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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546229

RESUMO

The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and/or gastric disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been elucidated. We investigated the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and/or atrophic gastritis (AG) and chronic kidney disease. In total, 3560 participants (1127 men and 2433 women) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. We divided participants into four study groups: with/without Helicobacter pylori infection and with/without AG. The HP (+) AG (-) group demonstrated a significant association with CKD compared with the HP (-) AG (-) group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.443; 95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.989). In contrast, the HP (+) AG (+) group showed significantly lower adjusted odds of CKD than the HP (-) AG (-) group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.608; 95% confidence interval, 0.402-0.920). H. pylori infection without AG might be associated with CKD in these participants. Conversely, the HP (+) AG (+) group had lower odds of CKD. Uncovering an association between gastric and renal conditions could lead to development of new treatment strategies.

2.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(5): 469-474, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487551

RESUMO

An enzyme showing l-histidine oxidase (HisO) activity by the formation of hydrogen peroxide was newly purified from Achromobacter sp. TPU 5009. This enzyme was found to be a heterodimer of two proteins (molecular mass, 53.8 and 58.3 kDa), the partial determination of which indicated they are homologs of l-histidine ammonia-lyase (AchHAL) and urocanate hydratase (AchURO). The enzyme was stable in a pH range of 5.0-11.0, with >90% of the original activity maintained below 60°C at pH 7.0. To characterize AchHAL and AchURO, each of their genes was cloned and expressed in a heterologous expression system. Heterologous AchHAL catalyzed the elimination of the α-amino group of l-histidine to urocanate and ammonia, while heterologous AchURO catalyzed the hydration of urocanate to imidazolone propionate. Since imidazolone propionate is highly unstable in the presence of oxygen at neutral pH, it was immediately decomposed and hydrogen peroxide was non-enzymatically produced. Our results indicate that this natural enzyme showing apparent HisO activity is composed of AchHAL and AchURO, which formed hydrogen peroxide after the spontaneous decomposition of imidazolone propionate.

4.
Epilepsy Res ; 170: 106535, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A post-marketing surveillance study is investigating the safety and effectiveness of stiripentol during real-world clinical use in Japanese patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: The safety and effectiveness of stiripentol were prospectively investigated over 104 weeks in all patients with DS who were administered the drug from November 2012 through July 2019 in Japan. Patients administered stiripentol for the first time after its approval were defined as "new patients," and those who continued to take the drug after participating in domestic clinical studies were defined as "continuous-use patients." The responder rate was defined as the proportion of patients with a ≥50 % decrease in seizure episodes at the time of assessment of stiripentol effectiveness compared with the 4 weeks before starting stiripentol. Overall improvement was evaluated by the physician in charge based on the comprehensive assessment of the patient's condition after stiripentol treatment. RESULTS: Of 411 patients whose information was collected, 410 patients (376 new and 34 continuous-use) were included in the safety analysis set, and 409 (376 new and 33 continuous-use) were included in the effectiveness analysis set. The median age of new patients was 7 years (range: 0.5-50 years) at the time of stiripentol initiation; 99 % of patients were taking concomitant sodium valproate and 93 % clobazam. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 70 % of new patients; the most common were somnolence (39 %) and loss of appetite (25 %). No new safety concerns due to stiripentol were observed. The responder rate in new patients was 43 % (110/257 patients) for convulsive seizures (tonic-clonic and/or clonic convulsions), 55 % (58/105 patients) for focal impaired awareness seizures, and 62 % (56/90 patients) for generalized myoclonic seizures and/or generalized atypical absence seizures. Overall improvement (after 104 weeks or at the time of drug discontinuation) was rated as marked or moderate in 160/353 of new patients (45 %). CONCLUSION: Stiripentol is safe and effective during long-term use in patients with DS in routine clinical practice.

5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041007

RESUMO

α-1,3-Glucan is a homopolymer composed of D-glucose (Glc) and it is an extracellular polysaccharide found in dental plaque due to Streptococcus species. α-1,3-Glucanase from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus strain HF3-3 (Agl-ST) has been identified as a thermostable α-1,3-glucanase, which is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 87 (GH87) and specifically hydrolyzes α-1,3-glucan with an endo-action. The enzyme has a potential to inhibit the production of dental plaque and to be used for biotechnological applications. Here we show the structure of the catalytic unit of Agl-ST determined at 1.16 Å resolution using X-ray crystallography. The catalytic unit is composed of two modules, a ß-sandwich fold module, and a right-handed ß-helix fold module, which resembles other structural characterized GH87 enzymes from Bacillus circulans str. KA-304 and Paenibacillus glycanilyticus str. FH11, with moderate sequence identities between each other (approximately 27% between the catalytic units). However, Agl-ST is smaller in size and more thermally stable than the others. A disulfide bond that anchors the C-terminal coil of the ß-helix fold, which is expected to contribute to thermal stability only exists in the catalytic unit of Agl-ST.

7.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044569

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone mass was recently reported to be related to skeletal muscle mass in humans, and a decrease in cortical bone is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Because circulating myostatin is a factor that primarily controls muscle metabolism, this study examined the role of myostatin in bone mass-skeletal muscle mass interactions. METHODS: The subjects were 375 middle-aged community residents with no history of osteoporosis or sarcopenia who participated in a health check-up. Cortical bone thickness and cancellous bone density were measured by ultrasonic bone densitometry in a health check-up survey. The subjects were divided into those with low cortical bone thickness (LCT) or low cancellous bone density (LBD) and those with normal values (NCT/NBD). Bone metabolism markers (TRACP-5b, etc.), skeletal muscle mass, serum myostatin levels, and lifestyle were then compared between the groups. RESULTS: The percentage of diabetic participants, TRACP-5b, and myostatin levels were significantly higher, and the frequency of physical activity, skeletal muscle mass, grip strength, and leg strength were significantly lower in the LCT group than in the NCT group. The odds ratio (OR) of high myostatin levels in the LCT group compared with the NCT group was significant (OR 2.17) even after adjusting for related factors. Between the low cancellous bone density (LBD) and normal cancellous bone density (NBD) groups, significant differences were observed in the same items as between the LCT and NCT groups, but no significant differences were observed in skeletal muscle mass and blood myostatin levels. The myostatin level was significantly negatively correlated with cortical bone thickness and skeletal muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in cortical bone thickness was associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass accompanied by an increase in the blood myostatin level. Blood myostatin may regulate the bone-skeletal muscle relationship and serve as a surrogate marker of bone metabolism, potentially linking muscle mass to bone structure.

8.
Bone ; 141: 115669, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acquisition of a high bone density at a young age is a strategy to prevent fractures/falls later in life. We therefore decided to investigate the increases in cortical thickness (CoTh) and trabecular bone density (TBD) of children. METHODS: Subjects comprised 1314 students (678 boys and 636 girls) aged between 12 and 18 years. Lifestyle factors were examined with a self-administered questionnaire (sleep times, exercise habits, and calcium intake). Bone growth was assessed based on CoTh and TBD using an ultrasonic bone densitometer. Height, weight, and body fat percentage were also measured. RESULTS: Increases in CoTh and TBD occurred earlier in girls than in boys. Calcium intake was not sufficient at any of the ages examined, and sleep times were shorter than those recommended by the National Sleep Foundation. Increases in CoTh and TBD occurred subsequent to increases in height. Although increases in CoTh were observed with age in both sexes, TBD increased in boys until the age of 17 years and in girls until the age of 15 years. At 18 years of age, the young adult mean value was greater than 100% for CoTh but lower than 100% for TBD. A multivariate analysis identified age, body mass index (BMI), and exercise as independent positive factors for CoTh, while body fat percentage was an independent negative factor. Age and BMI were independent positive factors for TBD in both sexes, whereas body fat percentage was a positive factor in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that CoTH and TBD varied with age and differed in increase in boys and girls; related factors of bone increase could also be found. The results of this study may contribute to the acquisition of high bone density in children and adolescents.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

10.
Alcohol ; 89: 129-138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991979

RESUMO

To investigate the association between alcohol intake pattern in amount and frequency and metabolic syndrome (Mets) components, we simulated the change in the prevalence of Mets components by intake reduction. In order to manage Mets, alcohol intake reduction with moderation of intake pattern is required. However, evidence investigating the comparative impact of alcohol intake reduction in amount and frequency for Mets components is limited. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study in the general Japanese population. The study subjects included 37,371 non-drinkers and current drinkers recruited in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Odds ratios (ORs) for Mets components according to alcohol intake amount and frequency were estimated using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of Mets components was estimated after assumed alcohol intake reduction of a) none, b) 10 g/day (men) or 5 g/day (women), c) 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women), d) less than 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women) for moderate-to-heavy drinkers, e) 1-2 times/week, and f) 3-4 times/week. The ORs with alcohol intake amount and frequency increased with high blood pressure while decreasing with dyslipidemia. A J-shaped association was observed between intake amount and Mets. The estimated prevalence (%) of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in men were a) 45.2, b) 43.0, c) 41.4, d) 40.4, e) 42.9, and f) 42.0; and a) 50.3, b) 51.8, c) 52.9, d) 50.2, e) 52.7, and f) 53.4 in women. The estimated prevalence of high blood pressure in women did not evidently decrease. Simulated alcohol intake reduction showed decreased prevalence for high blood pressure and increased prevalence for dyslipidemia in men after reduced intake amount and frequency. The largest decreased prevalence for high blood pressure was observed in men when all moderate-to-heavy drinkers reduced their alcohol intake amount to less than 20 g/day.

11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

12.
Asian J Surg ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objective: We evaluated the risk of acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis while waiting for cholecystectomy for gallstones. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 168 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstones after conservative therapy. We compared clinical data of 20 patients who developed acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis while waiting for cholecystectomy (group A) with 148 patients who did not develop (group B). We investigated surgical outcomes and risk factors for developing acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. RESULTS: Preoperatively, significant numbers of patients with previous history of acute grade II or III cholecystitis (55.0% vs 10.8%; p < 0.001) and biliary drainage (20.0% vs 2.0%; p = 0.004) were observed between groups A and B. White blood cell counts (13500/µL vs 8155/µL; p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein levels (12.6 vs 5.1 mg/dL; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in group A than in group B; albumin levels (3.2 vs 4.0 g/dL; p < 0.001) were significantly lower in group A. Gallbladder wall thickening (≥5 mm) (45.0% vs 18.9%; p = 0.018), incarcerated gallbladder neck stones (55.0% vs 22.3%; p = 0.005), and peri-gallbladder abscess (20.0% vs 1.4%; p = 0.002) were significantly more frequent in group A than in group B. A higher conversion rate to open surgery (20.0% vs 2.0%; p = 0.004), longer operation time (137 vs 102 min; p < 0.001), and higher incidence of intraoperative complications (10.0% vs 0%; p = 0.014) were observed in group A, compared with group B. CONCLUSION: A history of severe cholecystitis may be a risk factor for acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis in patients waiting for surgery; it may also contribute to increased surgical difficulty.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 295(32): 11246-11261, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527725

RESUMO

l-Lysine oxidase/monooxygenase (l-LOX/MOG) from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813 catalyzes the mixed bioconversion of l-amino acids, particularly l-lysine, yielding an amide and carbon dioxide by an oxidative decarboxylation (i.e. apparent monooxygenation), as well as oxidative deamination (hydrolysis of oxidized product), resulting in α-keto acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ammonia. Here, using high-resolution MS and monitoring transient reaction kinetics with stopped-flow spectrophotometry, we identified the products from the reactions of l-lysine and l-ornithine, indicating that besides decarboxylating imino acids (i.e. 5-aminopentanamide from l-lysine), l-LOX/MOG also decarboxylates keto acids (5-aminopentanoic acid from l-lysine and 4-aminobutanoic acid from l-ornithine). The reaction of reduced enzyme and oxygen generated an imino acid and H2O2, with no detectable C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. Single-turnover reactions in which l-LOX/MOG was first reduced by l-lysine to form imino acid before mixing with various compounds revealed that under anaerobic conditions, only hydrolysis products are present. Similar results were obtained upon H2O2 addition after enzyme denaturation. H2O2 addition to active l-LOX/MOG resulted in formation of more 5-aminopentanoic acid, but not 5-aminopentamide, suggesting that H2O2 generated from l-LOX/MOG in situ can result in decarboxylation of the imino acid, yielding an amide product, and extra H2O2 resulted in decarboxylation only of keto acids. Molecular dynamics simulations and detection of charge transfer species suggested that interactions between the substrate and its binding site on l-LOX/MOG are important for imino acid decarboxylation. Structural analysis indicated that the flavoenzyme oxidases catalyzing decarboxylation of an imino acid all share a common plug loop configuration that may facilitate this decarboxylation.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 657-665, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout were performed to identify subtype-specific susceptibility loci. Evaluation using selection pressure analysis with these loci was also conducted to investigate genetic risks characteristic of the Japanese population over the last 2000-3000 years. METHODS: Two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 3053 clinically defined gout cases and 4554 controls from Japanese males were performed using the Japonica Array and Illumina Array platforms. About 7.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms were meta-analysed after imputation. Patients were then divided into four clinical subtypes (the renal underexcretion type, renal overload type, combined type and normal type), and meta-analyses were conducted in the same manner. Selection pressure analyses using singleton density score were also performed on each subtype. RESULTS: In addition to the eight loci we reported previously, two novel loci, PIBF1 and ACSM2B, were identified at a genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10-8) from a GWAS meta-analysis of all gout patients, and other two novel intergenic loci, CD2-PTGFRN and SLC28A3-NTRK2, from normal type gout patients. Subtype-dependent patterns of Manhattan plots were observed with subtype GWASs of gout patients, indicating that these subtype-specific loci suggest differences in pathophysiology along patients' gout subtypes. Selection pressure analysis revealed significant enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 in addition to ALDH2 loci for all subtypes except for normal type gout. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on subtype GWAS meta-analyses and selection pressure analysis of gout will assist elucidation of the subtype-dependent molecular targets and evolutionary involvement among genotype, phenotype and subtype-specific tailor-made medicine/prevention of gout and hyperuricaemia.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gota/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Pediatr Int ; 62(6): 694-700, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The process of birth causes stress for neonates, but additional stressors for sick neonates are a matter of concern. As analysis of heart-rate variability (HRV), which reflects autonomic activity, has demonstrated that low-frequency (LF) activity reflects overall autonomic activity, high-frequency (HF) activity reflects parasympathetic activity, and the LF/HF ratio reflects sympathetic activity, HRV has been clinically applied as a non-invasive index of physical stress. In this study, we evaluated whether HRV is useful as a stress index for neonates by analyzing it in comparison with their salivary cortisol level. METHODS: We measured the salivary cortisol level and HRV in 12 healthy neonates and 37 neonates born during between 2014 and 2016 and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. These examinations were performed at birth and after approximately 1 week. The changes in parameters with time were examined. RESULTS: The LF and HF values in both groups exhibited significant negative correlations with the salivary cortisol level. In those admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, the LF and HF values were correlated with gestational age and height. In the healthy neonates, a reduced salivary cortisol level and increase in the LF and HF values were observed approximately 1 week after birth compared with the values at birth, whereas the LF/HF ratio was not correlated with the salivary cortisol level and did not change over time. CONCLUSIONS: The LF and HF values were significantly correlated with the cortisol level, suggesting their usefulness as physiological indices of stress in clinical neonatal care.

17.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(2): 125-131, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481698

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to show the combined effect of weight gain within normal weight range in adulthood and parental HT on the prevalence of HT. The study subjects were 44,998 individuals (19,039 men and 25,959 women) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9) aged 35-69 years who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were categorized into six groups by weight gain from age 20 years (<10 kg, and ≥10 kg) and by the number of parents having HT (no parent, one parent, and both parents). Odds ratios for HT were estimated after adjustment for age, sex, current BMI, estimated daily sodium intake, and other confounding factors. The prevalence of HT (31.5% in total subjects) gradually increased with greater weight gain from age 20 years and with greater number of parents with HT. Subjects who gained weight ≥10 kg and having both parents with HT showed the highest risk of having HT compared with those who gained weight <10 kg without parental HT (59.8% vs. 24.9%, odds ratio 4.25, 95% CI 3.53-5.13 after adjustment). This association was similarly observed in any category of age, sex, and BMI. Subjects who gained weight within normal range of BMI and having one or both parent(s) with HT showed the higher risk of having HT independent of their attained BMI in their middle ages. Thus, subjects having parent(s) with HT should avoid gaining their weight during adulthood, even within normal range of BMI, to reduce the risk of having HT.

18.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 267, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize the stomach and are considered an etiological agent of gastric cancer. The oral cavity is a transmission route to the stomach, but the exact site of colonization has not yet been explicated. Our study investigated the association between H. pylori infection and presence in oral samples. METHODS: Dental pulp, supragingival plaque, and saliva from 192 patients visiting the Dentistry's outpatient clinic were collected for testing. The H. pylori ureA gene was identified via Nested PCR. Urine anti-H. pylori antibody test was utilized to detect infection. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects were found to be antibody-positive. PCR analysis of dental pulp revealed that 23 subjects possessed the ureA gene. Twenty-one subjects were positive for both antibodies and genes in dental pulp. PCR testing revealed that 2 subjects were positive in dental plaque but negative for saliva. The subjects positive for H. pylori in dental pulp expressed clinical signs of severe dental caries. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infected subjects expressed H. pylori in samples from the oral cavity. The main reservoir for infection within the oral cavity was determined to be dental pulp. Moreover, H. pylori are likely transmitted from dental caries to the root canal.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Polpa Dentária/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Saliva
19.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) are both H. pylori infection-related diseases, individuals with DU are known to have lower risk for GC. Many epidemiological studies have identified the PSCA rs2294008 T-allele as a risk factor of GC, while others have found an association between the rs2294008 C-allele and risk of DU and gastric ulcer (GU). Following these initial reports, however, few studies have since validated these associations. Here, we aimed to validate the association between variations in PSCA and the risk of DU/GU and evaluate its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population. METHODS: PSCA six SNPs were genotyped in 584 DU cases, 925 GU cases, and 8,105 controls from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC). Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between the SNPs and risk of DU/GU. RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 C-allele was associated with per allele OR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.51; P=2.28×10-6) for the risk of DU. This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit and H. pylori status. On the other hand, we did not observe an association between the risk of GU and PSCA SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and the risk of DU in a Japanese population.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética
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