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1.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(1): e26011, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence is suggesting a significant association between the COVID-19 pandemic and population-level mental health. Study findings suggest that individuals with a lifetime history of disordered eating behavior may be negatively affected by COVID-19-related anxiety, and prevention measures may disrupt daily functioning and limit access to treatment. However, data describing the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on disordered eating behaviors are limited, and most findings focus on individuals in treatment settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to characterize the experiences of Reddit users worldwide who post in eating disorder (ED)-related discussion forums describing the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on their overall mental health and disordered eating behavior. METHODS: Data were collected from popular subreddits acknowledging EDs as their primary discussion topic. Unique discussion posts dated from January 1 to May 31, 2020 that referenced the COVID-19 pandemic were extracted and evaluated using inductive, thematic data analysis. RESULTS: Six primary themes were identified: change in ED symptoms, change in exercise routine, impact of quarantine on daily life, emotional well-being, help-seeking behavior, and associated risks and health outcomes. The majority of users reported that the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health prevention measures negatively impacted their psychiatric health and contributed to increased disordered eating behaviors. Feelings of isolation, frustration, and anxiety were common. Many individuals used Reddit forums to share personal experiences, seek advice, and offer shared accountability. CONCLUSIONS: Reddit discussion forums have provided a therapeutic community for individuals to share experiences and provide support for peers with ED during a period of increased psychiatric distress. Future research is needed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on disordered eating behavior and to evaluate the role of social media discussion forums in mental health treatment, especially during periods of limited treatment access.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 134: 15-21, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360440

RESUMO

Hoarding behaviors are positively associated with medical morbidity, however, current prevalence estimates and types of medical conditions associated with hoarding vary. This analysis aims to quantify the medical morbidity of hoarding disorder (HD). Cross-sectional data were collected online using the Brain Health Registry (BHR). Among 20,745 participants who completed the Hoarding and Clutter and Medical History thematic modules, 1348 had HD (6.5%), 1268 had subclinical HD (6.1%), and 18,829 did not meet hoarding criteria (87.4%). Individuals with HD were more likely to report a lifetime history of cardiovascular/metabolic conditions: diabetes (HD adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI):[1.20, 1.91]; subclinical HD AOR:1.24, 95% CI:[0.95, 1.61]), and hypercholesterolemia (HD AOR:1.24, 95% CI:[1.06, 1.46]; subclinical HD AOR:1.11, 95% CI:[0.94, 1.31]). Those with HD and subclinical HD were also more to report chronic pain (HD AOR: 1.69, 95% CI:[1.44, 1.98]; subclinical HD AOR: 1.44, 95% CI:[1.22, 1.69]), and sleep apnea (HD AOR: 1.58, 95% CI:[1.31, 1.89]; subclinical HD AOR:1.30, 95% CI:[1.07, 1.58]) than non-HD participants. For most conditions, likelihood of diagnosis did not differ between HD and subclinical HD. Structural equation modeling revealed that more severe hoarding symptomatology was independently associated with increased cardiovascular/metabolic vulnerability. The assessment and management of medical complications in individuals with HD is a fundamental component in improving quality of life, longevity, and overall physical health outcomes.

3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166056

RESUMO

Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing is a tool to identify patients at a higher risk of adverse events or treatment failure. The concern for unwanted side effects can limit medication adherence, particularly in children and adolescents. We conducted a pragmatic study to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility and gather pilot data on the utility of PGx testing in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. Both physicians and families participated in the study and answered pre-survey and post-survey questionnaires to examine their attitudes toward PGx testing. Patients were randomized into implementation (N = 25) and control groups (N = 24) and underwent PGx testing at the beginning or end of the study, respectively. Clinical consult notes with genotype-guided recommendations were provided to physicians for their consideration in clinical decisions. Patient-reported symptom severity and antidepressant-related side effects were assessed at baseline and for 12 weeks. Both participating physicians and families agreed that PGx testing is a useful tool to improve medication selection. The time from sample collection to having PGx test results was ~ 10 days and 15 days to having consult notes available, which may have impaired test utility in clinical decision making. There were no differences in any clinical end point between the implementation and control arms; however, there were higher antidepressant side effect scores for CYP2D6 poor and intermediate metabolizers after the eighth week of treatment. Our findings revealed benefits and pitfalls with the use of PGx testing in the real-world clinical setting, which may inform the methodology of a larger trial focused on outcomes.

4.
Psychiatry Res ; 294: 113505, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070108

RESUMO

The Hoarding Rating Scale, Self Report (HRS-SR) is a 5-item assessment developed to ascertain the presence and severity of hoarding symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of an online adaptation of the HRS-SR in a remote, unsupervised internet sample of 23,214 members of the Brain Health Registry (BHR), an online research registry that evaluates and longitudinally monitors cognition, medical and psychiatric health status. Convergent validity was assessed among a sub-sample of 1,183 participants who completed additional, remote measures of self-reported hoarding behaviors. Structured clinical interviews conducted in-clinic and via video conferencing tools were conducted among 230 BHR participants; ROC curves were plotted to assess the diagnostic performance of the internet-based HRS-SR using best estimate hoarding disorder (HD) diagnoses as the gold standard. The area under the curve indicated near-perfect model accuracy, and was confirmed with 10-fold cross validation. Sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing clinically relevant hoarding were optimized using an HRS-SR total score cut-off of 5. Longitudinal analyses indicated stability of HRS-SR scores over time. Findings indicate that the internet-based HRS-SR is a useful and valid assessment of hoarding symptoms, though additional research using samples with more diverse hoarding behavior is needed to validate optimal cut-off values.

5.
Psychophysiology ; : e13711, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128481

RESUMO

Individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) typically perform worse than peers on neuropsychological tasks involving visual perception. Functional neuroimaging shows diffusely increased activity in the visual cortex, consistent with inefficient visual processing in HD. The temporal locus of these inefficiencies in HD is unknown. This study examined the temporal unfolding of visual event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to help better define the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying visual dysfunction in HD. Thirty-three individuals with HD and 35 healthy controls (HC) were assessed using a 64-channel EEG during a modified flanker task. Permutation-controlled analyses were conducted to detect group differences in visual evoked ERPs on a millisecond-to-millisecond basis. Bayesian ANCOVAs and linear regressions that included hoarding and age were conducted to identify the best-fit model for the identified VEPs, compared to a null model that included depression and anxiety severity. Three temporal regions (175 ms, 270 ms, and 440 ms), showed differences in amplitude between HD and HC and were consistent with ERP components N1, P1/N2, and a late negative slow wave (LNSW), respectively. After controlling for depression and anxiety, HD demonstrated an enhanced ERP amplitude at N1 and an attenuated amplitude in LNSW compared to HC but did not show differences at P1/N2. For the N1 and LNSW, there was also a primary effect of the interaction between hoarding and age. This study indicates that altered visuocortical reactivity in HD first occurs at the level of visuocortical processing after 170 ms, indicating alterations of middle and later, but not early, processing in occipitotemporal visual cortex.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 121, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341337

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in the population have been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in genetic and epidemiological studies. Insulin signaling has been implicated in OCD. We extend previous work by assessing genetic overlap between OCD, population-based OCS, and central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral insulin signaling. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in the population-based Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC, 650 children and adolescents) of the total OCS score and six OCS factors from an exploratory factor analysis of 22 questions. Subsequently, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS)-based analysis to assess shared genetic etiologies between clinical OCD (using GWAS data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium), the total OCS score and OCS factors. We then performed gene-set analyses with a set of OCD-linked genes centered around CNS insulin-regulated synaptic function and PRS-based analyses for five peripheral insulin signaling-related traits. For validation purposes, we explored data from the independent Spit for Science population cohort (5,047 children and adolescents). In the PNC, we found a significant shared genetic etiology between OCD and 'guilty taboo thoughts'. In the Spit for Science cohort, we additionally observed genetic sharing between 'symmetry/counting/ordering' and 'contamination/cleaning'. The CNS insulin-linked gene-set also associated with 'symmetry/counting/ordering' in the PNC. Further, we identified genetic sharing between peripheral insulin signaling-related traits: type 2 diabetes with 'aggressive taboo thoughts', and levels of fasting insulin and 2 h glucose with OCD. In conclusion, OCD, OCS in the population and insulin-related traits share genetic risk factors, indicating a common etiological mechanism underlying somatic and psychiatric disorders.

8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 209: 107907, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disordered eating behaviors are associated with non-medical use of prescription stimulants for weight and appetite-related purposes. Yet, estimates of the prevalence and types of disordered eating associated with non-medical use vary. Additionally, little is known about the association between medical use of prescription stimulants and disordered eating. METHOD: Data were collected from 87,296 college students at 127 institutions that participated in the Healthy Minds Study. We assessed the relationship between disordered eating, medical and nonmedical prescription stimulant use using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, lifestyle and behavioral factors, and psychiatric comorbidity. RESULTS: Non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) was reported by 2.8 % n = 2435 of the sample. One-third of students using prescription stimulants non-medically reported two or more disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Disordered eating was a significant predictor of non-medical, but not medical use of prescription stimulants. A dose-response relationship was identified between disordered eating and non-medical use, where risk for non-medical use increased with the number of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors reported. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for NMUPS increases with disordered eating symptomatology. There is a need to assess for NMUPS among college students presenting with disordered eating.

9.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 59(1): 1-21, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hoarding disorder (HD) was recognized as a psychiatric disorder in 2013. Existing literature suggests room for improvement in its treatment. The current pilot study aimed to provide an initial evaluation on the potential of compassion-focused therapy (CFT) as an intervention for HD, with the primary aim being assessing its feasibility and acceptability, and the secondary being evaluating its effects. DESIGN: Both CFT and a second round of the current standard of treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) were investigated in the current study as follow-up treatment options for individuals who had completed CBT but were still significantly symptomatic. METHODS: Forty eligible individuals were enrolled (20 in each treatment). Treatment feasibility and acceptability were assessed by quantitative and qualitative measures. To explore treatment effects, HD symptom severity, HD-related dysfunctions, and their underlying mechanisms were assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment. RESULTS: Retention rates were 72% for CFT and 37% for CBT. All participants and 79% of the participants rated CFT and CBT, respectively, as good or excellent. After receiving CFT as a follow-up treatment, HD symptom severity dropped below the cut-off point for clinically significant HD for 77% of the treatment completers, and 62% achieved clinically significant reduction in symptom severity. In contrast, after completing a second course of CBT, 23% had HD symptom severity dropped below the cut-off threshold, and 29% achieved clinically significant symptom reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed satisfactory feasibility and acceptability of CFT. Moreover, it also found promising effects of CFT in addressing hoarding-related mechanisms that may not have been sufficiently addressed by CBT. The results suggest promising potential of CFT as a treatment for HD. Further investigation on this intervention is needed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: CFT may be a promising treatment option, particularly for those who do not respond well to CBT. Improving emotion regulation and negative self-perception by applying CFT interventions may help relieve hoarding symptoms. Generalization of the findings should be applied with caution given the small convenience sample of the current study. Statistical comparison on treatment effect measures between CFT and CBT as follow-up treatments was not available due to small sample size. Therefore, the comparative conclusions based on this pilot study should be made with caution.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Empatia/fisiologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(9): 2036-2046, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087453

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and likely to share genetic risk factors. Hence, we examine their shared genetic background using a cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis of 3495 AN cases, 2688 OCD cases, and 18,013 controls. We confirmed a high genetic correlation between AN and OCD (rg = 0.49 ± 0.13, p = 9.07 × 10-7) and a sizable SNP heritability (SNP h2 = 0.21 ± 0.02) for the cross-disorder phenotype. Although no individual loci reached genome-wide significance, the cross-disorder phenotype showed strong positive genetic correlations with other psychiatric phenotypes (e.g., rg = 0.36 with bipolar disorder and 0.34 with neuroticism) and negative genetic correlations with metabolic phenotypes (e.g., rg = -0.25 with body mass index and -0.20 with triglycerides). Follow-up analyses revealed that although AN and OCD overlap heavily in their shared risk with other psychiatric phenotypes, the relationship with metabolic and anthropometric traits is markedly stronger for AN than for OCD. We further tested whether shared genetic risk for AN/OCD was associated with particular tissue or cell-type gene expression patterns and found that the basal ganglia and medium spiny neurons were most enriched for AN-OCD risk, consistent with neurobiological findings for both disorders. Our results confirm and extend genetic epidemiological findings of shared risk between AN and OCD and suggest that larger GWASs are warranted.

11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 165: 123-153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727209

RESUMO

A combination of motor and phonic tics is the hallmark of Tourette syndrome (TS). This complex neuropsychiatric disorder is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first step in management is to establish the diagnosis of TS, avoiding potential diagnostic confounders (such as compulsions, stereotypies, or habits). Once a diagnosis of TS is made, a discussion with the patient and family about the level of impairment and presence or absence of comorbidities will guide the decision and choice of treatment. Not every patient with TS will need active treatment. When needed, active treatment falls into one of the following three categories: behavioral, pharmacologic, and nonpharmacologic. This chapter summarizes and reviews the evidence base supporting these treatments. It also discusses the evidence base and approach to the treatment of common psychiatric comorbidities. A treatment algorithm based on published data and expert consensus is proposed.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Tourette/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Tourette/terapia , Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Transtornos de Tique/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Tique/psicologia , Transtornos de Tique/terapia , Síndrome de Tourette/psicologia
12.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(6): 552-564, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958911

RESUMO

Hoarding disorder is present in 2-6% of the population and can have an immense impact on the lives of patients and their families. Before its inclusion the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, pathological hoarding was often characterized as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and several different diagnostic assessment methods were used to identify and characterize it. Although the age of onset of pathological hoarding is an important epidemiological measure, as clarifying the age of onset of hoarding symptoms may allow for early identification and implementation of evidence-based treatments before symptoms become clinically significant, the typical age of onset of hoarding is still uncertain. To that end, this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of research published in English between the years 1900 and 2016 containing information on age of onset of hoarding symptoms. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. The mean age of onset of hoarding symptoms across studies was 16.7 years old, with evidence of a bimodal distribution of onset. The authors conclude by discussing practice implications for early identification and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Acumulação/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Transtorno de Acumulação/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Acumulação/terapia , Humanos , Incerteza
13.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2264-2274, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926959

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Incorporating a patient's genotype into the clinical decision-making process is one approach to precision medicine. The University of Florida (UF) Health Precision Medicine Program is a pharmacist-led multidisciplinary effort that has led the clinical implementation of six gene-drug(s) pairs to date. This study focuses on the challenges encountered and lessons learned with implementing pharmacogenetic testing for three of these: CYP2D6-opioids, CYP2D6/CYP2C19-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and CYP2C19-proton pump inhibitors within six pragmatic clinical trials at UF Health and partners. METHODS: We compared common measures collected within each of the pharmacogenetic implementations as well as solicited feedback from stakeholders to identify challenges, successes, and lessons learned. RESULTS: We identified several challenges related to trial design and implementation, and learned valuable lessons. Most notably, case discussions are effective for prescriber education, prescribers need clear concise guidance on genotype-based actions, having genotype results available at the time of the patient-prescriber encounter helps optimize the ability to act on them, children prefer noninvasive sample collection, and study participants are willing to answer patient-reported outcomes questionnaires if they are not overly burdensome, among others. CONCLUSION: The lessons learned from implementing three gene-drug pairs in ambulatory care settings will help shape future pharmacogenetic clinical trials and clinical implementations.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Florida , Genótipo , Humanos
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 120, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902966

RESUMO

There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as its underlying neurocircuitry. However, the mechanisms by which genetic variation that increases risk for TS-and its main symptom dimensions-influence relevant brain regions are poorly understood. Here we undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between TS genetic risk and genetic influences on the volume of specific subcortical brain structures that have been implicated in TS. We obtained summary statistics for the most recent TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the TS Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Group (4644 cases and 8695 controls) and GWAS of subcortical volumes from the ENIGMA consortium (30,717 individuals). We also undertook analyses using GWAS summary statistics of key symptom factors in TS, namely social disinhibition and symmetry behaviour. SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to examine genetic pleiotropy-the same SNP affecting two traits-and concordance-the agreement in single nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) effect directions across these two traits. In addition, a conditional false discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed, conditioning the TS risk variants on each of the seven subcortical and the intracranial brain volume GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was used as validation of the SECA method. SECA revealed significant pleiotropy between TS and putamen (p = 2 × 10-4) and caudate (p = 4 × 10-4) volumes, independent of direction of effect, and significant concordance between TS and lower thalamic volume (p = 1 × 10-3). LDSR lent additional support for the association between TS and thalamus volume (p = 5.85 × 10-2). Furthermore, SECA revealed significant evidence of concordance between the social disinhibition symptom dimension and lower thalamus volume (p = 1 × 10-3), as well as concordance between symmetry behaviour and greater putamen volume (p = 7 × 10-4). Conditional FDR analysis further revealed novel variants significantly associated with TS (p < 8 × 10-7) when conditioning on intracranial (rs2708146, q = 0.046; and rs72853320, q = 0.035) and hippocampal (rs1922786, q = 0.001) volumes, respectively. These data indicate concordance for genetic variation involved in disorder risk and subcortical brain volumes in TS. Further work with larger samples is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/patologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Putamen/patologia , Síndrome de Tourette/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia
15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(4): 298-304, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) has a well-established genetic background, but its genetic architecture remains largely unknown. The authors investigated the role of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from a TS genome-wide association study in relation to the occurrence of tics and associated traits in a general population cohort. METHODS: Using the most recent TS genome-wide association study (n = 4819 cases; n = 9488 controls) as the discovery sample, PRSs were calculated in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children participants (n = 8941). Regression analyses were used to assess whether PRS predicted the presence and chronicity of tics, and symptom severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children participants. RESULTS: Following correction for multiple testing, the PRS significantly predicted the presence (R2 = .48%, p empirical = .01, Q = .04) but not the chronicity (R2 = .16%, p empirical = .07, Q = .14) of tics in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort; it did not predict the severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (R2 = .11%, p empirical = .11, Q = .15), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (R2 = .09%, p empirical = .19, Q = .21), or autism spectrum disorder (R2 = .12%, p empirical = .09, Q = .14). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found a significant polygenic component of tics occurring in a general population cohort based on PRS derived from a genome-wide association study of individuals with a TS diagnosis. This finding supports the notion that tics along a spectrum from nonclinical to clinical symptom levels share a similar genetic background.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Transtornos de Tique/genética , Síndrome de Tourette/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Fenótipo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 12: 169-175, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480164

RESUMO

This study compares the effectiveness of approaches used to recruit a diverse sample for a randomized clinical trial for Hoarding Disorder (HD) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of the 632 individuals who inquired about the study, 313 were randomized and 231 completed treatment. Most participants heard about the study via flyering (N = 161), followed by advocacy groups (N = 113), word of mouth (N = 84), health care professionals (N = 78), online (N = 68), and media (N = 11). However, those that heard about the study via advertising methods, such as flyers, were less likely to complete the study, p = .01, while those recruited via advocacy groups were most likely to be randomized, p = .03. No source proved more effective in recruiting underrepresented groups such as men, p = .60; non-whites, p = .49; or Hispanics, p = .97. Advertising recruited the youngest individuals, p < 0.001, and word of mouth was most likely to recruit unemployed, disabled, or retired individuals, p = .01. Thus, results suggest an ongoing multimodal approach is likely to be most effective in both soliciting and retaining a diverse sample. Future studies should compare recruitment methods across greater geographical regions too, as well as in terms of financial and human costs.

18.
Cell Rep ; 24(13): 3441-3454.e12, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257206

RESUMO

We previously established the contribution of de novo damaging sequence variants to Tourette disorder (TD) through whole-exome sequencing of 511 trios. Here, we sequence an additional 291 TD trios and analyze the combined set of 802 trios. We observe an overrepresentation of de novo damaging variants in simplex, but not multiplex, families; we identify a high-confidence TD risk gene, CELSR3 (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3); we find that the genes mutated in TD patients are enriched for those related to cell polarity, suggesting a common pathway underlying pathobiology; and we confirm a statistically significant excess of de novo copy number variants in TD. Finally, we identify significant overlap of de novo sequence variants between TD and obsessive-compulsive disorder and de novo copy number variants between TD and autism spectrum disorder, consistent with shared genetic risk.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Síndrome de Tourette/genética , Adulto , Polaridade Celular , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome de Tourette/patologia
19.
BJPsych Open ; 4(4): 285-293, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083381

RESUMO

Background: Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas. Aims: We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive-behavioural therapy (G-CBT). Method: We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3-25). Predictors of treatment response were examined. Results: G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = -1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004). Conclusions: Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals. Declaration of interest: C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers' honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 268: 157-164, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029063

RESUMO

Hoarding disorder (HD) has been hypothesized to arise from deficits in error monitoring and abnormalities in emotional processing, but the relationship between error monitoring and emotional processing has not been examined. We examined measures of self-report, as well as behavioral, physiological, and facial responses to errors during a Stop-Change Task. 25 participants with HD and 32 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Participants reported on number of errors committed and pre/post emotional response to errors. Skin conductance response (SCR) during correct and error commission trials was examined. Facial expression during task performance was coded for self-conscious and negative emotions. HD and HC participants had significantly different error rates but comparable error correction and post-error slowing. SCR was significantly lower for HD during error commission than for HC. During error trials, HD participants showed a significant deficit in displays of self-conscious emotions compared to HC. Self-reported emotions were increased in HD, with more negative and self-conscious emotion reported than was reported for HC participants. These findings suggest that hypoactive emotional responding at a physiological level may play a role in how errors are processed in individuals with HD.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Idoso , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Transtorno de Acumulação/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
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