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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234855, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153468

RESUMO

Abstract Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Resumo A exposição à dieta hiperlipídica pode alterar o controle da ingestão de alimentos, promovendo hiperfagia e obesidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dessa dieta sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores de dopamina (drd1 e drd2), da proopiomelanocortina (pomc) e neuropeptídeo Y (npy), e preferência alimentar em ratos adultos. Ratas Wistar foram alimentadas com uma dieta hiperlipídica ou controle durante a gestação e lactação. Os descendentes foram alocados em grupos: Lactação - Controle (C) e Hiperlipídica (H). Pós-desmame - Controle Controle (CC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Controle Hiperlipídica (CH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Controle (HC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Hiperlipídica (HH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame. Os grupos CH e HH apresentaram maior expressão de drd1 em comparação ao CC. O drd2 de CH e HC apresentou maior expressão gênica que o CC. HH apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação com os outros grupos. O HC também apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação ao CH. O npy do HH apresentou maior expressão em relação ao CH e HC. HH e HC tiveram uma preferência maior por uma dieta rica em gordura no 102º dia de vida. A dieta hiperlipídica alterou a expressão gênica dos drd1, drd2, pomc e npy e influenciou na preferência alimentar pela dieta hiperlipídica.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234855, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729380

RESUMO

Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Pró-Opiomelanocortina , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Expressão Gênica , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/genética
3.
Neuroscience ; 196: 16-24, 2011 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21930191

RESUMO

Maternal malnutrition results in learning deficits and predisposition to anxiety and depression in the offspring that extend into adulthood. At the cellular level, learning and memory rely on the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with the etiology and treatment of depression, but whether adult neurogenesis is affected by malnutrition during early life is not known. To investigate the effects of perinatal undernutrition on neurogenesis at adulthood, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either ad libitum (C) or were undernourished by reducing their daily food intake by 50% in relation to the C group during gestation and lactation (FR/FR). At birth, one subset of control pups was cross-fostered to food-restricted dams to constitute a third group of animals that were undernourished during the lactation period only (AdLib/FR). At 90 days of age, pups were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and sacrificed 2 h, 1 week, or 3 weeks later. The number of BrdU-labeled cells in the DG was significantly reduced in the offspring of FR/FR dams in relation to controls at all the time points examined. However, the proportion of new cells exhibiting a neuronal phenotype was higher in FR/FR rats than in controls as revealed by the colabeling at 3 weeks of the BrdU-labeled cells with neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). AdLib/FR animals exhibited also reduced BrdU labeling at 2 h and 1 week. Nevertheless, we found no significant differences at 3 weeks in either the number of BrdU-labeled cells or in the proportion of new neurons between controls and AdLib/FR rats. These results indicate that the decreased number of hippocampal neurons in perinatally undernourished rats is due to the deleterious effects of early nutrient restriction on cell proliferation but not on the neuronal differentiation process of the new generated cells.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 35(7): 990-1000, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21060311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence indicate that nutrient restriction during perinatal development sensitizes the offspring to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in adulthood via the programming of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. Given the link between the circadian clock and energy metabolism, and the resetting action of food on the circadian clock, in this study, we have investigated whether perinatal undernutrition affects the circadian expression rhythms of genes regulating food intake in the hypothalamus and energy metabolism in the liver. DESIGN: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (8% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups received a standard diet and at 17 and 35 days of age, their daily patterns of gene expression were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR experiments. RESULTS: 17-day-old pups exposed to perinatal undernutrition exhibited significant alterations in the circadian expression profile of the transcripts encoding diverse genes regulating food intake, the metabolic enzymes fatty acid synthase and glucokinase as well as the clock genes BMAL1 and Period1. These effects persisted after weaning, were associated with hyperphagia and mirrored the results of the behavioral analysis of feeding. Thus, perinatally undernourished rats exhibited an increased hypothalamic expression of the orexigenic peptides agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y. Conversely, the mRNA levels of the anorexigenic peptides pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcripts were decreased. CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that the circadian clock undergoes nutritional programming. The programming of the circadian clock may contribute to the alterations in feeding and energy metabolism associated with malnutrition in early life, which might promote the development of metabolic disorders in adulthood.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Genes Reguladores/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Análise de Variância , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Desmame
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 43(4): 367-76, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20445952

RESUMO

Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test) and allodynia (von Frey hair test). Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals). The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 microg in 50 microL), blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48% by day 30) in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed's lamina X) and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469%). Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20%), reaching the greatest increase (60%) 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Ciática/enzimologia , Animais , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hiperalgesia/enzimologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ciática/fisiopatologia
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(4): 367-376, Apr. 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: lil-543574

RESUMO

Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test) and allodynia (von Frey hair test). Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals). The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL), blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48 percent by day 30) in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed’s lamina X) and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469 percent). Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20 percent), reaching the greatest increase (60 percent) 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Ciática/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hiperalgesia/enzimologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Ciática/fisiopatologia
7.
Neuroscience ; 151(4): 995-1005, 2008 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18248909

RESUMO

Synaptic modulation by activity-dependent changes constitutes a cellular mechanism for neuronal plasticity. However, it is not clear how the complete lack of neuronal signaling specifically affects elements involved in the communication between neurons. In the retina, it is now well established that both chemical and electrical synapses are essential to mediate the transmission of visual signaling triggered by the photoreceptors. In this study, we compared the expression of synaptic proteins in the retinas of wild-type (WT) vs. rd/rd mice, an animal model that displays inherited and specific ablation of photoreceptors caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase (Pde6brd1). We specifically examined the expression of connexins (Cx), the proteins that form the gap junction channels of electrical synapses, in addition to synaptophysin and synapsin I, which are involved in the release of neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. Our results revealed that Cx36 gene expression levels are lower in the retinas of rd/rd when compared with WT. Confocal analysis indicated that Cx36 immunolabeling almost disappeared in the outer plexiform layer without significant changes in protein distribution within the inner plexiform layer of rd/rd retinas. Likewise, synaptophysin expression remarkably decreased in the outer plexiform layer of rd/rd retinas, and this down-regulation was also associated with diminished transcript levels. Furthermore, we observed down-regulation of Cx57 gene expression in rd/rd retinas when compared with WT and also changes in protein distribution. Interestingly, Cx45 and synapsin I expression in rd/rd retinas showed no noticeable changes when compared with WT. Taken together, our results revealed that the loss of photoreceptors leads to decreased expression of some synaptic proteins. More importantly, this study provides evidence that neuronal activity regulates, but is not essential to maintain, the expression of synaptic elements.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/patologia , Retina/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia
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