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1.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203090

RESUMO

Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (aGCT) is a rare malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, harboring recurrent FOXL2 c.C402G/p.C134W hotspot mutations in 97% of cases. These tumors are considered to have a favorable prognosis, however aGCTs have a tendency for local spread and late recurrences, which are associated with poor survival rates. We sought to determine the genetic alterations associated with aGCT disease progression. We subjected primary non-recurrent aGCTs (n = 7), primary aGCTs that subsequently recurred (n = 9) and their matched recurrences (n = 9), and aGCT recurrences without matched primary tumors (n = 10) to targeted massively parallel sequencing of ≥410 cancer-related genes. In addition, three primary non-recurrent aGCTs and nine aGCT recurrences were subjected to FOXL2 and TERT promoter Sanger sequencing analysis. All aGCTs harbored the FOXL2 C134W hotspot mutation. TERT promoter mutations were found to be significantly more frequent in recurrent (18/28, 64%) than primary aGCTs (5/19, 26%, p = 0.017). In addition, mutations affecting TP53, MED12, and TET2 were restricted to aGCT recurrences. Pathway annotation of altered genes demonstrated that aGCT recurrences displayed an enrichment for genetic alterations affecting cell cycle pathway-related genes. Analysis of paired primary and recurrent aGCTs revealed that TERT promoter mutations were either present in both primary tumors and matched recurrences or were restricted to the recurrence and absent in the respective primary aGCT. Clonal composition analysis of these paired samples further revealed that aGCTs display intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and harbor multiple clones at diagnosis and relapse. We observed that in a subset of cases, recurrences acquired additional genetic alterations not present in primary aGCTs, including TERT, MED12, and TP53 mutations and CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions. Albeit harboring relatively simple genomes, our data provide evidence to suggest that aGCTs are genetically heterogeneous tumors and that TERT promoter mutations and/or genetic alterations affecting other cell cycle-related genes may be associated with disease progression and recurrences.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124002

RESUMO

Molecular pathology is an essential part of pathology complementing conventional morphological tools to obtain a correct integrated diagnosis with appropriate assessment of prognosis and prediction of response to therapy, particularly in cancer. There is a concern about the situation of molecular pathology in some areas of Europe, namely, regarding the central role of pathologists in assessing somatic genomic alterations in cancer. In some countries, there are attempts that other laboratory medicine specialists perform the molecular analysis of somatic alterations in cancer, particularly now when next generation sequencing (NGS) is incorporated into clinical practice. In this scenario, pathologists may play just the role of "tissue providers," and other specialists may take the lead in molecular analysis. Geneticists and laboratory medicine specialists have all background and skills to perform genetic analysis of germline alterations in hereditary disorders, including familial forms of cancers. However, interpretation of somatic alterations of cancer belongs to the specific scientific domain of pathology. Pathologists are necessary to guarantee the quality of the results, for several reasons: (1) The identified molecular alterations should be interpreted in the appropriate morphologic context, since most of them are context-specific; (2) pre-analytical issues must be taken into consideration; (3) it is crucial to check the proportion of tumor cells in the sample subjected to analysis and presence of inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis should be monitored; and 4) the role of pathologists is crucial to select the most appropriate methods and to control the turnaround time in which the molecular results are delivered in the context of an integrated diagnosis. Obviously, there is the possibility of having core facilities for NGS in a hospital to perform the sequence analysis that are open to other specialties (microbiologists, geneticists), but also in this scenario, pathologists should have the lead in assessing somatic alterations of cancer. In this article, we emphasize the importance of interpreting somatic molecular alterations of the tumors in the context of morphology. In this Position Paper of the European Society of Pathology, we strongly support a central role of pathology departments in the process of analysis and interpretation of somatic molecular alterations in cancer.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204550

RESUMO

The tumor-suppressor protein p16 is paradoxically overexpressed in cervical cancer (CC). Despite its potential as a biomarker, its clinical value and the reasons for its failure in tumor suppression remain unclear. Our purpose was to determine p16 clinical and biological significance in CC. p16 expression pattern was examined by immunohistochemistry in 78 CC cases (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix -SCCCs). CC cell proliferation and invasion were monitored by real-time cell analysis and Transwell® invasion assay, respectively. Cytoplasmic p16 interactors were identified from immunoprecipitated extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and colocalization was confirmed by double-immunofluorescence. We observed that SCCCs showed significantly more cytoplasmic than nuclear p16 expression than HSILs. Importantly, nuclear p16 absence significantly predicted poor outcome in SCCC patients irrespective of other clinical parameters. Moreover, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic p16 interacted with CDK4 and other unreported proteins, such as BANF1, AKAP8 and AGTRAP, which could sequester p16 to avoid nuclear translocation, and then, impair its anti-tumor function. Our results suggest that the absence of nuclear p16 could be a diagnostic biomarker between HSIL and SCCC, and an independent prognostic biomarker in SCCC; and explain why p16 overexpression fails to stop CC growth.

4.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202704

RESUMO

Cervico-vaginal cytology is primarily a cervical cancer screening test. The anatomical continuity of the uterine cavity with the cervix makes the Papanicolaou (Pap) test accessible to evaluate signs of disease shed from the endometrium. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity of routine Pap test in endometrial carcinoma detection and its relationship with clinico-pathologic factors. We performed a systematic review of studies reporting Pap test results prior to diagnosis of or surgery for endometrial carcinoma between 1990 and 2018 in PubMed or Web of Science. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. We identified 45 studies including a total of 6599 women with endometrial cancer. Abnormal Pap test results prior to diagnosis of or surgery for endometrial carcinoma were observed in 45% (95% CI, 40%-50%) of study participants. This percentage was significantly higher among those of non-endometrioid histology compared with endometrioid subtypes (77% [95% CI, 66%-87%] vs 44% [95% CI, 34%-53%], respectively; P heterogeneity <.001). Several clinico-pathologic factors were related to a higher percentage of abnormal Pap test results, including high-stage, myometrial invasion >50%, high histological grade, positive peritoneal cytology, presence of lymph node metastasis, cervical involvement, and lymphovascular invasion (P heterogeneity <.05 for all variables). Routine cervical cytology can detect endometrial cancer in almost half of patients, whereas sensitivity is higher among individuals with non-endometrioid histology or more advanced cancers. This review summarizes the current clinical and prognostic value of cervical cytology in endometrial carcinoma. Recent technological developments using molecular biomarkers may improve accuracy for early cancer detection.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953839

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Although most patients are diagnosed at early stages, 15-20% will relapse despite local treatment. Presently, there are no reliable markers to identify patients with worse outcomes who may benefit from adjuvant treatments, such as chemotherapy, and liquid biopsies may be of use in this setting. Peritoneal lavages are systematically performed during endometrial surgery but little data are available about their potential as liquid biopsies. We analyzed KRAS and PIK3CA mutations in paired surgical biopsies, blood and cytology-negative peritoneal lavages in a cohort of 50 EC patients. Surgical biopsies were submitted to next-generation sequencing (NGS) while circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) purified from plasma and peritoneal lavages was analyzed for KRAS and PIK3CA hotspot mutations using a sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. NGS of biopsies revealed KRAS, PIK3CA or concomitant KRAS + PIK3CA mutations in 33/50 (66%) EC patients. Of those, 19 cases carried hotspot mutations. Quantitative PCR revealed KRAS and/or PIK3CA mutations in the lavages of 9/19 (47.4%) hotspot EC patients. In contrast, only 2/19 (10.5%) blood samples from hotspot EC patients were positive. Mutations found in cfDNA consistently matched those in paired biopsies. One of the two patients positive in plasma and lavage died in less than 6 months. In conclusion, mutational analysis in peritoneal lavages and blood from early stage EC is feasible. Further studies are warranted to determine if it might help to identify patients with worse prognosis. Human genes discussed: KRAS, KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase; PIK3CA, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha.

6.
Rev Esp Patol ; 53(1): 27-36, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932006

RESUMO

The recent changes in the classification and staging of thyroid tumors have arisen from the need to provide an adequate response to the exponential increase of thyroid cancer, which, however, has not been accompanied by an increase in mortality. These changes pretend to reduce overdiagnoses of malignancy, unnecessary treatment, side effects as well as cost for the health system. To this end, this article reviews recommendations for the management of thyroid surgical pathology samples with emphasis on the new terminology of the WHO classification. The basic criteria for the diagnosis of malignancy in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are reviewed and the criteria for NIFTP (non-invasive follicular tumor with papillary-like nuclear features) diagnosis are updated. Recommendations for the elaboration of the pathological report are also included.

8.
Cancer ; 126(4): 894-907, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exhibit promising activity against ovarian cancers, but their efficacy can be limited by acquired drug resistance. This study explores the role of autophagy in regulating the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to PARP inhibitors. METHODS: Induction of autophagy was detected by punctate LC3 fluorescence staining, LC3I to LC3II conversion on Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis were observed when PARP inhibitors were used with hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine (CQ), or LYS05 to block the hydrolysis of proteins and lipids in autophagosomes or with small interfering RNA against ATG5 or ATG7 to prevent the formation of autophagosomes. The preclinical efficacy of the combination of CQ and olaparib was evaluated with a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and the OVCAR8 human ovarian cancer cell line. RESULTS: Four PARP inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib) induced autophagy in a panel of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy with CQ enhanced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to PARP inhibitors. In vivo, olaparib and CQ produced additive growth inhibition in OVCAR8 xenografts and a PDX. Olaparib inhibited PARP activity, and this led to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an accumulation of γ-H2AX. Inhibition of autophagy also increased ROS and γ-H2AX and enhanced the effect of olaparib on both entities. Treatment with olaparib increased phosphorylation of ATM and PTEN while decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR and inducing autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: PARP inhibitor-induced autophagy provides an adaptive mechanism of resistance to PARP inhibitors in cancer cells with wild-type BRCA, and a combination of PARP inhibitors with CQ or other autophagy inhibitors could improve outcomes for patients with ovarian cancer.

9.
Histopathology ; 76(3): 447-460, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550396

RESUMO

AIMS: Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) represents the most aggressive subtype of endometrial carcinoma (EC). According to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), ESC exhibits a genomic profile characterised by frequent TP53 mutations and somatic copy-number alterations (SCNA). Several studies have suggested the role of intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) in tumour progression and therapy resistance, highlighting ITH as a challenge for personalised medicine. ITH is described as the co-existence of clonal and subclonal cellular populations within a single tumour. To date, the extent and prevalence of ITH in ESC have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to address ITH analysis in ESC. We performed a descriptive integrated molecular approach using targeted sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to identify mutations and SCNA patterns, respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight ESC were examined, selecting three tumour regions per case and their corresponding normal tissue. For targeted sequencing a gene panel of 40 genes based on TCGA and other survey data was performed. For MLPA different probe mixes were used to detect SCNA in 106 genes. Analysis of mutations and SCNA were performed in each sample and comparative analysis of the three tumour regions was also conducted. Targeted sequencing showed that mutations in TP53, PIK3CA and PPP2R1A were ubiquitous in all tumour regions. Moreover, MLPA results demonstrated a high frequency of SCNA, according to the already known presence of genomic instability in ESC. Unlike the homogeneous distribution of somatic mutations, SCNA exhibited ITH affecting targetable genes such as ERBB2. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that somatic gene copy-number alterations are the main source of ITH in ESC.

10.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 312-322, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829447

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma (EC) molecular classification based on four molecular subclasses identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has gained relevance in recent years due to its prognostic utility and potential to predict benefit from adjuvant treatment. While most ECs can be classified based on a single classifier (POLE exonuclease domain mutations - POLEmut, MMR deficiency - MMRd, p53 abnormal - p53abn), a small but clinically relevant group of tumours harbour more than one molecular classifying feature and are referred to as 'multiple-classifier' ECs. We aimed to describe the clinicopathological and molecular features of multiple-classifier ECs with abnormal p53 (p53abn). Within a cohort of 3518 molecularly profiled ECs, 107 (3%) tumours displayed p53abn in addition to another classifier(s), including 64 with MMRd (MMRd-p53abn), 31 with POLEmut (POLEmut-p53abn), and 12 with all three aberrations (MMRd-POLEmut-p53abn). MMRd-p53abn ECs and POLEmut-p53abn ECs were mostly grade 3 endometrioid ECs, early stage, and frequently showed morphological features characteristic of MMRd or POLEmut ECs. 18/28 (60%) MMRd-p53abn ECs and 7/15 (46.7%) POLEmut-p53abn ECs showed subclonal p53 overexpression, suggesting that TP53 mutation was a secondary event acquired during tumour progression. Hierarchical clustering of TCGA ECs by single nucleotide variant (SNV) type and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) revealed that MMRd-p53abn tumours mostly clustered with single-classifier MMRd tumours (20/23) rather than single-classifier p53abn tumours (3/23), while POLEmut-p53abn tumours mostly clustered with single-classifier POLEmut tumours (12/13) and seldom with single-classifier p53abn tumours (1/13) (both p ≤ 0.001, chi-squared test). Finally, the clinical outcome of patients with MMRd-p53abn and POLEmut-p53abn ECs [stage I 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 92.2% and 94.1%, respectively] was significantly different from single-classifier p53abn EC (stage I RFS 70.8%, p = 0.024 and p = 0.050, respectively). Our results support the classification of MMRd-p53abn EC as MMRd and POLEmut-p53abn EC as POLEmut. © 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877318

RESUMO

Melanoma is a malignant neoplasia that is highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is associated with poor prognosis in advanced stage. Targeting melanoma that harbors the common BRAFV600E mutation with kinase inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, reduces tumor burden, but these tumors frequently acquire resistance to these drugs. We previously proposed that T-type calcium channel (TTCC) expression may serve as a biomarker for melanoma progression and prognosis, and we showed that TTCC blockers reduce migration and invasion rates because of autophagy blockade only in BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma cells. Here, we demonstrated that high expression of the TTCC Cav3.1 isoform is related to autophagic status in vemurafenib-resistant BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma cells and human biopsies, and in silico analysis revealed an enrichment of Cav3.1 expression in post-treatment melanomas. We also demonstrated that the TTCC blocker mibefradil induces apoptosis and impairs migration and invasion via inhibition of autophagy in resistant melanoma cells and mouse xenograft models. Moreover, we identified an association between PTEN status and Cav3.1 expression in these cells as a marker of sensitivity to combination therapy in resistant cells. Together, our results suggest that TTCC blockers offer a potential targeted therapy in resistant BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma and a therapeutic strategy to reduce progression toward BRAF inhibitor resistance.

12.
Cancer Cell ; 36(6): 613-629.e7, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761658

RESUMO

Retroviral gene transfer of interleukin-12 (IL-12) into T cells markedly enhances antitumor efficacy upon adoptive transfer but has clinically shown unacceptable severe side effects. To overcome the toxicity, we engineered tumor-specific CD8+ T cells to transiently express IL-12. Engineered T cells injected intratumorally, but not intravenously, led to complete rejections not only of the injected lesion but also of distant concomitant tumors. Efficacy was further enhanced by co-injection with agonist anti-CD137 mAb or by transient co-expression of CD137 ligand. This treatment induced epitope spreading of the endogenous CD8+ T cell immune response in a manner dependent on cDC1 dendritic cells. Mouse and human tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte cultures can be transiently IL-12 engineered to attain marked immunotherapeutic effects.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698766

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a prevalent disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a proinflammatory molecule, promotes and helps maintain the inflammatory state of endometriosis. Moreover, ATP has a direct influence on the two main symptoms of endometriosis: infertility and pain. Purinergic signaling, the group of biological responses to extracellular nucleotides such as ATP and nucleosides such as adenosine, is involved in the biology of reproduction and is impaired in pathologies with an inflammatory component such as endometriosis. We have previously demonstrated that ectonucleotidases, the enzymes regulating extracellular ATP levels, are active in non-pathological endometria, with hormone-dependent changes in expression throughout the cycle. In the present study we have focused on the expression of ectonucleotidases by means of immunohistochemistry and in situ activity in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis, and we compared the results with endometria of women without the disease. We have demonstrated that the axis CD39-CD73 is altered in endometriosis, with loss of CD39 and CD73 expression in deep infiltrating endometriosis, the most severe, and most recurring, endometriosis subtype. Our results indicate that this altered expression of ectonucleotidases in endometriosis boosts ATP accumulation in the tissue microenvironment. An important finding is the identification of the nucleotide pyrophophatase/phosphodiesterase 3 (NPP3) as a new histopathological marker of the disease since we have demonstrated its expression in the stroma only in endometriosis, in both eutopic and ectopic tissue. Therefore, targeting the proteins directly involved in ATP breakdown could be an appropriate approach to consider in the treatment of endometriosis.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15057, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636323

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men and women in the world, accounting for the 25% of cancer mortality. Early diagnosis is an unmet clinical issue. In this work, we focused to develop a novel approach to identify highly sensitive and specific biomarkers by investigating the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the pleural lavage, a proximal fluid in lung cancer patients, as a source of potential biomarkers. We isolated EVs by ultracentrifuge method from 25 control pleural fluids and 21 pleural lavages from lung cancer patients. Analysis of the expression of EV-associated miRNAs was performed using Taqman OpenArray technology through which we could detect 288 out of the 754 miRNAs that were contained in the OpenArray. The differential expression analysis yielded a list of 14 miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated (adj. p-value < 0.05 and logFC lower or higher than 3). Using Machine Learning approach we discovered the lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers; miRNA-1-3p, miRNA-144-5p and miRNA-150-5p were found to be the best by accuracy. Accordance with our finding, these miRNAs have been related to cancer processes in previous studies. This results opens the avenue to the use of EV-associated miRNA of pleural fluids and lavages as an untapped source of biomarkers, and specifically, identifies miRNA-1-3p, miRNA-144-5p and miRNA 150-5p as promising biomarkers of lung cancer diagnosis.

15.
Rev Esp Patol ; 52(4): 234-241, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530406

RESUMO

Tumors display a high, albeit variable, grade of intratumor heterogeneity, both from a clinical and a morphological viewpoint. Furthermore, recent methods of large-scale molecular analysis demonstrate to what extent tumors can also be heterogeneous from a molecular perspective. This is of paramount importance for patients as it has a great impact on the success of so-called precision therapies and explains the reason for a significant number of therapeutic failures in modern oncology. We present an up-to-date review of the latest findings in a group of tumors with a high social impact, commonly seen in the daily routine of the pathology laboratory.

16.
Oncogene ; 38(32): 6035-6050, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278368

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to the silent nature on its early onset and the rapid acquisition of drug resistance. Histologically heterogeneous, it includes several subtypes with different mutational landscapes, hampering the development of effective targeted therapies. Non-coding RNAs are emerging as potential new therapeutic targets in cancer. To search for a microRNA signature related to ovarian carcinomas and study its potential as effective targeted therapy, we examined the expression of 768 miRNA in a large collection of tumor samples and found miR-654-5p to be infraexpressed in ovarian serous carcinomas, the most common and aggressive type. Restoration of miR-654-5p levels reduced tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo and impaired sphere formation capacity and viability of ovarian cancer patient-derived ascitic cells ex vivo. CDCP1 and PLAGL2 oncogenes were found to be the most relevant direct miR-654-5p targets and both genes convey in a molecular signature associated with key cancer pathways relevant to ovarian tumorigenesis, such as MYC, WNT and AKT pathways. Together, we unveiled the tumor suppressor function of miR-654-5p, suggesting that its restoration or co-targeting of CDCP1 and PLAGL2 may be an effective therapeutic approach for ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Proteína Wnt1/genética , Proteína Wnt1/metabolismo
17.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 208, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current systematic methods for diagnosing have inherent limitations so development of a minimally-invasive diagnosis, based on the identification of sensitive biomarkers in liquid biopsies could therefore facilitate screening among population at risk. METHODS: In this study, we aim to develop a novel approach to identify highly sensitive and specific biomarkers by investigating the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the peritoneal lavage as a source of potential miRNA diagnostic biomarkers. We isolated EVs by ultracentrifugation from 25 ascitic fluids and 25 peritoneal lavages from non-cancer and CRC patients, respectively. Analysis of the expression of EV-associated miRNAs was performed using Taqman OpenArray technology through which we could detect 371 miRNAs. RESULTS: 210 miRNAs were significantly dysregulated (adjusted p value < 0.05 and abs(logFC) ≥ 1). The top-10 miRNAs, which had the AUC value higher than 0.95, were miRNA-199b-5p, miRNA-150-5p, miRNA-29c-5p, miRNA-218-5p, miRNA-99a-3p, miRNA-383-5p, miRNA-199a-3p, miRNA-193a-5p, miRNA-10b-5p and miRNA-181c-5p. CONCLUSIONS: This finding opens the avenue to the use of EV-associated miRNA of peritoneal lavages as an untapped source of biomarkers for CRC.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3194-3206, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199503

RESUMO

Due to the anatomical continuity of the uterine cavity with the cervix, genomic exploitation of material from routine Pap smears and other noninvasive sampling methods represent a unique opportunity to detect signs of disease using biological material shed from the upper genital tract. Recent research findings offer a promising perspective in the detection of endometrial cancer, but certain questions need to be addressed in order to accelerate the implementation of novel technologies in a routine screening or clinical setting. We discuss here new perspectives on detection of endometrial cancer using genomic and other biomarkers in minimally invasive sampling methods with a special focus on public health classic screening criteria, highlighting current gaps in knowledge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 129-132, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current availability of genomic information represents an opportunity to develop new strategies for early detection of cancer. New molecular tests for endometrial cancer may improve performance and failure rates of histological aspirate-based diagnosis, and provide promising perspectives for a potential screening scenario. However, the selection of relevant biomarkers to develop efficient strategies can be a challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an algorithm to identify the largest number of patients with endometrial cancer using the minimum number of somatic mutations based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. RESULTS: The algorithm provided the number of subjects with mutations (sensitivity) for a given number of biomarkers included in the signature. For instance, by evaluating the 50 most representative point mutations, up to 81.9% of endometrial cancers can be identified in the TCGA dataset. At gene level, a 92.9% sensitivity can be obtained by interrogating five genes. DISCUSSION: We developed a computational method to aid in the selection of relevant genomic biomarkers in endometrial cancer that can be adapted to other cancer types or diseases.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216648

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and is responsible for more than 89,000 deaths every year. Mortality is associated with presence of poor prognostic factors at diagnosis, i.e., diagnosis at an advanced stage, with a high grade and/or an aggressive histology. Development of novel approaches that would permit us to improve the clinical management of EC patients is an unmet need. In this study, we investigate a novel approach to identify highly sensitive and specific biomarkers of EC using extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the peritoneal lavage of EC patients. EVs of peritoneal lavages of 25 EC patients were isolated and their miRNA content was compared with miRNAs of EVs isolated from the ascitic fluid of 25 control patients. Expression of the EV-associated miRNAs was measured using the Taqman OpenArray technology that allowed us to detect 371 miRNAs. The analysis showed that 114 miRNAs were significantly dysregulated in EC patients, among which eight miRNAs, miRNA-383-5p, miRNA-10b-5p, miRNA-34c-3p, miRNA-449b-5p, miRNA-34c-5p, miRNA-200b-3p, miRNA-2110, and miRNA-34b-3p, demonstrated a classification performance at area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values above 0.9. This finding opens an avenue for the use of EV-associated miRNAs of peritoneal lavages as an untapped source of biomarkers for EC.

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