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1.
Plant J ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837593

RESUMO

Plants are the world's most consumed goods and they possess high economic and health values. In most countries in Africa, the supply and quality of food will rise to meet the growing population's increasing demand. Genomics and other tools of biotechnology offer the opportunity to improve on subsistence crops and medicinal herbs in the continent. Significant advancement has been made in plant genomics which has enhanced our knowledge of the molecular processes in both plant quality and yield. The sequencing of complex genomes of African plant species, facilitated by the continuously evolving Next Generation sequencing technologies and advanced bioinformatics approaches, have provided new opportunities for crop improvement. This review summarizes the achievements of genome sequencing projects of endemic African plants in the last two decades. We also present perspectives and challenges for future plant genomic studies that will accelerate important plant breeding programs for African communities. These challenges include lack of basic facilities, lack of skills for genomics studies design, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. However, it is imperative to state that African countries have become key players in the plant genome revolution and genome derived-biotechnology. Therefore, African governments should invest in public plant genomics research and applications, establish bioinformatics platforms and training, and stimulate University and Industry partnership to fully deploy plant genomics, particularly to agriculture and medicine.

2.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 24, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741997

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a significant public health burden globally. The role of viral co-infection in the rate of progression of HIV infection has been suggested but not empirically tested, particularly among children. We extracted and classified 42 viral species from whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of 813 HIV-infected children in Botswana and Uganda categorised as either long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) or rapid progressors (RPs). The Ugandan participants had a higher viral community diversity index compared to Batswana (p = 4.6 × 10-13), and viral sequences were more frequently detected among LTNPs than RPs (24% vs 16%; p = 0.008; OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6-2.3), with Anelloviridae showing strong association with LTNP status (p = 3 × 10-4; q = 0.004, OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.74-10.25). This trend was still evident when stratified by country, sex, and sequencing platform, and after a logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, country, and the sequencing platform (p = 0.02; q = 0.03; OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-40.5). Torque teno virus (TTV), which made up 95% of the Anelloviridae reads, has been associated with reduced immune activation. We identify an association between viral co-infection and prolonged AIDs-free survival status that may have utility as a biomarker of LTNP and could provide mechanistic insights to HIV progression in children, demonstrating the added value of interrogating off-target WES reads in cohort studies.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 613468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659002

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains the fourth most prevalent parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Control efforts have focussed on the disruption of the life cycle targeting the parasite, vector and human host. Parasite burdens are highly skewed, and the majority of eggs are shed into the environment by a minority of the infected population. Most morbidity results from hepatic fibrosis leading to portal hypertension and is not well-correlated with worm burden. Genetics as well as environmental factors may play a role in these skewed distributions and understanding the genetic risk factors for intensity of infection and morbidity may help improve control measures. In this review, we focus on how genetic factors may influence parasite load, hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. We found 28 studies on the genetics of human infection and 20 studies on the genetics of pathology in humans. S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection intensity have been showed to be controlled by a major quantitative trait locus SM1, on chromosome 5q31-q33 containing several genes involved in the Th2 immune response, and three other loci of smaller effect on chromosomes 1, 6, and 7. The most common pathology associated with schistosomiasis is hepatic and portal vein fibroses and the SM2 quantitative trait locus on chromosome six has been linked to intensity of fibrosis. Although there has been an emphasis on Th2 cytokines in candidate gene studies, we found that four of the five QTL regions contain Th17 pathway genes that have been included in schistosomiasis studies: IL17B and IL12B in SM1, IL17A and IL17F in 6p21-q2, IL6R in 1p21-q23 and IL22RA2 in SM2. The Th17 pathway is known to be involved in response to schistosome infection and hepatic fibrosis but variants in this pathway have not been tested for any effect on the regulation of these phenotypes. These should be priorities for future studies.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 473-486, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781046

RESUMO

Africa contains more human genetic variation than any other continent, but the majority of the population-scale analyses of the African peoples have focused on just two of the four major linguistic groups, the Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, leaving the Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan populations under-represented. In order to assess genetic variation and signatures of selection within a Nilo-Saharan population and between the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, we sequenced 50 genomes from the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara population of North-West Uganda and 250 genomes from 6 previously unsequenced Niger-Congo populations. We compared these data to data from a further 16 Eurasian and African populations including the Gumuz, another putative Nilo-Saharan population from Ethiopia. Of the 21 million variants identified in the Nilo-Saharan population, 3.57 million (17%) were not represented in dbSNP and included predicted non-synonymous mutations with possible phenotypic effects. We found greater genetic differentiation between the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara and Gumuz populations than between any two Afro-Asiatic or Niger-Congo populations. F3 tests showed that Gumuz contributed a genetic component to most Niger-Congo B populations whereas Lugabara did not. We scanned the genomes of the Lugbara for evidence of selective sweeps. We found selective sweeps at four loci (SLC24A5, SNX13, TYRP1, and UVRAG) associated with skin pigmentation, three of which already have been reported to be under selection. These selective sweeps point toward adaptations to the intense UV radiation of the Sahel.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antiporters/genética , Gerenciamento de Dados , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 318, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutualism between endogenous viruses and eukaryotes is still poorly understood. Several endogenous double-stranded polydnaviruses, bracoviruses, homologous to those present in parasitic braconid wasp genomes were detected in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans). This is peculiar since tsetse flies do not share a reproductive lifestyle similar to wasps, but deliver fully developed larvae that pupate within minutes of exiting their mothers. The objective of this study is to investigate genomic distribution of bracoviral sequences in five tsetse fly species and the housefly, and examine its value as a potential vector control strategy target point. We use comparative genomics to determine the presence, distribution across Glossina species genomes, and evolutionary relationships of bracoviruses of five tsetse fly species and the housefly. RESULTS: We report on homologous bracoviruses in multiple Dipteran genomes. Phylogenetic reconstruction using within-species concatenated bracoviral orthologs shows great congruence with previously reconstructed insect species phylogenies. Our findings suggest that bracoviruses present in Diptera originate from a single integration event of the viral genome that occurred in an ancestor insect before the evolutionary radiation of different insect orders.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 289, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variation is an important class of genomic variation that has been reported in 75% of the human genome. However, it is underreported in African populations. Copy number variants (CNVs) could have important impacts on disease susceptibility and environmental adaptation. To describe CNVs and their possible impacts in Africans, we sequenced genomes of 232 individuals from three major African ethno-linguistic groups: (1) Niger Congo A from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, (2) Niger Congo B from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo and (3) Nilo-Saharans from Uganda. We used GenomeSTRiP and cn.MOPS to identify copy number variant regions (CNVRs). RESULTS: We detected 7608 CNVRs, of which 2172 were only deletions, 2384 were only insertions and 3052 had both. We detected 224 previously un-described CNVRs. The majority of novel CNVRs were present at low frequency and were not shared between populations. We tested for evidence of selection associated with CNVs and also for population structure. Signatures of selection identified previously, using SNPs from the same populations, were overrepresented in CNVRs. When CNVs were tagged with SNP haplotypes to identify SNPs that could predict the presence of CNVs, we identified haplotypes tagging 3096 CNVRs, 372 CNVRs had SNPs with evidence of selection (iHS > 3) and 222 CNVRs had both. This was more than expected (p < 0.0001) and included loci where CNVs have previously been associated with HIV, Rhesus D and preeclampsia. When integrated with 1000 Genomes CNV data, we replicated their observation of population stratification by continent but no clustering by populations within Africa, despite inclusion of Nilo-Saharans and Niger-Congo populations within our dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Novel CNVRs in the current study increase representation of African diversity in the database of genomic variants. Over-representation of CNVRs in SNP signatures of selection and an excess of SNPs that both tag CNVs and are subject to selection show that CNVs may be the actual targets of selection at some loci. However, unlike SNPs, CNVs alone do not resolve African ethno-linguistic groups. Tag haplotypes for CNVs identified may be useful in predicting African CNVs in future studies where only SNP data is available.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008168, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in all regions where gambiense or rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is reported, and both diseases have similarities in their symptomatology. A combined test could be useful for both diseases and would facilitate integration of the screening for gambiense HAT (gHAT) and malaria diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate a combined prototype rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for gHAT and malaria. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Uganda to evaluate the performance of a prototype HAT/Malaria Combined RDT in comparison to an individual malaria RDT based on Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) Histidine Rich Protein II (HRP-II or HRP2) antigen (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag P.f. RDT) for malaria detection and an individual gHAT RDT based on recombinant antigens, the SD BIOLINE HAT 2.0 RDT for HAT screening. Due to the current low prevalence of gHAT in endemic regions, the set of blood samples that were collected was used to evaluate the specificity of the RDTs for gHAT, and additional archived plasma samples were used to complete the evaluation of the HAT/Malaria Combined RDT in comparison to the HAT 2.0 RDT. RESULTS: Frozen whole blood samples from a total of 486 malaria cases and 239 non-malaria controls, as well as archived plasma samples from 246 gHAT positive and 246 gHAT negative individuals were tested. For malaria, the sensitivity and specificity of the malaria band in the HAT/Malaria Combined RDT were 96.9% (95% CI: 95.0-98.3) and 97.1% (95% CI: 94.1-98.8) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the SD BIOLINE malaria Ag P.f. RDT were 97.3% (95% CI: 95.5-98.6) and 97.1% (95% CI: 94.1-98.8) respectively. For gHAT, using archived plasma samples, the sensitivity and specificity were respectively 89% (95% CI: 84.4-92.6) and 93.5% (95% CI: 89.7-96.2) with the HAT/Malaria Combined RDT, and 88.2% (95% CI: 83.5-92) and 94.7% (95% CI: 91.1-97.2) with the HAT 2.0 RDT. Using the whole blood samples that were collected during the study, the specificity of the HAT/Malaria Combined RDT for gHAT was 95.8% (95% CI: 94.3-97.0). CONCLUSION: The HAT/Malaria Combined prototype RDT was as accurate as the individual malaria or gHAT RDTs. The HAT/Malaria Combined prototype RDT is therefore suitable for both malaria diagnosis and gHAT screening. However, there is a need to assess its accuracy using fresh samples in prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Malária/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/sangue , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas de Protozoários/sangue , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/sangue , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 211: 107844, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119932

RESUMO

The Loopamp™ Trypanosoma brucei Detection Kit is the latest addition of molecular techniques for amplification of parasite DNA in biological materials. We have evaluated the kit on a number of preparations of crude templates from the blood of experimentally infected rodents, to provide the best option that can be extrapolated to resource-poor healthcare settings where human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is endemic. We used rodent blood spiked with T. b. brucei at various serial dilutions to test whole blood, that was concentrated by differential lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) followed by centrifugation, or buffy coat samples recovered from whole blood after centrifugation. We also tested crude templates produced after lysis of blood with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or Triton X, and storage for up to 28 days at room temperature after spotting on filter paper or glass slides. Concentration by RBC lysis provided the highest analytical sensitivity (0.04 trypanosomes/ml), closely followed by the much cheaper SDS at 0.1 trypanosomes/ml sensitivity. We also monitored the persistence of DNA in lysed blood dried onto filter papers by testing them weekly with the LAMP kit and by PCR for the 177bp repeats characteristic of the T. brucei subspecies. At a concentration of 100 trypanosomes/ml, signals indicating presence of parasite DNA could be detected up to week 10, while at 10 trypanosomes/ml detection of signals was limited to week 4. Thus, an ordinary filter paper provides a convenient medium for preservation of trypanosome DNA at ambient conditions for use with the LAMP kit in the short run. Lysis of samples with SDS enhanced sensitivity by facilitating parasite DNA availability. This opens the avenue to incorporate LAMP in routine algorithms for HAT diagnosis and surveillance, as well as for monitoring elimination programs.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 14, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhodesiense sleeping sickness is caused by infection with T. b rhodesiense parasites resulting in an acute disease that is fatal if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to understand the global impact of active T. b rhodesiense infection on the patient's immune response in the early and late stages of the disease. METHODS: RNASeq was carried out on blood and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from T. b. rhodesiense infected patients. The control samples used were from healthy individuals in the same foci. The Illumina sequenced reads were analysed using the Tuxedo suite pipeline (Tophat, Cufflinks, Cuffmerge, Cuffdiff) and differential expression analysis carried out using the R package DESeq2. The gene enrichment and function annotation analysis were done using the ToppCluster, DAVID and InnateDB algorithms. RESULTS: We previously described the transcriptomes of T. b rhodesiense from infected early stage blood (n = 3) and late stage CSF (n = 3) samples from Eastern Uganda. We here identify human transcripts that were differentially expressed (padj < 0.05) in the early stage blood versus healthy controls (n = 3) and early stage blood versus late stage CSF. Differential expression in infected blood showed an enrichment of innate immune response genes whereas that of the CSF showed enrichment for anti-inflammatory and neuro-degeneration signalling pathways. We also identified genes (C1QC, MARCO, IGHD3-10) that were up-regulated (log2 FC > 2.5) in both the blood and CSF. CONCLUSION: The data yields insights into the host's response to T. b rhodesiense parasites in the blood and central nervous system. We identified key pathways and signalling molecules for the predominant innate immune response in the early stage infection; and anti-inflammatory and neuro-degeneration pathways associated with sleep disorders in second stage infection. We further identified potential blood biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis of late stage disease without the need for lumbar puncture.

11.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(1)2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046044

RESUMO

We carried out a baseline survey of cattle in Kaberamaido district, in the context of controlling the domestic animal reservoir of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) towards elimination. Cattle blood was subjected to capillary tube centrifugation followed by measurement of the packed cell volume (PCV) and examination of the buffy coat area for motile trypanosomes. Trypanosomes were detected in 561 (21.4%) out of 2621 cattle screened by microscopy. These 561 in addition to 724 apparently trypanosome negative samples with low PCVs (≤25%) were transported to the laboratory and tested by PCR targeting the trypanosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1) as well as suspect Tick-Borne Diseases (TBDs) including Anaplasmamosis, Babesiosis, and Theileriosis. PCR for Anaplasma sp yielded the highest number of positive animals (45.2%), followed by Trypanosoma sp (44%), Theileria sp (42.4%) and Babesia (26.3%); multiple infections were a common occurrence. Interestingly, 373 (29%) of these cattle with low PCVs were negative by PCR, pointing to other possible causes of aneamia, such as helminthiasis. Among the trypanosome infections classified as T. brucei by ITS-PCR, 5.5% were positive by SRA PCR, and were, therefore, confirmed as T. b. rhodesiense. Efforts against HAT should therefore consider packages that address a range of conditions. This may enhance acceptability and participation of livestock keepers in programs to eliminate this important but neglected tropical disease. In addition, we demonstrated that cattle remain an eminent reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense in eastern Uganda, which must be addressed to sustain HAT elimination.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687034

RESUMO

Background: Immunological Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) studies often exclude malaria, although both infections overlap in specific endemic areas. During this co-infection, it is not known whether this parasitic interaction induces synergistic or antagonistic cytokine response among humans. This study determined prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT and plasma cytokine profile levels associated with HAT and/or malaria infections. Methods: Participants were recruited at Lwala hospital in north eastern Uganda: healthy controls (30), malaria (28), HAT (17), HAT and malaria (15) diagnosed by microscopy and PCR was carried out for parasite species identification. Plasma cytokine levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-ß) were measured by sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay and data statistically analysed using Graphpad Prism 6.0. Results: The prevalence of P. falciparum malaria among T. rhodesiense HAT cases was high (46.8%). Malaria and/or HAT cases presented significant higher plasma cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-ß than healthy controls (P < 0.05). Levels of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in HAT over malaria (P < 0.05) but no significant difference in TNF-α and TGF-ß between HAT and malaria (P > 0.05). Co-infection expressed significantly higher plasma IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 levels than malaria (P < 0.05) but no significant difference with HAT mono-infection (P > 0.05). The TNF-α level was significantly elevated in co-infection over HAT or malaria mono-infections (P < 0.05) unlike TGF-ß level. Significant positive correlations were identified between IFN-γ verses TNF-α and IL-6 verses IL-10 in co-infection (Spearman's P < 0.05). Conclusions: The T. b. rhodesiense significantly induced the cytokine response more than P. falciparum infections. Co-infection led to synergistic stimulation of pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α), and anti-inflammatory (IL-6, and IL-10) cytokine responses relative to malaria mono-infection. Level of TNF-α partially indicates the effect induced by T. b. rhodesiense and P. falciparum mono-infections or a synergistic interaction of co-infections which may have adverse effects on pathogenesis, prognosis and resolution of the infections.Trial registration VCD-IRC/021, 26/08/2011; HS 1089, 16/01/2012.

13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100309, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303220

RESUMO

Small ruminants are important to community livelihood in developing countries; however information on the role of hemoprotozoan parasites is scanty. The objective of the study was to determine hemoprotozoan parasitic prevalence in western Uganda and identify major areas associated with these infections. This was a cross sectional study conducted at the edge of Budongo Conservation Forest in Masindi district of western Uganda in which 712 small ruminants were sampled. Blood from the jugular vein was collected from caprines and ovines and placed in an EDTA tube, and transported to the laboratory for examination. Thin and thick smears were prepared and examined by microscopy for hemoprotozoan parasites, and DNA was extracted and examined by PCR for Trypanosoma spp. A total of 13 villages in Budongo sub-county were surveyed and the study showed that caprines were the major small ruminants of importance to the community. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan parasites was as follows; anaplasmosis (3.65%) > theileriosis (0.45%) > trypanosomiasis (0.15%) and babesiosis (0%) by microscopy. Infections were found in the young with the exception of Anaplasma spp. while coinfections of anaplasmosis and theileriosis were high. Molecular analysis showed an overall trypanosome prevalence of 9.27% (PCR), mainly due to Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense forest. Villages with trypanosomiasis were found in lowlands and swamps. The current trypanosomiasis prevalence in small ruminants of Uganda was 10 times greater than that previously reported showing that the disease burden has increased overtime within Uganda. A prevalence of 0.14% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.78) for the SRA gene showed that small ruminants would be important reservoirs of infection to humans. Hemoprotozoan parasites are a threat to community livelihood in developing countries and the role of molecular diagnostic techniques in disease monitoring was re-emphasized by this study. Information on primary hosts involved in the propagation of hemoprotozoan parasites in Uganda would help streamline prospective disease surveillance and control efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
J Parasitol Res ; 2019: 6594212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956813

RESUMO

Protein N-terminal acetylation is a co- and posttranslational modification, conserved among eukaryotes. It determines the functional fate of many proteins including their stability, complex formation, and subcellular localization. N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) transfer an acetyl group to the N-termini of proteins, and the major NATs in yeast and humans are NatA, NatB, and NatC. In this study, we characterized the Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) NatC and NatA protein complexes, each consisting of one catalytic subunit and predicted auxiliary subunits. The proteins were found to be expressed in the three main life cycle stages of the parasite, formed stable complexes in vivo, and partially cosedimented with the ribosome in agreement with a cotranslational function. An in vitro acetylation assay clearly demonstrated that the acetylated substrates of the NatC catalytic subunit from T. cruzi were similar to those of yeast and human NatC, suggesting evolutionary conservation of function. An RNAi knockdown of the Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) NatC catalytic subunit indicated that reduced NatC-mediated N-terminal acetylation of target proteins reduces parasite growth.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007283, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by infections due to Trypanosoma brucei subspecies. In addition to the well-established environmental and behavioural risks of becoming infected, there is evidence for a genetic component to the response to trypanosome infection. We undertook a candidate gene case-control study to investigate genetic associations further. METHODOLOGY: We genotyped one polymorphism in each of seven genes (IL1A, IL1RN, IL4RN, IL6, HP, HPR, and HLA-G) in 73 cases and 250 controls collected from 19 ethno-linguistic subgroups stratified into three major ethno-linguistic groups, 2 pooled ethno-linguistic groups and 11 ethno-linguistic subgroups from three Cameroonian HAT foci. The seven polymorphic loci tested consisted of three SNPs, three variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) and one INDEL. RESULTS: We found that the genotype (TT) and minor allele (T) of IL1A gene as well as the genotype 1A3A of IL1RN were associated with an increased risk of getting Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and develop HAT when all data were analysed together and also when stratified by the three major ethno-linguistic groups, 2 pooled ethno-linguistic subgroups and 11 ethno-linguistic subgroups. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that one SNP rs1800794 of IL1A and one VNTR rs2234663 of IL1RN were associated with the increased risk to be infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and develop sleeping sickness in southern Cameroon. The minor allele T and the genotype TT of SNP rs1800794 in IL1A as well as the genotype 1A3A of IL1RN rs2234663 VNTR seem to increase the risk of getting Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections and develop sleeping sickness in southern Cameroon.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/fisiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Risco , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 71: 108-115, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914286

RESUMO

Infection by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is characterized by a wide array of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic to acute disease and even spontaneous cure. In this study, we investigated the association between macrophage migrating inhibitory factor (MIF), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in both innate and acquired immunity, and disease outcome during T. b. gambiense infection. A comparative expression analysis of patients, individuals with latent infection and controls found that MIF had significantly higher expression in patients (n = 141; 1.25 ±â€¯0.07; p < .0001) and latent infections (n = 25; 1.23 ±â€¯0.13; p = .0005) relative to controls (n = 46; 0.94 ±â€¯0.11). Furthermore, expression decreased significantly after treatment (patients before treatment n = 33; 1.40 ±â€¯0.18 versus patients after treatment n = 33; 0.99 ±â€¯0.10, p = .0001). We conducted a genome wide eQTL analysis on 29 controls, 128 cases and 15 latently infected individuals for whom expression and genotype data were both available. Four loci, including one containing the chemokine CXCL13, were found to associate with MIF expression. Genes at these loci are candidate regulators of increased expression of MIF after infection. Our study is the first data demonstrating that MIF expression is elevated in T. b. gambiense-infected human hosts but does not appear to contribute to pathology.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL13/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiocina CXCL13/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Guiné , Humanos , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tripanossomíase Africana/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 105, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the combination of nifurtimox and eflornithine (NECT) is currently recommended for the treatment of the late stage human African trypansomiasis (HAT), single-agent eflornithine was still the treatment of choice when this trial commenced. This study intended to provide supportive evidence to complement previous trials. METHODS: A multi-centre randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial was carried out in the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense endemic districts of North-Western Uganda to compare the efficacy and safety of NECT (200 mg/kg eflornithine infusions every 12 h for 7 days and 8 hourly oral nifurtimox at 5 mg/kg for 10 days) to the standard eflornithine regimen (6 hourly at 100 mg/kg for 14 days). The primary endpoint was the cure rate, determined as the proportion of patients alive and without laboratory signs of infection at 18 months post-treatment, with no demonstrated trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood or lymph node aspirates, and CSF white blood cell count < 20 /µl. The non-inferiority margin was set at 10%. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients were enrolled; all contributed to the intent-to-treat (ITT), modified intent-to-treat (mITT) and safety populations, while 105 constituted the per-protocol population (PP). The cure rate was 90.9% for NECT and 88.9% for eflornithine in the ITT and mITT populations; the same was 90.6 and 88.5%, respectively in the PP population. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for NECT in all populations: differences in cure rates were 0.02 (95% CI: -0.07-0.11) and 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08-0.12) respectively. Two patients died while on treatment (1 in each arm), and 3 more during follow-up in the NECT arm. No difference was found between the two arms for the secondary efficacy and safety parameters. A meta-analysis involving several studies demonstrated non-inferiority of NECT to eflornithine monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm findings of earlier trials and support implementation of NECT as first-line treatment for late stage T. b. gambiense HAT. The overall risk difference for cure between NECT and eflornithine between this and two previous randomised controlled trials is 0.03 (95% CI: -0.02-0.08). The NECT regimen is simpler, safer, shorter and less expensive than single-agent DFMO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN03148609 (registered 18 April 2008).


Assuntos
Eflornitina/administração & dosagem , Nifurtimox/administração & dosagem , Tripanossomicidas/administração & dosagem , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eflornitina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Nifurtimox/efeitos adversos , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006280, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474390

RESUMO

All of our current knowledge of African trypanosome metabolism is based on results from trypanosomes grown in culture or in rodents. Drugs against sleeping sickness must however treat trypanosomes in humans. We here compare the transcriptomes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with those of trypanosomes from culture and rodents. The data were aligned and analysed using new user-friendly applications designed for Kinetoplastid RNA-Seq data. The transcriptomes of trypanosomes from human blood and cerebrospinal fluid did not predict major metabolic differences that might affect drug susceptibility. Usefully, there were relatively few differences between the transcriptomes of trypanosomes from patients and those of similar trypanosomes grown in rats. Transcriptomes of monomorphic laboratory-adapted parasites grown in in vitro culture closely resembled those of the human parasites, but some differences were seen. In poly(A)-selected mRNA transcriptomes, mRNAs encoding some protein kinases and RNA-binding proteins were under-represented relative to mRNA that had not been poly(A) selected; further investigation revealed that the selection tends to result in loss of longer mRNAs.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/genética , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Animais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , DNA de Cinetoplasto/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ratos , Roedores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/metabolismo , Tripanossomíase Africana/sangue , Tripanossomíase Africana/líquido cefalorraquidiano
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006300, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) manifests as an acute form caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr) and a chronic form caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg). Previous studies have suggested a host genetic role in infection outcomes, particularly for APOL1. We have undertaken candidate gene association studies (CGAS) in a Ugandan Tbr and a Tbg HAT endemic area, to determine whether polymorphisms in IL10, IL8, IL4, HLAG, TNFA, TNX4LB, IL6, IFNG, MIF, APOL1, HLAA, IL1B, IL4R, IL12B, IL12R, HP, HPR, and CFH have a role in HAT. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We included 238 and 202 participants from the Busoga Tbr and Northwest Uganda Tbg endemic areas respectively. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotype data were analysed in the CGAS. The study was powered to find odds ratios > 2 but association testing of the SNPs with HAT yielded no positive associations i.e. none significant after correction for multiple testing. However there was strong evidence for no association with Tbr HAT and APOL1 G2 of the size previously reported in the Kabermaido district of Uganda. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A recent study in the Soroti and Kaberamaido focus in Central Uganda found that the APOL1 G2 allele was strongly associated with protection against Tbr HAT (odds ratio = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.48, p = 0.0001). However, in our study no effect of G2 on Tbr HAT was found, despite being well powered to find a similar sized effect (OR = 0.9281, 95% CI: 0.482 to 1.788, p = 0.8035). It is possible that the G2 allele is protective from Tbr in the Soroti/Kabermaido focus but not in the Iganga district of Busoga, which differ in ethnicity and infection history. Mechanisms underlying HAT infection outcome and virulence are complex and might differ between populations, and likely involve several host, parasite or even environmental factors.


Assuntos
Alelos , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/etnologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(3): 197-207, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396200

RESUMO

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Between 1990 and 2015, almost 440000 cases were reported. Large-scale screening of populations at risk, drug donations, and efforts by national and international stakeholders have brought the epidemic under control with <2200 cases in 2016. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goals of gambiense-HAT elimination as a public health problem for 2020, and of interruption of transmission to humans for 2030. Latent human infections and possible animal reservoirs may challenge these goals. It remains largely unknown whether, and to what extend, they have an impact on gambiense-HAT transmission. We argue that a better understanding of the contribution of human and putative animal reservoirs to gambiense-HAT epidemiology is mandatory to inform elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/fisiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia
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