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2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(11): 980-992, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the degree to which U.S. patients enrolled in a heart failure (HF) trial represent patients in routine U.S. clinical practice according to race and sex. BACKGROUND: Black patients and women are frequently under-represented in HF clinical trials. However, the degree to which black patients and women enrolled in trials represent such patients in routine practice is unclear. METHODS: The ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) trial randomized patients hospitalized for HF to receive nesiritide or placebo from May 2007 to August 2010 and was neutral for clinical endpoints. This analysis compared non-Hispanic white (n = 1,494) and black (n = 1,012) patients enrolled in ASCEND-HF from the U.S. versus non-Hispanic white and black patients included in a U.S. hospitalized HF registry (i.e., Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure [GWTG-HF]) during the ASCEND-HF enrollment period and meeting trial eligibility criteria. RESULTS: Among 79,291 white and black registry patients, 49,063 (62%) met trial eligibility criteria (white, n = 37,883 [77.2%]; black, n = 11,180 [22.8%]). Women represented 35% and 49% of the ASCEND-HF and trial-eligible GWTG-HF cohorts, respectively. Compared with trial-enrolled patients, trial-eligible GWTG-HF patients tended to be older with higher blood pressure and higher ejection fraction. Trial-eligible patients had higher in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs. 1.3%), 30-day readmission (20.2% vs. 16.8%), and 180-day mortality (21.2% vs. 18.6%) than those enrolled in the trial (all p < 0.02), with consistent mortality findings by race and sex. After propensity score matching, mortality rates were similar; however, trial-eligible patients continued to have higher rates of 30-day readmission (23.1% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.01), driven by differences among black patients and women (all p for interaction ≤0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF seen in U.S. practice and eligible for the ASCEND-HF trial had worse clinical outcomes than those enrolled in the trial. After accounting for clinical characteristics, trial-eligible real-world patients continued to have higher rates of 30-day readmission, driven by differences among black patients and women. Social, behavioral, and other unmeasured factors may impair representativeness of patients enrolled in HF trials, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and women. (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure [ASCEND-HF]; NCT00475852).

3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke care delivery may be affected by provider participation in Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) through systematic changes to discharge planning, care coordination, and transitional care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of MSSP with patient outcomes in the year following hospitalization for ischemic stroke. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort SETTING: Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke (2010-2014) PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalizations for mild to moderate incident ischemic stroke were linked with Medicare claims for fee-for-service beneficiaries ≥ 65 years (N = 251,605). MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes included discharge to home, 30-day all-cause readmission, length of index hospital stay, days in the community (home-time) at 1 year, and 1-year recurrent stroke and mortality. A difference-in-differences design was used to compare outcomes before and after hospital MSSP implementation for patients (1) discharged from hospitals that chose to participate versus not participate in MSSP or (2) assigned to an MSSP ACO versus not or both. Unique estimates for 2013 and 2014 ACOs were generated. KEY RESULTS: For hospitals joining MSSP in 2013 or 2014, the probability of discharge to home decreased by 2.57 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = - 4.43, - 0.71) percentage points (pp) and 1.84 pp (CI = - 3.31, - 0.37), respectively, among beneficiaries not assigned to an MSSP ACO. Among discharges from hospitals joining MSSP in 2013, beneficiary ACO alignment versus not was associated with increased home discharge, reduced length of stay, and increased home-time. For patients discharged from hospitals joining MSSP in 2014, ACO alignment was not associated with changes in utilization. No association between MSSP and recurrent stroke or mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with mild to moderate ischemic stroke, meaningful reductions in acute care utilization were observed only for ACO-aligned beneficiaries who were also discharged from a hospital initiating MSSP in 2013. Only 1 year of data was available for the 2014 MSSP cohort, and these early results suggest further study is warranted. REGISTRATION: None.

4.
JAMA ; 322(3): 252-263, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310296

RESUMO

Importance: Randomized clinical trials suggest benefit of endovascular-reperfusion therapy for large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is time dependent, but the extent to which it influences outcome and generalizability to routine clinical practice remains uncertain. Objective: To characterize the association of speed of treatment with outcome among patients with AIS undergoing endovascular-reperfusion therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using data prospectively collected from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke nationwide US quality registry, with final follow-up through April 15, 2017. Participants were 6756 patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion AIS treated with endovascular-reperfusion therapy with onset-to-puncture time of 8 hours or less. Exposures: Onset (last-known well time) to arterial puncture, and hospital arrival to arterial puncture (door-to-puncture time). Main Outcomes and Measures: Substantial reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score 2b-3), ambulatory status, global disability (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and destination at discharge, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), and in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge. Results: Among 6756 patients, the mean (SD) age was 69.5 (14.8) years, 51.2% (3460/6756) were women, and median pretreatment score on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 17 (IQR, 12-22). Median onset-to-puncture time was 230 minutes (IQR, 170-305) and median door-to-puncture time was 87 minutes (IQR, 62-116), with substantial reperfusion in 85.9% (5433/6324) of patients. Adverse events were sICH in 6.7% (449/6693) of patients and in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge in 19.6% (1326/6756) of patients. At discharge, 36.9% (2132/5783) ambulated independently and 23.0% (1225/5334) had functional independence (mRS 0-2). In onset-to-puncture adjusted analysis, time-outcome relationships were nonlinear with steeper slopes between 30 to 270 minutes than 271 to 480 minutes. In the 30- to 270-minute time frame, faster onset to puncture in 15-minute increments was associated with higher likelihood of achieving independent ambulation at discharge (absolute increase, 1.14% [95% CI, 0.75%-1.53%]), lower in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge (absolute decrease, -0.77% [95% CI, -1.07% to -0.47%]), and lower risk of sICH (absolute decrease, -0.22% [95% CI, -0.40% to -0.03%]). Faster door-to-puncture times were similarly associated with improved outcomes, including in the 30- to 120-minute window, higher likelihood of achieving discharge to home (absolute increase, 2.13% [95% CI, 0.81%-3.44%]) and lower in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge (absolute decrease, -1.48% [95% CI, -2.60% to -0.36%]) for each 15-minute increment. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AIS due to large vessel occlusion treated in routine clinical practice, shorter time to endovascular-reperfusion therapy was significantly associated with better outcomes. These findings support efforts to reduce time to hospital and endovascular treatment in patients with stroke.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Trombólise Mecânica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/efeitos adversos , Trombólise Mecânica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Reperfusão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Neurology ; 93(8): e747-e757, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lower socioeconomic status (SES) and longer home to hospital driving time are associated with reductions in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration and timeliness of the treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry (GWTG-Stroke) between January 2015 and March 2017. The study included 118,683 ischemic stroke patients age ≥18 who were transported by emergency medical services to one of 1,489 US hospitals. We defined each patient's SES based on zip code median household income. We calculated the driving time between each patient's home zip code and the hospital where he or she was treated using the Google Maps Directions Application Programing Interface. The primary outcomes were tPA administration and onset-to-arrival time (OTA). Outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: SES was not associated with OTA (p = 0.31) or tPA administration (p = 0.47), but was associated with the secondary outcomes of onset-to-treatment time (OTT) (p = 0.0160) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.0037), with higher SES associated with shorter OTT and lower in-hospital mortality. Driving time was associated with tPA administration (p < 0.001) and OTA (p < 0.0001), with lower odds of tPA (0.83, 0.79-0.88) and longer OTA (1.30, 1.24-1.35) in patients with the longest vs shortest driving time quartiles. Lower SES quintiles were associated with slightly longer driving time quartiles (p = 0.0029), but there was no interaction between the SES and driving time for either OTA (p = 0.1145) or tPA (p = 0.6103). CONCLUSIONS: Longer driving times were associated with lower odds of tPA administration and longer OTA; however, SES did not modify these associations.

6.
Neurology ; 92(24): e2784-e2792, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether young adults (≤40 years old) with acute ischemic stroke are less likely to receive IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and more likely to have longer times to brain imaging and treatment. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry for patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized between January 2009 and September 2015. We used multivariable models with generalized estimating equations to evaluate tPA treatment and outcomes between younger (age 18-40 years) and older (age >40 years) patients with acute ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Of 1,320,965 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to 1,983 hospitals, 2.3% (30,448) were 18 to 40 years of age. Among these patients, 12.5% received tPA vs 8.8% of those >40 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-1.71). However, younger patients were less likely to receive brain imaging within 25 minutes (62.5% vs 71.5%, aOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.84) and to be treated with tPA within 60 minutes of hospital arrival (37.0% vs 42.8%, aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68-0.79). Compared to older patients, younger patients treated with tPA had a lower symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate (1.7% vs 4.5%, aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.72) and lower in-hospital mortality (2.0% vs 4.3%, aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to our hypothesis, younger patients with acute ischemic stroke were more likely to be treated with tPA than older patients, but they were more likely to experience delay in evaluation and treatment. Compared with older patients, younger patients had better outcomes, including fewer intracranial hemorrhages.

7.
Am Heart J ; 212: 101-112, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978555

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) outcomes are especially poor in high-risk patients with certain comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether early specialty or primary care provider (PCP) follow-up after HF discharge affects outcomes in high-risk patients is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed patients discharged from a Get With The Guidelines HF-participating hospital from 2007-2012 with linked Medicare claims to investigate the association of medical specialist visit within 14 days of discharge stratified by comorbidity with the primary outcome of 90-day HF readmission. Secondary outcomes included 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Out of 33,243 patients, 39.4% had DM, 19.8% had CKD, 30.0% had COPD, and 36.3% had no key comorbidity. Nephrologist visit in patients with CKD was associated with a 35% reduction in 90-day HF readmission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.85). Pulmonologist visit in patients with COPD was associated with a 29% reduction in 90-day HF readmission (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.91). In patients with no key comorbidity, PCP and Cardiologist visits were associated with decreased 90-day mortality (HR for PCP 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94; HR for Cardiologist 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96). In patients with DM, Endocrinologist visit was associated with a 42% reduction of 90-day mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Specialist and PCP visit in the immediate post-discharge period may improve 90-day HF readmission and mortality in certain high-risk groups of patients with HF.

8.
Biom J ; 61(4): 1020-1032, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908720

RESUMO

This paper deals with a Cox proportional hazards regression model, where some covariates of interest are randomly right-censored. While methods for censored outcomes have become ubiquitous in the literature, methods for censored covariates have thus far received little attention and, for the most part, dealt with the issue of limit-of-detection. For randomly censored covariates, an often-used method is the inefficient complete-case analysis (CCA) which consists in deleting censored observations in the data analysis. When censoring is not completely independent, the CCA leads to biased and spurious results. Methods for missing covariate data, including type I and type II covariate censoring as well as limit-of-detection do not readily apply due to the fundamentally different nature of randomly censored covariates. We develop a novel method for censored covariates using a conditional mean imputation based on either Kaplan-Meier estimates or a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the effects of these covariates on a time-to-event outcome. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method through simulation studies and show that it provides good bias reduction and statistical efficiency. Finally, we illustrate the method using data from the Framingham Heart Study to assess the relationship between offspring and parental age of onset of cardiovascular events.

9.
Am Heart J ; 211: 1-10, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent condition among heart failure (HF) patients. The long-term morbidity and mortality among patients with and without diabetes with HF with reduced (HFrEF), borderline (HFbEF), and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are not well described. METHODS: Using the Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF Registry linked to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data, we evaluated differences between HF patients with and without diabetes. Adjusted Cox proportional-hazard models controlling for patient and hospital characteristics were used to evaluate mortality and readmission outcomes. RESULTS: A cohort of 86,659 HF patients aged ≥65 years was followed for 3 years from discharge. Unadjusted all-cause mortality was between 4.4% and 5.5% and all-cause hospitalization was between 19.4% and 22.6% for all groups at 30 days. For all-cause mortality at 3 years from hospital discharge, diabetes was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.07-1.49, P = .0051) for HFrEF, 0.95 (95% CI 0.55-1.65, P = .8536) for HFbEF, 1.02 (95% CI 0.87-1.19, P = .8551) for HFpEF. For all-cause readmission, diabetes was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.29, P = .5585) for HFrEF, 1.48 (95% CI 1.15-1.90, P = .0023) for HFbEF, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.91-1.22, P = .4747) for HFpEF. CONCLUSIONS: HFrEF and HFbEF patients with diabetes are at increased risk for mortality and rehospitalization after hospitalization for HF, independent of other patient and hospital characteristics. Among HFpEF patients, diabetes does not appear to be independently associated with significant additional risks.

10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(7): 1402-1409, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Palliative care services have the potential to improve the quality of end-of-life care and reduce cost. Services such as the Medicare hospice benefit, however, are often underutilized among stroke patients with a poor prognosis. We tested the hypothesis that the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) is associated with increased hospice enrollment and inpatient comfort measures only among incident ischemic stroke patients with a high mortality risk. DESIGN: A difference-in-differences design was used to compare outcomes before and after hospital participation in the MSSP for patients discharged from MSSP hospitals (N = 273) vs non-MSSP hospitals (N = 1490). SETTING: Records from a national registry, Get with the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke, were linked to Medicare hospice claims (2010-2015). PARTICIPANTS: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and older hospitalized for incident ischemic stroke at a GWTG-Stroke hospital from January 2010 to December 2014 (N = 324 959). INTERVENTION: Discharge from an MSSP hospital or beneficiary alignment with an MSSP Accountable Care Organization (ACO). MEASUREMENTS: Hospice enrollment in the year following stroke. RESULTS: Among patients with high mortality risk, ACO alignment was associated with a 16% increase in odds of hospice enrollment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.26), increasing the probability of hospice enrollment from 20% to 22%. In the low mortality risk group, discharge from an MSSP vs non-MSSP hospital was associated with a decrease in the predicted probability of inpatient comfort measures or discharge to hospice from 9% to 8% (OR = .82; CI = .74-.91), and ACO alignment was associated with reduced odds of a short stay (<7 days) (OR = .86; CI = .77-.96). CONCLUSION: Among ischemic stroke patients with severe stroke or indicators of high mortality risk, MSSP was associated with increased hospice enrollment. MSSP contract incentives may motivate improved end-of-life care among the subgroups most likely to benefit.

11.
Circulation ; 139(12): 1497-1506, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve prescription of oral anticoagulation (OAC) drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation have had limited success in improving guideline adherence. METHODS: We evaluated adherence to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association performance measures for OAC in eligible patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 and trends in prescription over time in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-AFIB (atrial fibrillation) registry. Adjusted associations with in-hospital outcomes were also determined. The cohort included 33 235 patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 who were admitted for atrial fibrillation and were enrolled at 115 sites between January 1, 2013, and September 31, 2017. RESULTS: The median (25th, 75th percentile) age was 73 years (65, 81 years); 51% were female; and the median (25th, 75th percentile) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (3, 5). At admission, 16 206 (59.5%) of 27 221 patients with a previous diagnosis of atrial fibrillation were taking OAC agents, and OAC drug use at admission was associated with a lower adjusted odds of in-hospital ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24-0.59; P<0.0001). At discharge, prescription of OAC in eligible patients (no contraindications) was 93.5% (n=25 499 of 27 270). In a sensitivity analysis, when excluding only strict contraindications (4.6%, n=1497 of 32 806), OAC prescription at discharge was 80.3%. OAC prescription at discharge was higher in those aged ≤75 years, men, those with heart failure, those with previous atrial fibrillation ablation, and those with rhythm control ( P<0.0001 for all). OAC use was lowest in Hispanic patients (90.2%, P<0.0001). Prescription of OAC at discharge in eligible patients improved over time from 79.9% to 96.6% ( P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitals participating in the GWTG-AFIB quality improvement program, OAC prescription at discharge in eligible guideline-indicated patients increased significantly and improved consistently over time. These data confirm that high-level adherence to guideline-recommended stroke prevention is achievable.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(5): 602-611, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732715

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now the most common form of HF, affecting over 3 million adults in the United States alone. HFpEF is a heterogenous syndrome. One important phenotype may be related to comorbid conditions, including diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has a prevalence of approximately 45% in HFpEF, but characteristics and outcomes of this population are poorly understood. In this review, the authors summarize data from several clinical trials of HFpEF therapeutics and provide original data from a large cohort using the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry, which together suggest that DM is associated with increased morbidity and long-term mortality in HFpEF. The authors then discuss several common pathological mechanisms in HFpEF and DM, including sodium retention, metabolic derangements, impaired skeletal muscle function, and potential therapeutic targets. As the understanding of comorbid HFpEF and DM improves, it is hoped clinicians will be better equipped to offer effective, patient-centered treatments.

13.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(4): 430-439, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667466

RESUMO

Importance: Although overall stroke incidence and mortality in the United States is improving, little is known about the characteristics and clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke in Asian American individuals. Objective: To compare the characteristics, care, and outcomes of Asian American and white patients with acute ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, Participants: Retrospective analysis of Asian American and white patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke to hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program between April 1, 2004, and July 31, 2016. The GWTG-Stroke database is a prospectively collected stroke quality improvement registry sponsored by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association of Asian American race/ethnicity, clinical outcomes, and quality measures. Results: The study population of 1 772 299 patients (mean [SD] age, 72.4 [14.2] years; 51.3% female) consisted of 64 337 Asian American patients (3.6%) and 1 707 962 white patients (96.4%) admitted to 2171 GWTG-Stroke hospitals with acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for patient and hospital variables, Asian American patients were seen with greater stroke severity compared with white patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥16) (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.30-1.40; P < .001), manifested higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; P < .001), had longer length of stay (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14-1.20; P < .001), and were less likely to ambulate independently at discharge (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.90; P < .001). Although Asian American patients had fewer intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) administrations than white patients (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .003), they had more symptomatic hemorrhage after tPA (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.55; P < .001) and overall post-tPA complications (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.46; P < .001). Asian American patients had better quality measure adherence overall than white patients, including rehabilitation (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.18-1.36; P < .001), door to tPA within 60 minutes (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; P < .001), and intensive statin therapy (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.18; P < .001). After adjustment for stroke severity, Asian American patients had lower in-hospital mortality than white patients (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: Asian American patients manifested more severe ischemic strokes, were less likely to receive IV tPA, and had worse functional outcomes than white patients. These findings warrant additional research toward improving clinical outcomes for Asian American patients with acute ischemic stroke.

14.
Diabetes Care ; 42(3): 486-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of long-term glycemic variability is incompletely understood. We evaluated the influence of visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of fasting blood glucose (FBG) on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis including 4,982 participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) who attended the baseline, 24-month, and 48-month visits. VVV of FBG was defined as the SD or variability independent of the mean (VIM) across FBG measurements obtained at the three visits. Participants free of CVD during the first 48 months of the study were followed for incident CVD (coronary heart disease [CHD], stroke, and heart failure [HF]) and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5 years, there were 305 CVD events (189 CHD, 45 stroke, and 81 HF) and 154 deaths. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) comparing participants in the highest versus lowest quartile of SD of FBG (≥26.4 vs. <5.5 mg/dL) was 1.43 (95% CI 0.93-2.19) for CVD and 2.22 (95% CI 1.22-4.04) for all-cause mortality. HR for VIM was 1.17 (95% CI 0.84-1.62) for CVD and 1.89 (95% CI 1.21-2.93) for all-cause mortality. Among individuals without diabetes, the highest quartile of SD of FBG (HR 2.67 [95% CI 0.14-6.25]) or VIM (HR 2.50 [95% CI 1.40-4.46]) conferred a higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Greater VVV of FBG is associated with increased mortality risk. Our data highlight the importance of achieving normal and consistent glycemic levels for improving clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Causas de Morte , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(4): 618-626, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553509

RESUMO

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is a risk factor for new onset heart failure (HF). There is however a paucity of data evaluating its association with outcomes in patients with established HF. We assessed the relation of HbA1C with outcomes among hospitalized HF patients. Among 41,776 HF patients from 263 hospitals participating to the Get with the Guidelines-HF registry between January 2009 and March 2016, we related HbA1C to outcomes (in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, discharge to home, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and 1-year mortality), using generalized estimating equation to account for within-hospital clustering and potential confounders. There were 68% of HF patients with diabetes and median HbA1C was 7.1%. Each percent change in HbA1C was associated with higher odds of discharge to home for HbA1C levels <6.5% (covariate-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.12]) or ≥6.5% (OR 1.05 [1.02 to 1.07]). After stratification by diabetes status, this association remained significant only among patients with diabetes (ORs for HbA1C levels <6.5%: 1.17 [1.07 to 1.27]; and ≥6.5%: 1.06 [1.03 to 1.09]). Compared with the lowest HbA1C tertile (HbA1C ≤6.1%), patients in the highest HbA1C tertile (HbA1C 7.3% to 19%) were more likely to have a length of hospital stay >4 days (OR 1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]) and to be discharged home (OR 1.23 [1.14 to 1.33]). There were no significant association between HbA1C and the following outcomes: in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and 1-year mortality. In conclusion, among hospitalized HF patients, HbA1C was associated with prolonged hospital stay and home discharge, but not with readmission, short-term, or intermediate-term mortality.

16.
JAMA ; 320(21): 2231-2241, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512100

RESUMO

Importance: Data are lacking on the effect of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor prescribed after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Treatment with a RAS inhibitor may reverse left ventricular remodeling and improve function. Objective: To investigate the association of prescription of a RAS inhibitor and outcomes after TAVR. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of TAVR procedures performed in the United States (using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry) between July 2014 and January 2016 that were linked to Medicare claims data (final date of follow-up: March 31, 2017). To account for differences in demographics, echocardiographic findings, and in-hospital complications, 1:1 propensity matching was performed. Exposures: Initial hospital discharge prescription of a RAS inhibitor after TAVR. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were all-cause death and readmission due to heart failure at 1 year after discharge, which were considered separately. The secondary outcome was health status assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ; score range: 0-100, with a higher score indicating less symptom burden and better quality of life; a small effect size was defined as 5 points) at 1 year. Results: Among 21 312 patients who underwent TAVR at 417 US sites, 8468 patients (39.7%) were prescribed a RAS inhibitor at hospital discharge. After propensity matching, 15 896 patients were included (mean [SD] age, 82.4 [6.8] years; 48.1% were women; mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], 51.9% [11.5%]). Patients with a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs those with no prescription had lower mortality rates at 1 year (12.5% vs 14.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference [ARD], -2.4% [95% CI, -3.5% to -1.4%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.76 to 0.90]) and lower heart failure readmission rates at 1 year (12.0% vs 13.8%; ARD, -1.8% [95% CI, -2.8% to -0.7%]; HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95]). When stratified by LVEF, having a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs no prescription was associated with lower 1-year mortality among patients with preserved LVEF (11.1% vs 13.9%, respectively; ARD, -2.81% [95% CI, -3.95% to -1.67%]; HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86]), but not among those with reduced LVEF (18.8% vs 19.5%; ARD, -0.68% [95% CI, -3.52% to 2.20%]; HR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.12]) (P = .04 for interaction). Of 15 896 matched patients, 4837 (30.4%) were included in the KCCQ score analysis and improvements at 1 year were greater in patients with a prescription for a RAS inhibitor vs those with no prescription (median, 33.3 [interquartile range, 14.2 to 51.0] vs 31.3 [interquartile range, 13.5 to 51.1], respectively; difference in improvement, 2.10 [95% CI, 0.10 to 4.06]; P < .001), but the effect size was not clinically meaningful. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who underwent TAVR, receiving a prescription for a RAS inhibitor at hospital discharge compared with no prescription was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality and heart failure readmission. However, due to potential selection bias, this finding requires further investigation in randomized trials.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(22): e010020, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571497

RESUMO

Background There is disagreement in the literature about the relationship between strokes and seasonal conditions. We sought to (1) describe seasonal patterns of stroke in the United States, and (2) determine the relationship between weather variables and stroke outcomes. Methods and Results We performed a cross-sectional study using Get With The Guidelines-Stroke data from 896 hospitals across the continental United States. We examined effects of season, climate region, and climate variables on stroke outcomes. We identified 457 638 patients admitted from 2011 to 2015 with ischemic stroke. There was a higher frequency of admissions in winter (116 862 in winter versus 113 689 in spring, 113 569 in summer, and 113 518 in fall; P<0.0001). Winter was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.08 relative to spring, confidence interval [ CI ] 1.04-1.13, P=0.0004) and lower odds of discharge home ( OR 0.92, CI 0.91-0.94, P<0.0001) or independent ambulation at discharge ( OR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.98, P=0.0006). These differences were attenuated after adjusting for climate region and case mix and became inconsistent after controlling for weather variables. Temperature and precipitation were independently associated with outcome after multivariable analysis, with increases in temperature and precipitation associated with lower odds of mortality ( OR 0.95, CI 0.93-0.97, P<0.0001 and OR 0.95, CI 0.90-1.00, P=0.035, respectively). Conclusions Admissions for ischemic stroke were more frequent in the winter. Warmer and wetter weather conditions were independently associated with better outcomes. Further studies should aim to identify sensitive populations and inform public health measures aimed at resource allocation, readiness, and adaptive strategies.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(11): e004756, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, studies evaluating outcome improvements associated with participation in physician-led collaboratives have been limited by the absence of a contemporaneous control group. We examined post cardiac surgery pneumonia rates associated with participation in a statewide, quality improvement collaborative relative to a national physician reporting program. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 911 754 coronary artery bypass operations (July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2017) performed across 1198 hospitals participating in a voluntary national physician reporting program (Society of Thoracic Surgeons [STS]), including 33 that participated in a Michigan-based collaborative (MI-Collaborative). Unlike STS hospitals not participating in the MI-Collaborative (i.e., STSnonMI) that solely received blinded reports, MI-Collaborative hospitals received a multi-faceted intervention starting November 2012 (quarterly in-person meetings showcasing unblinded data, webinars, site visits). Eighteen of the MI-Collaborative hospitals received additional support to implement recommended pneumonia prevention practices ("MI-CollaborativePlus"), whereas 15 did not ("MI-CollaborativeOnly"). We evaluated rates of postoperative pneumonia, adjusting for patient mix and hospital effects. Baseline patient characteristics were qualitatively similar between groups and time. During the pre-intervention period, there was a 2.53% per quarter reduction in the adjusted neumonia odds ratio for STS hospitals not participating in the MI-Collaborative ( P<0.001), which was equivalent to the MI-Collaborative ( P>0.05). During the intervention period, there was a significant 2% reduction in the adjusted odds ratio for pneumonia for MI-Collaborative hospitals relative to the STS hospitals not participating in the MI-Collaborative, although was 3% significantly lower among the MI-CollaborativeOnly hospitals. The STS hospitals not participating in the MI-Collaborative had a 1.96% reduction in risk-adjusted pneumonia, which was less than the MI-Collaborative (3.23%, P=0.011). The MI-CollaborativePlus reduced adjusted pneumonia rates by 10.29%, P=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in a physician-led collaborative was associated with significant reductions in pneumonia relative to a national quality reporting program. Interventions including collaborative learning may yield superior outcomes relative to solely using physician feedback reporting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02068716.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Práticas Interdisciplinares/métodos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how hospitals are connected in the transfer of ischemic stroke (IS) patients. We aimed to describe differences in characteristics of transferred versus nontransferred patients and between transferring and receiving hospitals in the Northeastern United States, and to describe changes over time. METHODS: We used Medicare claims data, and a subset linked with the Get with the Guidelines-Stroke registry from 2007 to 2011. Receiving hospitals were those with annual IS volume greater than or equal to 120 and greater than or equal to 15% received as transfers, and transferring hospitals were nonaccepting hospitals that transferred greater than or equal to 15% of their total (ED plus inpatient) IS patient discharges. A transferring-to-receiving hospital connection was identified if greater than or equal to 5 patients per year were shared. ArcGIS 10.3.1 was used for network visualization. RESULTS: Among 177,270 admissions to 402 Northeast hospitals, 6906 (3.9%) patients were transferred. Transferred patients were younger with more severe strokes (78 versus 81 years, P < .001; National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity 7 versus 5, P < .001), and were as likely to receive tissue plasminogen activator as nontransferred (P = .29). From 2007 to 2011, there were more patients transferred (960 [3%] to 1777 [6%], P < .001), and more transferring hospitals (46 [12%] to 91 [24%], P < .001), and receiving hospitals (6 [2%] to 16 [4%], P < .001). Most transferring hospitals were exclusively connected to a single receiving hospital. CONCLUSIONS: From 2007 to 2011, hospitals in the United States Northeast became more connected in the care of IS patients, with increasing patient transfers and hospital connections. Yet most hospitals remained unconnected. Further characterization of this transfer network will be important for understanding and improving regional stroke systems of care.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(21): e009842, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376750

RESUMO

Background Patients presenting to hospitals during non-weekday hours experience worse outcomes, often attributed to reduced staffing. The American Heart Association International Stroke Conference ( ISC ) is well attended by stroke clinicians. We sought to determine whether patients with acute ischemic stroke ( AIS ) admitted during the ISC receive less guideline-adherent care and experience worse outcomes. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study of US hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke and assessed use of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, other quality measures, and outcomes for patients with AIS admitted during the ISC compared with those admitted the weeks before and after the conference. A total of 69 738 patients with AIS were included: mean age, 72 years; 52% women; 29% nonwhite. There was no difference between the average weekly number of AIS cases admitted during ISC weeks versus non- ISC weeks (1984 versus 1997; P=0.95). Patient and hospital characteristics were similar between ISC and non- ISC time periods. There were no significant differences in 14 quality metrics and 5 clinical outcomes between patients with AIS treated during the ISC versus non- ISC weeks. Patients with AIS who presented within 2 hours of onset had no difference in the likelihood of receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within 3 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.03; P=0.13) or the likelihood of receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator within 60 minutes of arrival (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.02; P=0.13). Conclusions Patients with acute stroke admitted to Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals during ISC received the same quality care and had similar outcomes as patients admitted at other times.

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