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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469251

RESUMO

We thank Melki et al for their interest in our work on Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) assessment in Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). In their correspondence, they show that IFN-α protein measurement by digital ELISA is also correlated with disease activity in other interferon-dependent autoimmune diseases, juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIM). Since Interferons (IFNs), and especially IFN-α, are involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as SLE, myositis, Sjögren syndrome and systemic sclerosis, monitoring their presence in the circulation of patients might help physicians to better evaluate disease activity and/or to predict future flares. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2299-2302, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444663

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is often associated with mild to moderate thrombocytosis, and iron deficiency-associated thrombocytopenia (IDAT) is much more uncommon and often misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). To better describe the features of IDAT, we conducted a retrospective multicenter case-control study. We identified 10 patients (9 women) with a definite diagnosis IDAT, with a median age of 43.5 [range, 16-72] years and a median platelet count of 30.5 × 109/L [range, 21-80], and 7 patients with a possible diagnosis of IDAT. Bleeding manifestations were absent in all patients but one. All the patients recovered (platelet count ≥ 150 × 109/L) upon iron therapy ± red blood cell transfusion after a median time of 6 [4-39] days. When compared with 30 randomly newly diagnosed ITP patients matched on age, the baseline platelet count was significantly lower in ITP (median = 7 × 109/L [4-59], p < 0.001) whereas MPV was higher (10.5 fL [9,4-13,8] vs 8.2 fL, for IDAT p < 0.001). The median platelet count on day 7 was 337 × 109/L [113-1000] for IDAT cases vs 72 × 109/L [13-212] for ITP controls (p < 0.001). IDAT is potentially an under-recognized cause of thrombocytopenia that may be easily managed with iron therapy.

3.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common feature of mixed connective tissue disease. However, many patients do not meet the criteria for mixed connective tissue disease and thus may be diagnosed as interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features. The aim of this study was to characterize ILD associated with anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies. METHODS: Chest computed tomography scans of patients with anti-RNP antibody who were seen between January 2011 and October 2015 were reviewed. The underlying disease was classified with international criteria using clinical and serological features. RESULTS: Among 544 patients with anti-RNP antibodies, 188 had a chest computed tomography scan, and 48 (26%) of them had radiological features of ILD. The presence of ILD was significantly associated with dyspnea, crackles, arthritis, Raynaud phenomenon, myositis, and sicca syndrome. The most frequent pattern was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 39 patients (81%). Among patients with ILD, 17 (35%) had a radiological pattern consisting of cysts and ground-glass attenuation not fulfilling the lymphoid interstitial pneumonia criteria. In 3 patients, cysts were related to fibrosis; in 14 patients, cysts corresponded to an original ILD pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial lung disease was found in 26% of patients with anti-RNP antibodies independently of the underlying disease. Anti-RNP-associated ILD mainly corresponds to nonspecific interstitial pneumonia or an original pattern consisting of cysts and ground-glass attenuation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal biopsy is the cornerstone of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy management. However, transcutaneous renal biopsy (TCRB) is hampered by the antithrombotic treatment frequently prescribed for those diseases. Transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) offers an attractive alternative for patients at increased risk of bleeding. The primary objective of the study was to describe the safety profile and diagnostic performance of TJRB in SLE and APS patients. METHODS: All SLE and/or APS patients who underwent a renal biopsy in our department (between January 2004 and October 2016) were retrospectively reviewed. Major complications were death, haemostasis nephrectomy, renal artery embolization, red blood cell transfusion, sepsis and vascular thrombosis; macroscopic haematuria, symptomatic perirenal/retroperitoneal bleeding and renal arteriovenous fistula without artery embolization were considered as minor complications. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-six TJRBs-119 without antithrombotics (untreated), 69 under aspirin and 68 on anticoagulants and 54 TCRBs without antithrombotics-were analysed. Their major and minor complication rates, respectively, did not differ significantly for the four groups: 0 and 8% for untreated TJRBs, 1 and 6% for aspirin-treated, 6 and 10% for anticoagulant-treated and 2 and 2% for TCRBs. The number of glomeruli sampled and the biopsy contribution to establishing a histological diagnosis was similar for the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: TJRBs obtained from SLE and APS patients taking antithrombotics had diagnostic yields and safety profiles similar to those of untreated TCRBs. Thus, TJRB should be considered for SLE and APS patients at risk of bleeding.

7.
J Autoimmun ; 103: 102292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), the most severe manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is characterised by simultaneous thromboses in multiple organs. Diagnosing CAPS can be challenging but its early recognition and management is crucial for a favourable outcome. This study was undertaken to evaluate the frequencies, distributions and ability to predict mortality of "definite/probable" or "no-CAPS" categories of thrombotic APS patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This French national multicentre retrospective study, conducted from January 2000 to September 2018, included all APS patients with any new thrombotic manifestation(s) admitted to 24 ICUs. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (male/female ratio: 0.4; mean age at admission: 45.4 ±â€¯15.0 years), who experienced 152 CAPS episodes, required ICU admission. The numbers of definite, probable or no-CAPS episodes, respectively, were: 11 (7.2%), 60 (39.5%) and 81 (53.3%). No histopathological proof of microvascular thrombosis was the most frequent reason for not being classified as definite CAPS. Overall, 35/152 (23.0%) episodes were fatal, with comparable rates for definite/probable CAPS and no CAPS (23% vs. 28.8% respectively, p = 0.4). The Kaplan-Meier curve of estimated probability of survival showed no between-group survival difference (log-rank test p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, CAPS criteria were not associated with mortality of thrombotic APS patients requiring ICU admission. Further studies are need evaluate the adequacy of CAPS criteria for critically-ill APS patients.

8.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1073-1078, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infliximab is increasingly used to treat neurosarcoidosis. We aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerance of an infliximab biosimilar for treating neurosarcoidosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study to describe the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of an infliximab biosimilar in neurosarcoidosis patients. We compared the survival time without relapse while receiving the biosimilar or previous originator-infliximab treatment. RESULTS: Twenty patients with histologically documented neurosarcoidosis were treated with an infliximab biosimilar (initiation of treatment in 12 and switch from the originator drug in 8) between February 2016 and August 2018. All patients presenting with neurological involvement of one or more areas, including meningeal (n = 15), cerebral (n = 10), spinal cord (n = 9), and/or cranial nerves (n = 5); epilepsy (n = 3); and/or intracranial hypertension (n = 3) were enrolled. Eighteen patients received glucocorticoids during infliximab treatment, and 16 had methotrexate or azathioprine concomitant treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 25 months (19-28). Six patients relapsed during biosimilar treatment. Relapse rates and time-to-relapse did not differ between the infliximab originator previously received and biosimilar treatment groups (p = 0.40 and 0.51, respectively). Nine patients experienced 11 adverse events with the infliximab biosimilar, including infections (n = 5), urticaria (n = 4), headache (n = 1), and diarrhea (n = 1). All side effects were grade 2 or less using the WHO classification. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, the infliximab biosimilar was efficacious and safe for treating neurosarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Crit Care Med ; 47(3): 386-392, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transvenous renal biopsy is an alternative way to obtain kidney samples from patients with bleeding risk factors (e.g., antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation or coagulation disorders). This study was undertaken to determine the safety and diagnostic yield of transvenous renal biopsy of critically ill patients. DESIGN: Monocenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: A 26-bed French tertiary ICU. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing in-ICU transvenous renal biopsy between January 2002 and February 2018. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighty patients (male/female sex ratio, 0.95; mean ± SD age, 47.3 ± 18.3 yr) were included. A histologic diagnosis was obtained for 77 patients (96.3%), with acute tubular necrosis being the most frequent: 23 (29.9%). A potentially treatable cause was found for 47 patients (58.7%). The numbers of patients with 0, 1, 2, or 3 factors (i.e., antiplatelet therapy, thrombopenia [< 150 G/L], and preventive or curative anticoagulation) at the time of the biopsy were, respectively: seven (8.8%), 37 (46.2%), 31 (38.7%), and five (6.3%). Four (5%) and two (2.5%) patients, respectively, had renal hematoma and macroscopic hematuria; none required any specific treatment. Six patients (7.5%) died in-ICU, and 90-day mortality was 8 of 80 (10%). No death was related to transvenous renal biopsy, and median biopsy-to-death interval was 38 days (interquartile range, 19.7-86 d). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this cohort of ICU patients with acute kidney injury, transvenous renal biopsy was safe and obtained a high diagnostic yield for these selected critically ill patients, even in the presence of multiple bleeding risk factors.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1575-1585.e4, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commensals induce local IgA responses essential to the induction of tolerance to gut microbiota, but it remains unclear whether antimicrobiota responses remain confined to the gut. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate systemic and intestinal responses against the whole microbiota under homeostatic conditions and in the absence of IgA. METHODS: We analyzed blood and feces from healthy donors, patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAd), and patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Immunoglobulin-coated bacterial repertoires were analyzed by using combined bacterial fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacterial lysates were probed by using Western blot analysis with healthy donor sera. RESULTS: Although absent from the healthy gut, serum antimicrobiota IgG are present in healthy subjects and increased in patients with SIgAd. IgG converges with nonoverlapping secretory IgA specificities to target the same bacteria. Each individual subject targets a diverse microbiota repertoire with a proportion that correlates inversely with systemic inflammation. Finally, intravenous immunoglobulin preparations target CVID gut microbiota much less efficiently than healthy microbiota. CONCLUSION: Secretory IgA and systemic IgG converge to target gut microbiota at the cellular level. SIgAd-associated inflammation is inversely correlated with systemic anticommensal IgG responses, which might serve as a second line of defense. We speculate that patients with SIgAd could benefit from oral IgA supplementation. Our data also suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations can be supplemented with IgG from IgA-deficient patient pools to offer better protection against gut bacterial translocations in patients with CVID.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No simple or standardized assay is available to quantify interferon-α (IFNα) in routine clinical practice. Single-molecule-array (Simoa) digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology enables direct IFNα quantification at fg/mL concentrations. This study was undertaken to assess IFNα digital ELISA diagnostic performances to monitor systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity. METHODS: IFNα concentrations in serum samples from 150 consecutive SLE patients in a cross-sectional study were determined with digital ELISA and a functional biological activity assay (bioassay). According to their SELENA-SLEDAI flare composite, patients were divided into groups with inactive (SLEDAI <4 or clinical SLEDAI =0) or active SLE (SLEDAI ≥4 or clinical SLEDAI >0), and into groups with no flare or mild/moderate flare or severe flare. RESULTS: Based on healthy blood donors, the abnormal serum-IFNα level threshold value was 136 fg/mL. Next, using receiver operating characteristics curves for an SLE-patient series, widely heterogeneous for disease activity and organ involvement, the threshold IFNα value associated with active disease was determined to be 266 fg/mL. The digital ELISA-assessed serum-IFNα level was a better biomarker of disease activity than the Farr test: its specificity, likelihood ratio for positive results and positive-predictive value better discerned active SLE or flare from inactive patients. The digital ELISA was more sensitive than the bioassay to detect low-abnormal serum-IFNα concentrations and patients with low disease activity. CONCLUSION: Direct serum-IFNα determination with a highly sensitive assay might improve monitoring of clinical SLE activity and selection of the best candidates for anti-IFNα treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000782, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402270

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan disease characterised by autoimmunity, fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, and vasculopathy. SSc may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review we summarise the results of a systematic literature research, which was performed as part of the European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases project, aimed at evaluating existing clinical practice guidelines or recommendations. Only in the domains 'Vascular & Ulcers' (ie, non-pharmacological approach to digital ulcer), 'PAH' (ie, screening and treatment), 'Treatment' and 'Juveniles' (ie, evaluation of juveniles with Raynaud's phenomenon) evidence-based and consensus-based guidelines could be included. Hence there is a preponderance of unmet needs in SSc referring to the diagnosis and (non-)pharmacological treatment of several SSc-specific complications. Patients with SSc experience significant uncertainty concerning SSc-related taxonomy, management (both pharmacological and non-pharmacological) and education. Day-to-day impact of the disease (loss of self-esteem, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, and occupational, nutritional and relational problems) is underestimated and needs evaluation.

14.
RMD Open ; 4(Suppl 1): e000788, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402273

RESUMO

Due to the rarity of relapsing polychondritis (RP), many unmet needs remain in the management of RP. Here, we present a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) published for RP, as well as a list of the most striking unmet needs for this rare disease. We carried out a systematic search in PubMed and Embase based on controlled terms (medical subject headings and Emtree) and keywords of the disease and publication type (CPGs). The systematic literature review identified 20 citations, among which no CPGs could be identified. We identified 11 main areas with unmet needs in the field of RP: the diagnosis strategy for RP; the therapeutic management of RP; the management of pregnancy in RP; the management of the disease in specific age groups (for instance in paediatric-onset RP); the evaluation of adherence to treatment; the follow-up of patients with RP, including the frequency of screening for the potential complications and the optimal imaging tools for each involved region; perioperative and anaesthetic management (due to tracheal involvement); risk of neoplasms in RP, including haematological malignancies; the prevention and management of infections; tools for assessment of disease activity and damage; and patient-reported outcomes and quality of life indicators. Patients and physicians should work together within the frame of the ReCONNET network to derive valuable evidence for obtaining literature-informed CPGs.

15.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 30(5): 465-470, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889693

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the latest data in the field of vaccinations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), focusing on pneumococcal, seasonal influenza, herpes zoster and human papillomavirus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Less than 40% of patients responded adequately to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS23) vaccine. A randomized controlled trial showed that sequential administration of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by the PPS23 vaccine was well tolerated but was not superior to the PPS23 vaccine alone in terms of immunogenicity. A real-life observation confirmed that annual influenza vaccination has an impact on morbidity and mortality in SLE. Three meta-analyses did not show any particular adverse effect of influenza vaccines in SLE. These vaccines are less immunogenic in SLE. A study confirmed that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic in SLE. SUMMARY: New data confirm the safety and the lower immunogenicity of pneumococcal and influenza vaccine in SLE patients. Current efforts to improve immunization coverage in SLE should focus on spreading to patients and physicians information on the safety, efficacy and usefulness of vaccines in this population.

16.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(439)2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720448

RESUMO

Paradoxically, loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the most abundant antibodies, does not irrevocably lead to severe infections in humans but rather is associated with relatively mild respiratory infections, atopy, and autoimmunity. IgA might therefore also play covert roles, not uniquely associated with control of pathogens. We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. Metagenomic analysis highlights an expected pathobiont expansion but a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts. Gut colonization by species usually present in the oropharynx is also reminiscent of spatial microbiota disorganization. IgM only partially rescues IgA deficiency because not all typical IgA targets are efficiently bound by IgM in the intestinal lumen. Together, IgA appears to play a nonredundant role at the forefront of the immune/microbial interface, away from the intestinal barrier, ranging from pathobiont control and regulation of systemic inflammation to preservation of commensal diversity and community networks.

17.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 5(3): e452, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845092

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe clinicopathologic features of muscular sarcoidosis and the associated sarcoidosis phenotype through a nationwide multicenter study. Methods: Patients were included if they had histologically proven sarcoidosis and symptomatic muscular involvement confirmed by biological, imaging, or histologic examinations. Results: Forty-eight patients (20 males) were studied, with a median age at muscular symptoms onset of 45 years (range 18-71). Four patterns were identified: a nodular pattern (27%); smoldering phenotype (29%); acute, subacute, or progressive myopathic type (35%); and combined myopathic and neurogenic pattern (10%). In all patterns, sarcoidosis was multivisceral with a median of 3 extramuscular organs involved (mostly lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin) and a prolonged course with long-term use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Muscular patterns differed according to clinical presentation (myalgia, nodules, or weakness), electromyographic findings, muscular MRI, and response to sarcoidosis treatment. The myopathic and neuromuscular patterns were more severe. Conclusion: This nationwide study of muscular sarcoidosis allowed the identification of 4 patterns of granulomatous myositis, which differed by phenotypes and the clinical course.

18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(8): 1172-1178, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and the safety of biologics in a cohort of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP). METHODS: We conducted a French multicentre retrospective cohort study including patients treated with biologics for RP. Efficacy outcomes were clinical response (partial or complete) and complete response during the first 6 months of exposure, plus daily corticosteroid dose at 6 months. Other outcomes were adverse drug reactions (ADRs), persistence of biologics and factors associated with a response. RESULTS: This study included 41 patients exposed to 105 biologics (tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, n=60; tocilizumab, n=17; anakinra, n=15; rituximab, n=7; abatacept, n=6). Overall response rate during the first 6 months of exposure was 62.9%. Complete response rate was 19.0%. Reduced corticosteroid doses were highly variable among patients. ADRs were mostly infections (n=42). Reasons for biologic withdrawal (73.3%) were insufficient efficacy (34.3%; ranging from 23.5% for tocilizumab to 72.7% for etanercept), loss of efficacy (18.1%) and ADRs (20.9%; mostly for anakinra: 46.7%). Persistence was comparable among biologic classes. Among TNF inhibitors, the highest persistence was observed with adalimumab. Differences in clinical response rates were observed depending on biologics and organ involvement. There were trends towards a lower response rate in cases with associated myelodysplastic syndrome and for a higher response rate for nasal/auricular chondritis, sternal chondritis and concomitant exposure to non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the efficacy of biologics for refractory RP. However, the number of complete responses was low and there were concerns about the risk of ADRs, particularly infections.

19.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(4): 334-338, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426734

RESUMO

Prevalence of muscle disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is less than 1% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is observed in a few cases of patients infected by retroviruses such as HIV-1. A Caucasian man was diagnosed with HIV when he was 30 years old. The viral load was undetectable and CD4 cell count was 600/mm3 when the diagnosis of inclusion body myositis was confirmed. Histological findings were typical of IBM. The treatment consisted of immunoglobulin therapy for three years without effect. Twenty-two patients were found in the English and French literature. They are younger than those who suffer from IBM without HIV (median age = 47, range: 30 to 59), and they are mostly men with considerable serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation (median CK level = 1322 IU/L, range: 465 to 10270), most of them were treated with Zidovudine.

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