides information on individual studies and the pooled effect. Systematic reviews of literature can be undertaken for all types of questions, and all types of study designs. This article highlights the key features of systematic reviews, and is designed to help readers understand and interpret them. It can also help to serve as a beginner's guide for both users and producers of systematic reviews and to appreciate some of its methodological issues.

13.
Indian J Pediatr ; 88(8): 743-744, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097236
14.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(8): 2668-2675, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic role of chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating empyema in children with specific indications. METHODS: Nineteen children (5-16 years) with a diagnosis of empyema were enrolled in this prospective study from January 2018 to February 2020. MRI and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest was performed within 48 h of each other. Two pediatric radiologists independently evaluated the MRI and CT images for the presence of fluid and air in the pleural cavity, septations within the fluid, pleural thickening, pleural enhancement, drainage tube tip localization, consolidation, and lymphadenopathy. Kappa test of agreement was used to determine the agreement between the MRI and MDCT findings. Chance-corrected kappa statistics were used for calculating the interobserver variation. RESULTS: The kappa test showed almost perfect agreement (κ = 1) between MRI and MDCT for detecting fluid, pleural thickening, pleural enhancement, drainage tube tip localization, consolidation, and lymphadenopathy. Septations within the fluid were detected in 16 (84.2%) patients on MRI, and in 14 (73.7%) patients on MDCT. Almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.81-1.00) was seen for all the findings on CT and MRI between the two radiologists, except for pleural thickening for which a strong agreement (κ = 0.642) was observed. CONCLUSION: MRI is comparable to MDCT for the detection of various findings in children with empyema. MRI may be considered in lieu of CT, as a problem-solving tool and as a radiation-reducing endeavor in children with empyema, specifically, only where CT is required for preoperative planning and evaluation of complications.

15.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 135: 182-186, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836255

RESUMO

Published research on COVID-19 is increasing rapidly and integrated in guidelines. The trustworthiness of guidelines can vary depending on the methods used to assemble and evaluate the evidence, the completeness and transparency of reporting on the process undertaken and how conflicts of interest are addressed. With a global consortium of partners and collaborators, we have created a catalogue of COVID-19 recommendations as our direct response to the increased need for structured access to high quality guidance in the field. The COVID19 map of recommendations and gateway to contextualization (https://covid19.recmap.org) is a living project: emerging guideline literature is added on an ongoing basis, allowing granular access to individual recommendations. Building on prior work on mapping recommendations for the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines, a novel feature of this map is the self-directed contextualization of the recommendations using the GRADE-Adolopment approach to adopt, adapt or synthesize de novo recommendations for context specific questions. Through our map, stakeholders access the evidence underpinning a recommendation, select what needs to be contextualized and go through the steps of development of adapted recommendations. This one-stop shop portal of evidence-informed recommendations, built with intuitive functionalities, easy to navigate and with a support team ready to guide users across the maps, represents a long-needed tool for decision-makers, guideline developers and the public at large.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Política de Saúde , Internacionalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2169-2176, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic utility of MDCT in the evaluation of persistent stridor in children for the underlying large airway causes and benefit of additional findings. METHODS: All consecutive pediatric patients who underwent MDCT for the evaluation of persistent stridor from December 2018 to February 2020 were included. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed MDCT studies for the presence of abnormalities at six large airway levels: (1) nasopharynx, (2) oropharynx, (3) glottis, (4) subglottis, (5) trachea, and (6) mainstem bronchi. In addition, studies were evaluated for the presence of non-airway abnormalities. Interobserver agreement between two reviewers was evaluated with kappa statistics. RESULTS: There were a total of 40 pediatric patients (age range: 1 day-4 years. MDCT detected large airway abnormalities in 20 (50%) out of 40 patients, including 4 (20%) in nasopharynx, 4 (20%) in glottis, 4 (20%) in trachea, 3 (15%) in subglottis, 3 (15%) in mainstem bronchi, and 2 (10%) in oropharynx. Non-airway abnormalities were seen in 13 (32.5%) children, including 9 (69%) in the lungs, 3 (23%) in the soft tissue, and 1 (8%) in the bone. The remaining 7 (17.5%) studies were normal. There was excellent interobserver agreement seen for detecting large airway and non-airway abnormalities (k > 0.90). CONCLUSION: MDCT has high diagnostic utility in diagnosing large airway causes of persistent stridor in children. It can also provide additional information regarding non-airway abnormalities. Therefore, MDCT has the potential to be utilized as a noninvasive problem-solving imaging modality in pediatric patients with persistent stridor.

18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(4): e166-e169, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710984

RESUMO

Two children developed fibrosing mediastinitis following past tuberculosis disease. Both were microbiologically negative for tuberculosis at presentation. One was treated with steroids and supportive therapy, but developed active tuberculosis with complications. He ultimately succumbed to healthcare-associated infection. The other recovered with steroids, administered along with antituberculosis treatment.

20.
Indian J Pediatr ; 88(10): 979-984, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcome of hospitalized children with COVID-19 during the initial phase of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the dedicated COVID-19 hospital of a tertiary care referral center in North India. Consecutive children aged 14 y or younger who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swab between 1 April 2020 and 15 July 2020 were included. RESULTS: Of 31 children with median (IQR) age of 33 (9-96) mo, 9 (29%) were infants. About 74% (n = 23) had history of household contact. Comorbidities were noted in 6 (19%) children. More than half (58%) were asymptomatic. Of 13 symptomatic children, median (IQR) duration of symptoms was 2 (1-5.5) d. Fever (32%) was most common followed by cough (19%), rapid breathing (13%), diarrhea (10%) and vomiting (10%). Severe [n = 4, 13%] and critical [n = 1, 3%] illnesses were noted more commonly in infants with comorbidities. Three (10%) children required PICU admission and invasive ventilation; one died. Median (IQR) length of hospital stay was 15 (11-20) d. Follow up RT-PCR before discharge was performed in 17 children and the median (IQR) duration to RT-PCR negativity was 16 (12-19) d. CONCLUSIONS: In the early pandemic, most children with COVID-19 had a household contact and presented with asymptomatic or mild illness. Severe and critical illness were observed in young infants and those with comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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