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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508238

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide and is often associated with aspects of metabolic syndrome. Despite its prevalence and the importance of early diagnosis, there is a lack of robustly validated biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease progression in response to a given treatment. In this Review, we provide an overview of the contribution of metabolomics and lipidomics in clinical studies to identify biomarkers associated with NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, we highlight the key metabolic pathways in NAFLD and NASH that have been identified by metabolomics and lipidomics approaches and could potentially be used as biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostic tests. Overall, the studies demonstrated alterations in amino acid metabolism and several aspects of lipid metabolism including circulating fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and bile acids. Although we report several studies that identified potential biomarkers, few have been validated.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
3.
Oncogene ; 40(39): 5866-5879, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349244

RESUMO

Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) is a tumor suppressor downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, two of the fastest rising cancers worldwide. We compared MATα1 (protein encoded by MAT1A) interactome in normal versus cancerous livers by mass spectrometry to reveal interactions with 14-3-3ζ. The MATα1/14-3-3ζ complex was critical for the expression of 14-3-3ζ. Similarly, the knockdown and small molecule inhibitor for 14-3-3ζ (BV02), and ChIP analysis demonstrated the role of 14-3-3ζ in suppressing MAT1A expression. Interaction between MATα1 and 14-3-3ζ occurs directly and is enhanced by AKT2 phosphorylation of MATα1. Blocking their interaction enabled nuclear MATα1 translocation and inhibited tumorigenesis. In contrast, overexpressing 14-3-3ζ lowered nuclear MATα1 levels and promoted tumor progression. However, tumor-promoting effects of 14-3-3ζ were eliminated when liver cancer cells expressed mutant MATα1 unable to interact with 14-3-3ζ. Taken together, the reciprocal negative regulation that MATα1 and 14-3-3ζ exert is a key mechanism in liver tumorigenesis.

4.
Hepatology ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) is responsible for S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) biosynthesis in the liver. Mice lacking Mat1a have hepatic SAMe depletion, develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously. Several kinases are activated in Mat1a knockout (KO) mice livers. However, the phosphos-proteome has not been characterized and whether they contribute to liver pathology is largely unknown. Our study aimed to fill this gap. APPROACH & RESULTS: We performed phospho-proteomics in Mat1a KO mice livers with and without SAMe treatment to identify SAMe-dependent changes that may contribute to liver pathology. Our studies used Mat1a KO mice at different ages treated with and without SAMe, cell lines, in vitro translation and kinase assays, and human liver specimens. We found the most striking change was hyperphosphorylation and increased content of La-Related Protein 1 (LARP1), which in the unphosphorylated form negatively regulates translation of 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP)-containing mRNAs. Consistently, multiple TOP proteins are induced in the KO livers. The translation of TOP mRNAs RPS3 and RPL18 was enhanced by LARP1 overexpression in liver cancer cells. We identified LARP1-T449 as a novel, SAMe-sensitive phospho-site of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Knocking down CDK2 lowered LARP1 phosphorylation and prevented LARP1 overexpression mediated increase in translation. LARP1-T449 phosphorylation induced global translation, cell growth, migration, invasion, and expression of oncogenic TOP-ribosomal proteins in HCC cells. LARP1 expression is increased in human NASH and HCC. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a novel SAMe-sensitive mechanism of LARP1 phosphorylation that may be involved in the progression of NASH to HCC.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406757

RESUMO

We report the structure and charge transport properties of a novel solid-state proton conductor obtained by acid-base chemistry via proton transfer from 12-tungstophosphoric acid to imidazole. The resulting material (henceforth named Imid3WP) is a solid salt hydrate that, at room temperature, includes four water molecules per structural unit. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to tune the properties of a heteropolyacid-based solid-state proton conductor by means of a mixture of water and imidazole, interpolating between water-based and ionic liquid-based proton conductors of high thermal and electrochemical stability. The proton conductivity of Imid3WP·4H2O measured at truly anhydrous conditions reads 0.8 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 322 K, which is higher than the conductivity reported for any other related salt hydrate, despite the lower hydration. In the pseudoanhydrous state, that is, for Imid3WP·2H2O, the proton conductivity is still remarkable and, judging from the low activation energy (Ea = 0.26 eV), attributed to structural diffusion of protons. From complementary X-ray diffraction data, vibrational spectroscopy, and solid-state NMR experiments, the local structure of this salt hydrate was resolved, with imidazolium cations preferably orienting flat on the surface of the tungstophosphate anions, thus achieving a densely packed solid material, and water molecules of hydration that establish extremely strong hydrogen bonds. Computational results confirm these structural details and also evidence that the path of lowest energy for the proton transfer involves primarily imidazole and water molecules, while the proximate Keggin anion contributes with reducing the energy barrier for this particular pathway.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 20(8): 4139-4152, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251833

RESUMO

Quantitative plasma lipoprotein and metabolite profiles were measured on an autonomous community of the Basque Country (Spain) cohort consisting of hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 72) and a matched control group (n = 75) and a Western Australian (WA) cohort consisting of (n = 17) SARS-CoV-2 positives and (n = 20) healthy controls using 600 MHz 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spanish samples were measured in two laboratories using one-dimensional (1D) solvent-suppressed and T2-filtered methods with in vitro diagnostic quantification of lipoproteins and metabolites. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and healthy controls from both populations were modeled and cross-projected to estimate the biological similarities and validate biomarkers. Using the top 15 most discriminatory variables enabled construction of a cross-predictive model with 100% sensitivity and specificity (within populations) and 100% sensitivity and 82% specificity (between populations). Minor differences were observed between the control metabolic variables in the two cohorts, but the lipoproteins were virtually indistinguishable. We observed highly significant infection-related reductions in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction 4 phospholipids, apolipoproteins A1 and A2,that have previously been associated with negative regulation of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The Spanish and Australian diagnostic SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers were mathematically and biologically equivalent, demonstrating that NMR-based technologies are suitable for the study of the comparative pathology of COVID-19 via plasma phenotyping.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Lipoproteínas
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 155, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multimorbid long-term condition without consensual medical definition and a diagnostic based on compatible symptomatology. Here we have investigated the molecular signature of MetS in urine. METHODS: We used NMR-based metabolomics to investigate a European cohort including urine samples from 11,754 individuals (18-75 years old, 41% females), designed to populate all the intermediate conditions in MetS, from subjects without any risk factor up to individuals with developed MetS (4-5%, depending on the definition). A set of quantified metabolites were integrated from the urine spectra to obtain metabolic models (one for each definition), to discriminate between individuals with MetS. RESULTS: MetS progression produces a continuous and monotonic variation of the urine metabolome, characterized by up- or down-regulation of the pertinent metabolites (17 in total, including glucose, lipids, aromatic amino acids, salicyluric acid, maltitol, trimethylamine N-oxide, and p-cresol sulfate) with some of the metabolites associated to MetS for the first time. This metabolic signature, based solely on information extracted from the urine spectrum, adds a molecular dimension to MetS definition and it was used to generate models that can identify subjects with MetS (AUROC values between 0.83 and 0.87). This signature is particularly suitable to add meaning to the conditions that are in the interface between healthy subjects and MetS patients. Aging and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are also risk factors that may enhance MetS probability, but they do not directly interfere with the metabolic discrimination of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Urine metabolomics, studied by NMR spectroscopy, unravelled a set of metabolites that concomitantly evolve with MetS progression, that were used to derive and validate a molecular definition of MetS and to discriminate the conditions that are in the interface between healthy individuals and the metabolic syndrome.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 555, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050139

RESUMO

Dysregulation of miRNAs is a hallmark of cancer, modulating oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and drug responsiveness. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is one of the first-line drugs for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the outcome for treated patients is heterogeneous. The identification of predictive biomarkers and targets of sorafenib efficacy are sorely needed. Thus, selected top upregulated miRNAs from the C19MC cluster were analyzed in different hepatoma cell lines compared to immortalized liver human cells, THLE-2 as control. MiR-518d-5p showed the most consistent upregulation among them. Thus, miR-518d-5p was measured in liver tumor/non-tumor samples of two distinct cohorts of HCC patients (n = 16 and n = 20, respectively). Circulating miR-518d-5p was measured in an independent cohort of HCC patients receiving sorafenib treatment (n = 100), where miR-518d-5p was analyzed in relation to treatment duration and patient's overall survival. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed in human hepatoma BCLC3 and Huh7 cells to analyze the effect of miR-518d-5p inhibition/overexpression during the response to sorafenib. Compared with healthy individuals, miR-518d-5p levels were higher in hepatic and serum samples from HCC patients (n = 16) and in an additional cohort of tumor/non-tumor paired samples (n = 20). MiR-518d-5p, through the inhibition of c-Jun and its mitochondrial target PUMA, desensitized human hepatoma cells and mouse xenograft to sorafenib-induced apoptosis. Finally, serum miR-518d-5p was assessed in 100 patients with HCC of different etiologies and BCLC-stage treated with sorafenib. In BCLC-C patients, higher serum miR-518d-5p at diagnosis was associated with shorter sorafenib treatment duration and survival. Hence, hepatic miR-518d-5p modulates sorafenib resistance in HCC through inhibition of c-Jun/PUMA-induced apoptosis. Circulating miR-518d-5p emerges as a potential lack of response biomarker to sorafenib in BCLC-C HCC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 486, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879833

RESUMO

There is an ongoing need of developing sensitive and specific methods for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion. For this purpose, we have developed a multiplexed flow cytometric bead array (C19BA) that allows the identification of IgG and IgM antibodies against three immunogenic proteins simultaneously: the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), the spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and the nucleoprotein (N). Using different cohorts of samples collected before and after the pandemic, we show that this assay is more sensitive than ELISAs performed in our laboratory. The combination of three viral antigens allows for the interrogation of full seroconversion. Importantly, we have detected N-reactive antibodies in COVID-19-negative individuals. Here we present an immunoassay that can be easily implemented and has superior potential to detect low antibody titers compared to current gold standard serology methods.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Nucleoproteínas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670179

RESUMO

Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) is the fifth enzyme in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in human FAH leads to hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1), an autosomal recessive disorder that results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone, maleylacetoacetate, and fumarylacetoacetate in the liver and kidney, among other tissues. The disease is severe and, when untreated, it can lead to death. A low tyrosine diet combined with the herbicidal nitisinone constitutes the only available therapy, but this treatment is not devoid of secondary effects and long-term complications. In this study, we targeted FAH for the first-time to discover new chemical modulators that act as pharmacological chaperones, directly associating with this enzyme. After screening several thousand compounds and subsequent chemical redesign, we found a set of reversible inhibitors that associate with FAH close to the active site and stabilize the (active) dimeric species, as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy. Importantly, the inhibitors are also able to partially restore the normal phenotype in a newly developed cellular model of HT1.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Tirosinemias/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosinemias/enzimologia , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hidrolases/genética , Camundongos , Tirosinemias/genética
11.
Hepatology ; 73(2): 606-624, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. Although GPR55 has been linked to energy homeostasis in different organs, its specific role in lipid metabolism in the liver and its contribution to the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured (1) GPR55 expression in the liver of patients with NAFLD compared with individuals without obesity and without liver disease, as well as animal models with steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and (2) the effects of LPI and genetic disruption of GPR55 in mice, human hepatocytes, and human hepatic stellate cells. Notably, we found that circulating LPI and liver expression of GPR55 were up-regulated in patients with NASH. LPI induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and increased lipid content in human hepatocytes and in the liver of treated mice by inducing de novo lipogenesis and decreasing ß-oxidation. The inhibition of GPR55 and ACCα blocked the effects of LPI, and the in vivo knockdown of GPR55 was sufficient to improve liver damage in mice fed a high-fat diet and in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet. Finally, LPI promoted the initiation of hepatic stellate cell activation by stimulating GPR55 and activation of ACC. CONCLUSIONS: The LPI/GPR55 system plays a role in the development of NAFLD and NASH by activating ACC.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261190

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that occurs in chronic liver disease. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that is crucial for a plethora of physiological processes. Even though the ubiquitin system has been implicated in several human diseases, the role of ubiquitination in liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. Here, multi-omics approaches were used to address this. Untargeted metabolomics showed that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis promotes changes in the hepatic metabolome, specifically in glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Gene ontology analysis of public deposited gene array-based data and validation in our mouse model showed that the biological process "protein polyubiquitination" is enriched after CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Finally, by using transgenic mice expressing biotinylated ubiquitin (bioUb mice), the ubiquitinated proteome was isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry in order to unravel the hepatic ubiquitinated proteome fingerprint in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. Under these conditions, ubiquitination appears to be involved in the regulation of cell death and survival, cell function, lipid metabolism, and DNA repair. Finally, ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is induced during CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and associated with the DNA damage response (DDR). Overall, hepatic ubiquitome profiling can highlight new therapeutic targets for the clinical management of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Genômica , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Regeneração Hepática , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
13.
Hepatology ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes in the body. However, precise characterization of liver metabolism is often obscured by its inherent complexity. Phosphorylated metabolites occupy a prominent position in all anabolic and catabolic pathways. Here, we develop a 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based method to study the liver "phosphorome" through the simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple hydrophilic and hydrophobic phosphorylated metabolites. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We applied this technique to define the metabolic landscape in livers from a mouse model of the rare disease disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) as well as two well-known murine models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one genetic, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice, and the other dietary, mice fed a high-fat choline-deficient diet. We report alterations in the concentrations of phosphorylated metabolites that are readouts of the balance between glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation and of phospholipid metabolism and apoptosis. Moreover, these changes correlate with the main histological features: steatosis, apoptosis, iron deposits, and fibrosis. Strikingly, treatment with the repurposed drug ciclopirox improves the phosphoromic profile of CEP mice, an effect that was mirrored by the normalization of liver histology. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMR-based phosphoromics may be used to unravel metabolic phenotypes of liver injury and to identify the mechanism of drug action.

14.
iScience ; 23(10): 101645, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043283

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a systemic infection that exerts significant impact on the metabolism. Yet, there is little information on how SARS-CoV-2 affects metabolism. Using NMR spectroscopy, we measured the metabolomic and lipidomic serum profile from 263 (training cohort) + 135 (validation cohort) symptomatic patients hospitalized after positive PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also established the profiles of 280 persons collected before the coronavirus pandemic started. Principal-component analysis discriminated both cohorts, highlighting the impact that the infection has on overall metabolism. The lipidomic analysis unraveled a pathogenic redistribution of the lipoprotein particle size and composition to increase the atherosclerotic risk. In turn, metabolomic analysis reveals abnormally high levels of ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone) and 2-hydroxybutyric acid, a readout of hepatic glutathione synthesis and marker of oxidative stress. Our results are consistent with a model in which SARS-CoV-2 infection induces liver damage associated with dyslipidemia and oxidative stress.

15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(34): 5101-5117, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arachidyl amido cholanoic acid (Aramchol) is a potent downregulator of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) protein expression that reduces liver triglycerides and fibrosis in animal models of steatohepatitis. In a phase IIb clinical trial in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 52 wk of treatment with Aramchol reduced blood levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c, an indicator of glycemic control. AIM: To assess lipid and glucose metabolism in mouse hepatocytes and in a NASH mouse model [induced with a 0.1% methionine and choline deficient diet (0.1MCD)] after treatment with Aramchol. METHODS: Isolated primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with 20 µmol/L Aramchol or vehicle for 48 h. Subsequently, analyses were performed including Western blot, proteomics by mass spectrometry, and fluxomic analysis with 13C-uniformly labeled glucose. For the in vivo part of the study, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly fed a control or 0.1MCD for 4 wk and received 1 or 5 mg/kg/d Aramchol or vehicle by intragastric gavage for the last 2 wk. Liver metabolomics were assessed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight-MS for the determination of glucose metabolism-related metabolites. RESULTS: Combination of proteomics and Western blot analyses showed increased AMPK activity while the activity of nutrient sensor mTORC1 was decreased by Aramchol in hepatocytes. This translated into changes in the content of their downstream targets including proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis and oxidation [P-ACCα/ß(S79), SCD1, CPT1A/B, HADHA, and HADHB], oxidative phosphorylation (NDUFA9, NDUFB11, NDUFS1, NDUFV1, ETFDH, and UQCRC2), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (MDH2, SUCLA2, and SUCLG2), and ribosome (P-p70S6K[T389] and P-S6[S235/S236]). Flux experiments with 13C-uniformely labeled glucose showed that TCA cycle cataplerosis was reduced by Aramchol in hepatocytes, as indicated by the increase in the number of rounds that malate remained in the TCA cycle. Finally, liver metabolomic analysis showed that glucose homeostasis was improved by Aramchol in 0.1MCD fed mice in a dose-dependent manner, showing normalization of glucose, G6P, F6P, UDP-glucose, and Rbl5P/Xyl5P. CONCLUSION: Aramchol exerts its effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in NASH through activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTORC1, which in turn activate FA ß-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Cólicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
16.
J Proteome Res ; 19(10): 4163-4178, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966080

RESUMO

Proteoforms containing post-translational modifications (PTMs) represent a degree of functional diversity only harnessed through analytically precise simultaneous quantification of multiple PTMs. Here we present a method to accurately differentiate an unmodified peptide from its PTM-containing counterpart through data-independent acquisition-mass spectrometry, leveraging small precursor mass windows to physically separate modified peptidoforms from each other during MS2 acquisition. We utilize a lysine and arginine PTM-enriched peptide assay library and site localization algorithm to simultaneously localize and quantify seven PTMs including mono-, di-, and trimethylation, acetylation, and succinylation in addition to total protein quantification in a single MS run without the need to enrich experimental samples. To evaluate biological relevance, this method was applied to liver lysate from differentially methylated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models. We report that altered methylation and acetylation together with total protein changes drive the novel hypothesis of a regulatory function of PTMs in protein synthesis and mRNA stability in NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Lisina , Acetilação , Animais , Arginina , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica
18.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 31(7): 1410-1421, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463229

RESUMO

Recent surges in mass spectrometry-based proteomics studies demand a concurrent rise in speedy and optimized data processing tools and pipelines. Although several stand-alone bioinformatics tools exist that provide protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, we developed Protein Interaction Network Extractor (PINE) as a fully automated, user-friendly, graphical user interface application for visualization and exploration of global proteome and post-translational modification (PTM) based networks. PINE also supports overlaying differential expression, statistical significance thresholds, and PTM sites on functionally enriched visualization networks to gain insights into proteome-wide regulatory mechanisms and PTM-mediated networks. To illustrate the relevance of the tool, we explore the total proteome and its PTM-associated relationships in two different nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models to demonstrate different context-specific case studies. The strength of this tool relies in its ability to (1) perform accurate protein identifier mapping to resolve ambiguity, (2) retrieve interaction data from multiple publicly available PPI databases, and (3) assimilate these complex networks into functionally enriched pathways, ontology categories, and terms. Ultimately, PINE can be used as an extremely powerful tool for novel hypothesis generation to understand underlying disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica/métodos , Software , Animais , Visualização de Dados , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo
19.
J Proteome Res ; 19(6): 2419-2428, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380831

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the second most common tumor and the fifth cause of cancer-related death among men worldwide. PC cells exhibit profound signaling and metabolic reprogramming that account for the acquisition of aggressive features. Although the metabolic understanding of this disease has increased in recent years, the analysis of such alterations through noninvasive methodologies in biofluids remains limited. Here, we used NMR-based metabolomics on a large cohort of urine samples (more than 650) from PC and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients to investigate the molecular basis of this disease. Multivariate analysis failed to distinguish between the two classes, highlighting the modest impact of prostate alterations on urine composition and the multifactorial nature of PC. However, univariate analysis of urine metabolites unveiled significant changes, discriminating PC from BPH. Metabolites with altered abundance in urine from PC patients revealed changes in pathways related to cancer biology, including glycolysis and the urea cycle. We found out that metabolites from such pathways were diminished in the urine from PC individuals, strongly supporting the notion that PC reduces nitrogen and carbon waste in order to maximize their usage in anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Neoplasias da Próstata , Carbono , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
20.
World J Hepatol ; 12(2): 46-63, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a metabolically pleiotropic molecule used to treat intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC) and chronic liver diseases. While the efficacy of AdoMet has been demonstrated previously, it has not been systematically investigated within the early weeks of treatment. AIM: To systematically review the early treatment efficacy of AdoMet in adult patients with IHC. METHODS: Studies reporting the efficacy of intravenous, intramuscular, or oral forms of AdoMet within 8 wk of treatment initiation were considered; three randomized and six non-randomized studies were eligible for inclusion (PROSPERO registration number CRD42018090936). Of the three randomized studies, two were double-blind and placebo-controlled, and one was comparator-controlled with unclear blinding and a relatively high risk of bias. Mean serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) following AdoMet treatment vs placebo, comparator, or baseline were summarized to determine differences in liver enzymes. Changes in patient-reported clinical symptoms of cholestasis were also summarized. RESULTS: Both placebo-controlled randomized studies reported significant reductions in serum ALT levels with AdoMet vs placebo within 2 wk. One of these also reported significant ALP reductions, and the other reported significant AST and γGT reductions within 2 wk. The comparator-controlled randomized study, which had a number of notable limitations, reported significant reductions in serum ALT and AST levels with AdoMet vs potassium magnesium aspartate within 4 wk, but not within2 wk. All of the non-randomized studies (4/4) that investigated ALT, AST, ALP and/or γGT reported significant reductions in at least two of these parameters within 2 wk. Of the five studies that evaluated fatigue, reductions were observed within 2 wk in one randomized and two non-randomized studies. The remaining two non-randomized studies reported improvements in fatigue within 6 and 8 wk. Of the four studies reporting symptoms of depression, two non-randomized studies observed improvements within 2 wk and the other two observed improvements within 17 d and 8 wk. CONCLUSION: Data from both randomized and non-randomized studies suggest that AdoMet improves some biochemical liver parameters and symptoms of cholestasis within 2 wk, with further improvements observed in some studies after 4 and 8 wk of treatment.

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