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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 941, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite prioritization, routine antenatal influenza vaccine coverage is < 16% in South Africa. We aimed to describe maternal influenza vaccine coverage in 27 antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Gauteng and Western Cape (WC) Provinces, where in collaboration with the Department of Health (DoH), we augmented the annual influenza vaccination programme among pregnant women. METHODS: From 2015 through 2018, 40,230 additional doses of influenza vaccine were added to the available stock and administered as part of routine antenatal care. Educational talks were given daily and data were collected on women attending ANCs. We compared characteristics of vaccinated and unvaccinated women using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We screened 62,979 pregnant women during the period when Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccines were available (27,068 in Gauteng and 35,911 in WC). Vaccine coverage at the targeted clinics was 78.7% (49,355/62682), although pregnant women in WC were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those in the Gauteng (Odds ratio (OR) =3.7 p < 0.001). Women aged 25-29 and > 35 years were less likely to be vaccinated than women aged 18-24 years (OR = 0.9 p = 0.053; OR = 0.9 p < 0.001). HIV positive status was not associated with vaccination (OR = 1.0 p = 0.266). Reasons for not vaccinating included: vaccine stock-outs where ANCs depleted available stock of vaccines and/or were awaiting delivery of vaccines (54.6%, 6949/12723), refusal/indecision (25.8%, 3285), and current illness that contraindicated vaccination (19.6%, 2489). CONCLUSION: Antenatal vaccination uptake was likely improved by the increased vaccine supply and vaccine education offered during our campaign.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , África do Sul , Vacinação
2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452378

RESUMO

Endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) are capable of causing a range of diseases from the common cold to pneumonia. We evaluated the epidemiology and seasonality of endemic HCoVs in children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls living in countries with a high HIV burden, namely South Africa and Zambia, between August 2011 to October 2013. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases and controls and tested for endemic HCoV species and 12 other respiratory viruses using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. We found that the likelihood of detecting endemic HCoV species was higher among asymptomatic controls than cases (11% vs. 7.2%; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0). This was however only observed among children > 6 months and was mainly driven by the Betacoronavirus endemic species (HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1). Endemic HCoV species were detected through the year; however, in Zambia, the endemic Betacoronavirus species tended to peak during the winter months (May-August). There was no association between HIV status and endemic HCoV detection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198998

RESUMO

Rhinovirus (RV) is commonly detected in asymptomatic children; hence, its pathogenicity during childhood pneumonia remains controversial. We evaluated RV epidemiology in HIV-uninfected children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls. PERCH was a case-control study that enrolled children (1-59 months) hospitalized with severe and very severe pneumonia per World Health Organization clinical criteria and age-frequency-matched community controls in seven countries. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected for all participants, combined, and tested for RV and 18 other respiratory viruses using the Fast Track multiplex real-time PCR assay. RV detection was more common among cases (24%) than controls (21%) (aOR = 1.5, 95%CI:1.3-1.6). This association was driven by the children aged 12-59 months, where 28% of cases vs. 18% of controls were RV-positive (aOR = 2.1, 95%CI:1.8-2.5). Wheezing was 1.8-fold (aOR 95%CI:1.4-2.2) more prevalent among pneumonia cases who were RV-positive vs. RV-negative. Of the RV-positive cases, 13% had a higher probability (>75%) that RV was the cause of their pneumonia based on the PERCH integrated etiology analysis; 99% of these cases occurred in children over 12 months in Bangladesh. RV was commonly identified in both cases and controls and was significantly associated with severe pneumonia status among children over 12 months of age, particularly those in Bangladesh. RV-positive pneumonia was associated with wheezing.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1055, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Describing contact patterns is crucial to understanding infectious disease transmission dynamics and guiding targeted transmission mitigation interventions. Data on contact patterns in Africa, especially South Africa, are limited. We measured and compared contact patterns in a rural and urban community, South Africa. We assessed participant and contact characteristics associated with differences in contact rates. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study nested in a prospective household cohort study. We interviewed participants to collect information on persons in contact with for one day. We described self-reported contact rates as median number people contacted per day, assessed differences in contact rates based on participant characteristics using quantile regression, and used a Poisson model to assess differences in contact rates based on contact characteristics within age groups. We also calculated cumulative person hours in contact within age groups at different locations. RESULTS: We conducted 535 interviews (269 rural, 266 urban), with 17,252 contacts reported. The overall contact rate was 14 (interquartile range (IQR) 9-33) contacts per day. Those ≤18 years had higher contact rates at the rural site (coefficient 17, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 10-23) compared to the urban site, for those aged 14-18 years (13, 95%CI 3-23) compared to < 7 years. No differences were observed for adults. There was a strong age-based mixing, with age groups interacting more with similar age groups, but also interaction of participants of all ages with adults. Children aged 14-18 years had the highest cumulative person hours in contact (116.3 rural and 76.4 urban). CONCLUSIONS: Age played an important role in the number and duration of contact events, with children at the rural site having almost double the contact rate compared to the urban site. These contact rates can be utilized in mathematical models to assess transmission dynamics of infectious diseases in similar communities.


Assuntos
População Rural , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , População Urbana
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(6): e863-e874, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza community burden and transmission are important to plan interventions especially in resource-limited settings. However, data are limited, particularly from low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the community burden and transmission of influenza in a rural and an urban setting in South Africa. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study approximately 50 households were selected sequentially from both a rural setting (Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa; with a health and sociodemographic surveillance system) and an urban setting (Klerksdorp, Northwest Province, South Africa; using global positioning system data), enrolled, and followed up for 10 months in 2017 and 2018. Different households were enrolled in each year. Households of more than two individuals in which 80% or more of the occupants agreed to participate were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected twice per week from participating household members irrespective of symptoms and tested for influenza using real-time RT-PCR. The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza infection, defined as the number of real-time RT-PCR-positive episodes divided by the person-time under observation. Household cumulative infection risk (HCIR) was defined as the number of subsequent infections within a household following influenza introduction. FINDINGS: 81 430 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 1116 participants in 225 households (follow-up rate 88%). 917 (1%) tested positive for influenza; 178 (79%) of 225 households had one or more influenza-positive individual. The incidence of influenza infection was 43·6 (95% CI 39·8-47·7) per 100 person-seasons. 69 (17%) of 408 individuals who had one influenza infection had a repeat influenza infection during the same season. The incidence (67·4 per 100 person-seasons) and proportion with repeat infections (22 [23%] of 97 children) were highest in children younger than 5 years and decreased with increasing age (p<0·0001). Overall, 268 (56%) of 478 infections were symptomatic and 66 (14%) of 478 infections were medically attended. The overall HCIR was 10% (109 of 1088 exposed household members infected [95% CI 9-13%). Transmission (HCIR) from index cases was highest in participants aged 1-4 years (16%; 40 of 252 exposed household members) and individuals with two or more symptoms (17%; 68 of 396 exposed household members). Individuals with asymptomatic influenza transmitted infection to 29 (6%) of 509 household contacts. HIV infection, affecting 167 (16%) of 1075 individuals, was not associated with increased incidence or HCIR. INTERPRETATION: Approximately half of influenza infections were symptomatic, with asymptomatic individuals transmitting influenza to 6% of household contacts. This suggests that strategies, such as quarantine and isolation, might be ineffective to control influenza. Vaccination of children, with the aim of reducing influenza transmission might be effective in African settings given the young population and high influenza burden. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Virol ; 125: 104288, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092643

RESUMO

Rhinovirus (RV) role in pathogenesis of severe childhood disease remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between RV molecular subtyping, nasopharyngeal viral loads and viremia with childhood pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples from cases and controls were tested for RV and the 5' non-coding region sequenced. The cases compared to controls had a similar prevalence of RV detection in the nasopharynx (23 % vs. 22 %, P = 0.66), similar RV species distribution (A, B, C = 44 %, 8%, 44 % vs. 48 %, 7%, 38 %; respectively; P = 0.66) and similar viral load (4.0 and 3.7 log10 copies/mL, P = 0.062). However, RV-viremia was 4.01-fold (aOR 95 % CI: 1.26-12.78) more prevalent among cases (7%) than controls (2%), P = 0.019. Furthermore, among cases and controls RV-C was more commonly associated with viremia (14 % and 4%, P = 0.023), than RV-A (2% and 1%; P = 0.529). Thus RV-viremia could be used as a measure for attributing causality to RV in children hospitalized for pneumonia.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Viremia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/sangue , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 4): S342-S350, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite approximately 2.6 million stillbirths occurring annually, there is a paucity of systematic biological investigation and consequently knowledge on the causes of these deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We investigated the utility of minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), placental examination, and clinical history, in attributing the causes of stillbirth in a South African LMIC setting. METHODS: This prospective, observational pilot study undertook sampling of brain, lung, and liver tissue using core biopsy needles, blood and cerebrospinal fluid collection, and placental examination. Testing included microbial culture and/or molecular testing and tissue histological examination. The cause of death was determined for each case by an international panel of medical specialists and categorized using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision application to perinatal deaths. RESULTS: A cause of stillbirth was identifiable for 117 of 129 (90.7%) stillbirths, including an underlying maternal cause in 63.4% (n = 83) and an immediate fetal cause in 79.1% (n = 102) of cases. The leading underlying causes of stillbirth were maternal hypertensive disorders (16.3%), placental separation and hemorrhage (14.0%), and chorioamnionitis (10.9%). The leading immediate causes of fetal death were antepartum hypoxia (35.7%) and fetal infection (37.2%), including due to Escherichia coli (16.3%), Enterococcus species (3.9%), and group B Streptococcus (3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot, proof-of-concept study, focused investigation of stillbirth provided granular detail on the causes thereof in an LMIC setting, including provisionally highlighting the largely underrecognized role of fetal sepsis as a dominant cause.


Assuntos
Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Morte Perinatal , Projetos Piloto , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Natimorto
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 4): S361-S373, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current estimates for causes of childhood deaths are mainly premised on modeling of vital registration and limited verbal autopsy data and generally only characterize the underlying cause of death (CoD). We investigated the potential of minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) for ascertaining the underlying and immediate CoD in children 1 month to 14 years of age. METHODS: MITS included postmortem tissue biopsies of brain, liver, and lung for histopathology examination; microbial culture of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), liver, and lung samples; and molecular microbial testing on blood, CSF, lung, and rectal swabs. Each case was individually adjudicated for underlying, antecedent, and immediate CoD by an international multidisciplinary team of medical experts and coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). RESULTS: An underlying CoD was determined for 99% of 127 cases, leading causes being congenital malformations (18.9%), complications of prematurity (14.2%), human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (12.6%), diarrheal disease (8.7%), acute respiratory infections (7.9%), injuries (7.9%), and malignancies (7.1%). The main immediate CoD was pneumonia, sepsis, and diarrhea in 33.9%, 19.7%, and 10.2% of cases, respectively. Infection-related deaths were either an underlying or immediate CoD in 78.0% of cases. Community-acquired pneumonia deaths (n = 32) were attributed to respiratory syncytial virus (21.9%), Pneumocystis jirovecii (18.8%), cytomegalovirus (15.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.5%). Seventy-one percent of 24 sepsis deaths were hospital-acquired, mainly due to Acinetobacter baumannii (47.1%) and K. pneumoniae (35.3%). Sixty-two percent of cases were malnourished. CONCLUSIONS: MITS, coupled with antemortem clinical information, provides detailed insight into causes of childhood deaths that could be informative for prioritization of strategies aimed at reducing under-5 mortality.


Assuntos
Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adolescente , Autopsia/métodos , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Suppl 4): S351-S360, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmortem minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a potential alternative to the gold standard complete diagnostic autopsy for identifying specific causes of childhood deaths. We investigated the utility of MITS, interpreted with available clinical data, for attributing underlying and immediate causes of neonatal deaths. METHODS: This prospective, observational pilot study enrolled neonatal deaths at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. The MITS included needle core-biopsy sampling for histopathology of brain, lung, and liver tissue. Microbiological culture and/or molecular tests were performed on lung, liver, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and stool samples. The "underlying" and "immediate" causes of death (CoD) were determined for each case by an international panel of 12-15 medical specialists. RESULTS: We enrolled 153 neonatal deaths, 106 aged 3-28 days. Leading underlying CoD included "complications of prematurity" (52.9%), "complications of intrapartum events" (15.0%), "congenital malformations" (13.1%), and "infection related" (9.8%). Overall, infections were the immediate or underlying CoD in 57.5% (n = 88) of all neonatal deaths, including the immediate CoD in 70.4% (58/81) of neonates with "complications of prematurity" as the underlying cause. Overall, 74.4% of 90 infection-related deaths were hospital acquired, mainly due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (52.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (20.9%). Streptococcus agalactiae was the most common pathogen (5/15 [33.3%]) among deaths with "infections" as the underlying cause. CONCLUSIONS: MITS has potential to address the knowledge gap on specific causes of neonatal mortality. In our setting, this included the hitherto underrecognized dominant role of hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant bacterial infections as the leading immediate cause of neonatal deaths.


Assuntos
Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Autopsia/métodos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Morte Perinatal , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Natimorto
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(9)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270180

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of human rhinovirus (HRV) during severe respiratory disease remains undefined; thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between the HRV molecular subtyping results obtained during severe and asymptomatic childhood infections. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children (1 to 59 months of age) hospitalized with pneumonia and from age-frequency-matched controls were collected between August 2011 and August 2013. Swabs were tested for respiratory pathogens, including HRV, using quantitative real-time PCR assays. HRV-positive samples were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis by targeting the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR). Our data showed that there were no differences in the prevalence of HRV detection among cases and controls (21% versus 20%, P = 0.693); however, among children 13 to 59 months old, HRV detection was more often case associated (21% versus 16%; P = 0.009), with the results mainly driven by HRV-C (12% versus 7%; P = 0.001). Overall, there were no differences in the results of molecular subtyping of the HRV species prevalence among cases (for HRV-A, 48%; for HRV-B, 7%; for HRV-C, 45%) and controls (for HRV-A, 45%; for HRV-B, 10%; for HRV-C, 45% [P = 0.496]). Those with pneumonia and HRV-C were older (12.1 versus 9.4 months, P = 0.033) and more likely to present with wheeze (35% versus 25%, P = 0.031) than those with HRV-A cases. Thus, the rate of HRV detection was high, with similar degrees of genetic diversity among cases and controls, confounding the interpretation of the presence of HRV in nasopharyngeal samples for attribution of a causal role in the pathogenesis of severe pneumonia in infants. However, among children 13 to 59 months of age, HRV detection, in particular, HRV-C detection, was associated with case status, especially among children with wheezing disease.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/virologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Rhinovirus/classificação , Rhinovirus/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nasofaringe/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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