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1.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the long-term outcome of their treatment protocol for Muenke syndrome, which includes a single craniofacial procedure. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study of Muenke syndrome patients who underwent surgery for craniosynostosis within the first year of life. Symptoms and determinants of intracranial hypertension were evaluated by longitudinal monitoring of the presence of papilledema (fundoscopy), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; with polysomnography), cerebellar tonsillar herniation (MRI studies), ventricular size (MRI and CT studies), and skull growth (occipital frontal head circumference [OFC]). Other evaluated factors included hearing, speech, and ophthalmological outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 38 patients; 36 patients underwent fronto-supraorbital advancement. The median age at last follow-up was 13.2 years (range 1.3-24.4 years). Three patients had papilledema, which was related to ophthalmological disorders in 2 patients. Three patients had mild OSA. Three patients had a Chiari I malformation, and tonsillar descent < 5 mm was present in 6 patients. Tonsillar position was unrelated to papilledema, ventricular size, or restricted skull growth. Ten patients had ventriculomegaly, and the OFC growth curve deflected in 3 patients. Twenty-two patients had hearing loss. Refraction anomalies were diagnosed in 14/15 patients measured at ≥ 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Muenke syndrome treated with a single fronto-supraorbital advancement in their first year of life rarely develop signs of intracranial hypertension, in accordance with the very low prevalence of its causative factors (OSA, hydrocephalus, and restricted skull growth). This illustrates that there is no need for a routine second craniofacial procedure. Patient follow-up should focus on visual assessment and speech and hearing outcomes.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067316

RESUMO

Craniosynostosis, the premature ossification of cranial sutures, is a developmental disorder of the skull vault, occurring in approximately 1 in 2250 births. The causes are heterogeneous, with a monogenic basis identified in ~25% of patients. Using whole-genome sequencing, we identified a novel, de novo variant in BCL11B, c.7C>A, encoding an R3S substitution (p.R3S), in a male patient with coronal suture synostosis. BCL11B is a transcription factor that interacts directly with the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation complex (NuRD) and polycomb-related complex 2 (PRC2) through the invariant proteins RBBP4 and RBBP7. The p.R3S substitution occurs within a conserved amino-terminal motif (RRKQxxP) of BCL11B and reduces interaction with both transcriptional complexes. Equilibrium binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations show that the p.R3S substitution disrupts ionic coordination between BCL11B and the RBBP4-MTA1 complex, a subassembly of the NuRD complex, and increases the conformational flexibility of Arg-4, Lys-5 and Gln-6 of BCL11B. These alterations collectively reduce the affinity of BCL11B p.R3S for the RBBP4-MTA1 complex by nearly an order of magnitude. We generated a mouse model of the BCL11B p.R3S substitution using a CRISPR-Cas9-based approach, and we report herein that these mice exhibit craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, as well as other cranial sutures. This finding provides strong evidence that the BCL11B p.R3S substitution is causally associated with craniosynostosis and confirms an important role for BCL11B in the maintenance of cranial suture patency.

3.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-6, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVEUnicoronal synostosis results in frontal plagiocephaly and is preferably treated before the patient is 1 year of age to prevent intracranial hypertension (ICH). However, data on the prevalence of ICH in these patients is currently lacking. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative signs of ICH in a large cohort of patients with unicoronal synostosis and to test whether there is a correlation between papilledema and occipitofrontal head circumference (OFC) curve stagnation in unicoronal synostosis.METHODSThe authors included all patients with unicoronal synostosis treated before 2 years of age at a single center between 2003 and 2013. The presence of ICH was evaluated by routine fundoscopy. The OFC growth curve was analyzed for deflection and in relationship to signs of ICH.RESULTSIn total, 104 patients were included in this study, 84 (81%) of whom were considered to have nonsyndromic unicoronal synostosis. Preoperatively, none of the patients had papilledema as determined by fundoscopy (mean age at surgery 11 months). Postoperatively, 5% of patients with syndromic synostosis and 3% of those with nonsyndromic synostosis had papilledema, and this was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Raised intracranial pressure was confirmed in 1 patient with syndromic unicoronal synostosis. Six of 78 patients had OFC stagnation, which was not significantly correlated to papilledema (p = 0.22). One child with syndromic unicoronal synostosis required repeated surgery for ICH (0.96%).CONCLUSIONSPapilledema was not found in patients with unicoronal synostosis when they underwent surgery before the age of 1 year and was also very rare during follow-up. There was no relationship between papilledema and OFC stagnation.

4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(4): 798e-805e, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the relationship between headache and the occurrence of signs associated with intracranial hypertension such as ophthalmic signs, restricted skull growth, and a vertex bulge in children who were operated on for sagittal synostosis. METHODS: A total of 94 patients (aged 6 to 18 years) with sagittal synostosis were asked to indicate their headache frequency. Based on their age at referral, the patients had undergone either frontobiparietal remodeling or an extended strip craniotomy. Data on funduscopy, optical coherence tomography, occipitofrontal head circumference, and presence of vertex bulge on radiography were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that extended strip craniotomy, the occurrence of ophthalmic signs, and a smaller occipitofrontal head circumference at last follow-up were related to more frequent headaches (p = 0.01, p = 0.04, and p < 0.01, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only type of surgery and occipitofrontal head circumference at last follow-up remained significant predictors (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although the reported rate of frequent headaches in this study is within the norm reported for the normal population, this study shows that after correction for sagittal craniosynostosis, frequent headaches are independently related to type of surgery and to occipitofrontal head circumference at last follow-up. Headaches in the sagittal craniosynostosis population may be related to papilledema and/or an increased total retinal thickness. Therefore, the authors recommend that occipitofrontal head circumference be routinely measured and that patients be asked about the occurrence and frequency of headaches during their checkup at the clinic. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Craniossinostoses/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/complicações , Papiledema/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.

6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the relationship between headache and the occurrence of signs associated with intracranial hypertension (ICH) such as ophthalmic signs, restricted skull growth and a vertex bulge in children who were operated for sagittal synostosis. METHODS: A total of 94 patients (aged 6-18 years) with sagittal synostosis were asked to indicate the headache frequency. Based on their age at referral, the patients had undergone either a fronto-biparietal remodeling (FBR) or an extended strip craniotomy (ESC). Data on fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), occipitofrontal head circumference (OFC), and presence of vertex bulge on X-ray were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that ESC, the occurrence of ophthalmic signs, and a smaller OFC at last follow-up, were related to more frequent headaches (p=0.01, p=0.04, and p<0.01, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, only type of surgery and OFC at last follow-up remained significant predictors (p=0.04 and p<0.01 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although the reported rate of frequent headaches in this study is within the norm reported for the normal population, this study shows that after correction for sagittal craniosynostosis, frequent headaches are independently related to type of surgery and to OFC at last follow-up. Headaches in the sagittal craniosynostosis population may be related to papilledema and/or an increased TRT. Therefore, we recommend that OFC be routinely measured and that patients be asked about the occurrence and frequency of headaches during their checkup at the clinic.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses are multisystem lysosomal storage diseases characterized by extensive skeletal deformities, including skull abnormalities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of craniosynostosis in the different mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types and its clinical consequences. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study spanning 10 years, skull imaging and clinical evaluations were performed in 47 MPS patients (type I, II, VI, and VII). A total of 215 radiographs of the skull were analyzed. The presence and type of craniosynostosis, the sutures involved, progression over time, skull shape, head circumference, fundoscopy, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement data were evaluated. RESULTS: Craniosynostosis of at least one suture was present in 77% of all 47 MPS patients (≤ 6 years of age in 40% of all patients). In 32% of all MPS patients, premature closure of all sutures was seen (≤ 6 years of age in 13% of all patients). All patients with early closure had a more severe MPS phenotype, both in the neuronopathic (MPS I, II) and non-neuronopathic (MPS VI) patient groups. Because of symptomatic increased intracranial pressure (ICP), a VPS was placed in six patients, with craniosynostosis as a likely or certain causative factor for the increased pressure in four patients. One patient underwent cranial vault expansion because of severe craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS: Craniosynostosis occurs in the majority of MPS patients. Since the clinical consequences can be severe and surgical intervention is possible, skull growth and signs and symptoms of increased ICP should be monitored in both neuronopathic and non-neuronopathic patients with MPS.

8.
Sleep Med ; 45: 1-6, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the spectrum of children with symptomatic sleep disordered breathing (SDB), some individuals - such as those with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) - do not have abnormalities on polysomnography (PSG). In this study we have assessed whether assessment of respiratory arrhythmia (RA) and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis helps in management of children with syndromic craniosynostosis and none-to-mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study in children aged 1-18 years old with syndromic craniosynostosis. Children were selected for HRV analysis from the ECG if their obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was between zero and five per hour (ie, oAHI ≤5/hour). Subjects were divided into groups based on the presence or absence of respiratory arrhythmia (with or without RA respectively) using the electrocardiogram (ECG). The main analysis included studying the relationship between RA and HRV, symptoms, interventions, and sleep architecture. RESULTS: We identified 42 patients with, at worst, mild OSA. We found higher parasympathetic control and higher total power in children with RA during the non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep. Children with RA also have a relatively higher percentage of paradoxical breathing during non-REM sleep (P = 0.042). Intracranial hypertension was distributed equally between groups. Last, RA patients showed increased parasympathetic activity that further increased in non-REM sleep. CONCLUSION: In syndromic craniosynostosis cases with SDB and PSG showing oAHI ≤5/hour, the presence of RA may indicate subsequent need for treatment interventions, and a trend toward higher occurrence of clinical symptoms. ECG analyses of HRV variables in subjects with RA demonstrate increased parasympathetic activity and total power. Such findings may add to the diagnosis of apparently asymptomatic children.

9.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 21(6): 626-631, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE In addition to craniocerebral disproportion, other factors, such as Chiari malformation type I, obstructive sleep apnea, and venous outflow obstruction, are considered to have a role in the occurrence of intracranial hypertension in craniosynostosis. This pilot study examined cerebral venous flow velocity to better characterize the complex intracranial venous physiology of craniosynostosis. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort study of craniosynostosis patients (n = 34) referred to a single national (tertiary) craniofacial unit. Controls (n = 28) consisted of children who were referred to the unit's outpatient clinic and did not have craniosynostosis. Transfontanelle ultrasound scans with venous Doppler flow velocity assessment were performed at the first outpatient clinic visit and after each surgery, if applicable. Mean venous blood flow velocities of the internal cerebral vein (ICVv) and the superior sagittal sinus (SSSv) were recorded and blood flow waveform was scored. RESULTS Preoperatively, SSSv was decreased in craniosynostosis patients compared with controls (7.57 vs 11.31 cm/sec, p = 0.009). ICVv did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Postoperatively, SSSv increased significantly (7.99 vs 10.66 cm/sec, p = 0.023). Blood flow waveform analyses did not differ significantly between patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS Premature closure of cranial sutures was associated with decreased SSSv but not ICVv; indicating an effect on the superficial rather than deep venous drainage. Further Doppler ultrasound studies are needed to test the hypothesis that at an early stage of craniosynostosis pathology SSSv, but not pulsatility, is abnormal, and that abnormality in both SSSv and the superficial venous waveform reflect a more advanced stage of evolution in suture closure.

10.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 31(15): 2050-2057, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28553772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although single-suture craniosynostosis is diagnosed sporadically during pregnancy, timely referral is critical for its treatment. Additionally, craniosynostosis leads to increased maternofetal trauma during birth. In the Netherlands, 95% of pregnant women receive a standard ultrasound at around 20 weeks of gestation, potentially an ideal setting for detecting craniosynostosis prenatally. To enhance the prenatal detection of the metopic and the sagittal suture synostosis, we wished to identify new screening parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of the 20-week anomaly scan in trigonocephaly patients (n = 41), scaphocephaly patients (n = 41), and matched controls (n = 82). We measured six different cranial dimensions, including head circumference, biparietal diameter, and occipito-frontal diameter, defining the cephalic index as the ratio between biparietal and occipito-frontal diameter. RESULTS: Prenatal biometric measurements did not differ significantly between trigonocephaly patients and controls. Although significantly lower in scaphocephaly patients (0.76 versus 0.79; p = .000), the cephalic index by itself is not appropriate for screening at 20 weeks of gestation. Longitudinal analysis suggests that a deflection in BPD curve is found in scaphocephaly patients, starting at 20 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal biometric measurements do not differ significantly between trigonocephaly patients and controls. The CI is lower in scaphocephaly patients. A deflection in BPD curve should be followed by 3 D imaging of the cranial sutures.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(10): 1126-1133, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905882

RESUMO

Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS) is a rare syndrome characterized by choanal atresia, prominent ears, abnormalities of the outer third of the lower eyelid, structural cardiac abnormalities, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft lip. Recently, causative compound heterozygous variants were identified in TXNL4A. We analyzed an individual with clinical features of BMKS and her parents by whole-genome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous variants in TXNL4A (a novel splice site variant (c.258-2A>G, (p.?)) and a 34 bp promoter deletion (hg19 chr18:g.77748581_77748614del (type 1Δ) in the proband). Subsequently, we tested a cohort of 19 individuals with (mild) features of BMKS and 17 individuals with isolated choanal atresia for causative variants in TXNL4A by dideoxy-sequence analysis. In one individual with BMKS unrelated to the first family, we identified the identical compound heterozygous variants. In an individual with isolated choanal atresia, we found homozygosity for the same type 1Δ promoter deletion, whilst in two cousins from a family with choanal atresia and other minor anomalies we found homozygosity for a different deletion within the promoter (hg19 chr18: g.77748604_77748637del (type 2Δ)). Hence, we identified causative recessive variants in TXNL4A in two individuals with BMKS as well as in three individuals (from two families) with isolated choanal atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Surdez/congênito , Deleção de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Atresia das Cóanas/diagnóstico , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Facies , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 45(11): 1809-1814, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis may lead to hampered fetal head molding and birth complications. To study the interaction between single suture craniosynostosis and delivery complications, an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort study was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All infants born between 2006 and 2012 in the Netherlands and Sweden with sagittal or metopic suture synostosis were included. All births were included as a reference population. The primary outcome measure was rate of medically assisted labor. The secondary outcomes included method of conception, term of birth and fetal position. RESULTS: We included 152 trigonocephaly patients, 272 scaphocephaly patients and 1.954.141 controls. A higher rate of assisted reproductive technology (ART) was found in patients with trigonocephaly (13%) and scaphocephaly (7%) compared to controls (3%, p < 0.001). Scaphocephaly resulted in more postterm births (8% vs 4%, p < 0.001). Trigonocephaly patients showed more preterm births (11% vs 6%, p < 0.001), breech position was more frequent (10% vs 4%, p = 0.003) and labor was more often induced. Rate of assisted delivery, including cesarean section, was significantly higher in both patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: Scaphocephaly leads to more postterm births and an increased rate of cesarean sections. Trigonocephaly is related to ART, and in addition higher rates of breech position and cesarean section are found. Prenatal detection of single suture craniosynostosis could improve perinatal care.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Cefalometria , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 70(10): 1354-1360, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619484

RESUMO

An estimated 1-3% of all women in the Netherlands carry breast implants. Since the introduction five decades ago, problems with a variety of breast implants have emerged with direct consequences for the patients' health. Plastic surgeons worldwide reacted through campaigning for auditing on long-term implant quality, surgeon performance, and institutional outcomes in implant registries. Especially, the PIP implant scandal of 2010 demonstrated the paucity of epidemiological data and uncovered a weakness in our ability to even 'track and trace' patients. In addition, a recent report of the Dutch Institute of National Health showed a lack of compliance of 100% of breast implant producers to CE requirements. These arguments stress the need for an independent implant registry. Insufficient capture rates or dependence from the implant producers made the variety of national and international patient registries unreliable. The Dutch Breast Implant Registry (DBIR) is unique because it is an opt-out registry without the need for informed consent and thus a high capture rate. Furthermore, an estimated 95% of breast implants are implanted by board-certified plastic surgeons. Funding was received from a non-governmental organisation to increase the quality of health care in the Netherlands, and maintenance is gathered by 25 euros per implant inserted. This article describes the way the Dutch have set up their system, with special attention to the well-known hurdles of starting a patient registry. Examples include: funding, medical ethical issues, opt out system, benchmarking, quality assurance as well as governance and collaboration. The Dutch consider their experience and data shareware for others to be used globally to the benefit of patient safety and quality improvement.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário , Implantes de Mama , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Implante Mamário/efeitos adversos , Implante Mamário/métodos , Implante Mamário/estatística & dados numéricos , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Implantes de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Comissão Para Atividades Profissionais e Hospitalares/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Países Baixos , Inovação Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Falha de Prótese , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 139(1): 97e-104e, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trigonocephaly is caused by metopic suture synostosis. It is treated by fronto-orbital remodeling, not only to correct the deformity but also to prevent intracranial hypertension, the reported prevalence in trigonocephaly of which ranges from 0 to 33 percent. To support treatment analysis and the design of a treatment protocol for intracranial hypertension in these patients, the authors wished to more accurately quantify the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative intracranial hypertension in a large patient cohort. METHODS: The authors included all trigonocephaly patients born between 2001 and 2013 who had all been operated on at a single center. During follow-up, the presence of intracranial hypertension was evaluated by funduscopy, and occipitofrontal head circumference was measured. The occipitofrontal head circumference curve was analyzed and its relation to intracranial hypertension assessed. RESULTS: In total, 262 patients with trigonocephaly were included. Before surgery, 1.9 percent of them had intracranial hypertension; after surgery, 1.5 percent did (mean age at last follow-up, 4.9 years). Sixteen of 176 patients (9 percent) had occipitofrontal head circumference curve stagnation, which was significantly related to intracranial hypertension (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial hypertension occurs only sporadically in patients with metopic suture synostosis. Occipitofrontal head circumference measurement should take a prominent place in the postoperative follow-up of metopic suture synostosis patients; stagnation of the occipitofrontal head circumference requires additional screening for intracranial hypertension. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Hipertensão Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Papiledema/diagnóstico , Prevalência
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 21(6): 1971-1978, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess the prevalence, course, and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with Robin sequence (RS) aged 1-18 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 children aged 1 to18 years with RS. Patient data were collected on baseline characteristics and management. OSA was evaluated by polysomnography. RESULTS: Sixty-three children with RS were included (median age 8.0 years) and divided into two groups based on the initial treatment: prone positioning or respiratory support. Respiratory support was more often indicated in children with a non-isolated RS (p < 0.05). At cross section, in the prone positioning group (n = 32), one child was diagnosed with OSA. In the respiratory support group (n = 31), 13 children (42 %) had respiratory problems of whom 10 needed respiratory support. CONCLUSIONS: Between the age of 1 and 18 years, almost one out of four children with RS still has respiratory problems. Children with RS, who can be treated with prone positioning only as an infant, are not likely to develop obstructive airway problems at a later age. In contrast, children who need respiratory support early after birth are at risk of continuing or re-developing OSA after the age of 1 year. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study shows that those who need respiratory support at an early age need careful monitoring until adulthood.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Decúbito Ventral , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Med Genet ; 54(4): 260-268, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, occurs in ∼1 in 2250 births, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Mutations in at least 57 genes have been associated with craniosynostosis, but only a minority of these are included in routine laboratory genetic testing. METHODS: We used exome or whole genome sequencing to seek a genetic cause in a cohort of 40 subjects with craniosynostosis, selected by clinical or molecular geneticists as being high-priority cases, and in whom prior clinically driven genetic testing had been negative. RESULTS: We identified likely associated mutations in 15 patients (37.5%), involving 14 different genes. All genes were mutated in single families, except for IL11RA (two families). We classified the other positive diagnoses as follows: commonly mutated craniosynostosis genes with atypical presentation (EFNB1, TWIST1); other core craniosynostosis genes (CDC45, MSX2, ZIC1); genes for which mutations are only rarely associated with craniosynostosis (FBN1, HUWE1, KRAS, STAT3); and known disease genes for which a causal relationship with craniosynostosis is currently unknown (AHDC1, NTRK2). In two further families, likely novel disease genes are currently undergoing functional validation. In 5 of the 15 positive cases, the (previously unanticipated) molecular diagnosis had immediate, actionable consequences for either genetic or medical management (mutations in EFNB1, FBN1, KRAS, NTRK2, STAT3). CONCLUSIONS: This substantial genetic heterogeneity, and the multiple actionable mutations identified, emphasises the benefits of exome/whole genome sequencing to identify causal mutations in craniosynostosis cases for which routine clinical testing has yielded negative results.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/patologia , Exoma/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 138(6): 1019e-1029e, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with syndromic craniosynostosis often have obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. The authors aimed to evaluate (1) sleep architecture, and determine whether this is influenced by the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and/or intracranial hypertension; and (2) the effect of treatment on sleep architecture. METHODS: This study included patients with syndromic craniosynostosis treated at a national referral center, undergoing screening for obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea was identified by polysomnography, and categorized into no, mild, moderate, or severe. Intracranial hypertension was identified by the presence of papilledema on funduscopy, supplemented by optical coherence tomography and/or intracranial pressure monitoring. Regarding sleep architecture, sleep was divided into rapid eye movement or non-rapid eye movement sleep; respiratory effort-related arousals and sleep efficiency were scored. RESULTS: The authors included 39 patients (median age, 5.9 years): 19 with neither obstructive sleep apnea nor intracranial hypertension, 11 with obstructive sleep apnea (four moderate/severe), six with intracranial hypertension, and three with obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, independent of the presence of mild obstructive sleep apnea and/or intracranial hypertension, have normal sleep architecture compared with age-matched controls. Patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea have a higher respiratory effort-related arousal index (p < 0.01), lower sleep efficiency (p = 0.01), and less rapid eye movement sleep (p = 0.04). An improvement in sleep architecture was observed following monobloc surgery (n = 5; rapid eye movement sleep, 5.3 percent; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Children with syndromic craniosynostosis have in principle normal sleep architecture. However, moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea does lead to disturbed sleep architecture, which fits within a framework of a unifying theory for obstructive sleep apnea, intracranial hypertension, and sleep. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Hipertensão Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniossinostoses/fisiopatologia , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 44(12): 1871-1879, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876376

RESUMO

There is widespread lack of consensus regarding treatment of airway obstruction in children with Robin Sequence. This study aimed to systematically summarize outcomes of non-surgical and surgical options to treat airway obstruction in children with Robin Sequence. The authors searched the Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases. Studies primarily on mandibular distraction were excluded. Study quality was appraised with the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) score. Forty-eight studies were included, of which 45 studies had a retrospective non-comparative set up, two studies had a prospective design and one study was a clinical trial. The mean MINORS score was 7.3 (range 3-10). The rates of successful relief of the airway obstruction (SRoAO) were: not available for orthodontic appliance (2 studies, n = 24), 67-100% for nasopharyngeal airway (6 studies, n = 126); 100 % for non-invasive respiratory support (2 studies, n = 12); 70-96% for tongue-lip adhesion (11 studies, n = 277); 50-84% for subperiosteal release of the floor of the mouth (2 studies, n = 47); 100% for mandibular traction (3 studies, n = 133); 100% for tracheostomy (1 study, n = 25). The complication rate ranged from zero to 55%. Although SRoAO rates seemed comparable, high-level evidence remains scarce. Future research should include description of the definition, treatment indication, and objective outcomes.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/terapia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Nasofaringe/cirurgia , Aparelhos Ortodônticos , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/cirurgia , Respiração Artificial , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 86: 98-103, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260591

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parents may play an important role during the management of children with Robin Sequence (RS). However, so far only one study has been done on both parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms in children with RS. METHODS: Overall, 63 children with RS, aged 1 and 18, were included in this cross-sectional study. Fifty-three parents of children with RS with a median age of 8.9 [IQR 5.1-12.7] completed questionnaires on HRQoL (OSA-18) and symptoms of OSA (the Brouillette score) in their child with RS. Ten children between 12 and 18 years filled out the self-reported HRQoL questionnaire OSA-12. RESULTS: At cross-section, 10 children still had respiratory problems. Overall, parents of children with RS reported a lower HRQoL in their child compared with parents in the general population. Parents of children with RS who still had respiratory problems, i.e. OSA or airway support, reported significantly worse OSA-18 scores compared with parents of RS children without OSA. Children with RS themselves (n = 10) reported less physical suffering and less emotional distress on the OSA-12 compared with children in the norm population. Parental perceptions of OSA-related symptoms were accurate, except for the incidence of snoring. In assessing snoring, the multidimensional OSA-18 sleep domain was more informative. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of children with RS reported a lower HRQoL in their child compared with parents in the general population. Parental perceptions of health and HRQoL in children with RS might have an additional value to recognize and treat respiratory problems.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Pierre Robin/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Ronco/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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