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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(6): 1512-1518, 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133154

RESUMO

We applied photoemission tomography (PT) to a unique one-dimensional row structure of a picene multilayer realized on an anisotropic Ag(110) surface. Taking advantage of the simplified structure of the multilayer film, we successfully deconvoluted the photoelectron momentum maps of three frontier orbitals of picene. Thereafter, the clearly deconvoluted experimental momentum maps were compared to the Fourier transform simulation of the molecular orbitals of picene in detail, enabling not only the evaluation of the electronic structure of the picene in the multilayer but also the determination of the molecular orientation in the multilayer within a few degrees. In addition, the PT results indicated the orientation of the molecules in all layers to be flat-lying. The successful demonstration of PT of the multilayer molecular film marks an important step toward the wide-range utilization of the PT technique.

2.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(7): 073301, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340415

RESUMO

We developed a compact sized device for angular and energy analysis of charged particles in a wide acceptance cone angle of nearly 1π steradian. This device is configured from an electrostatic lens comprising an axisymmetric aspherical mesh, which has a concave shape viewed from the point source, a set of axisymmetric electrodes, planar grids, microchannel plates, and a fluorescent screen positioned coaxially. The potentials of electrodes are adjusted so that the trajectories of the electrons with arbitrarily set kinetic energy are substantially parallelized by the electrostatic lens and enter the planar grid perpendicularly. Instead of the planar grid, a collimator plate with parallel holes can be used as an energy band-pass filter. The angular distribution of electrons with the selected kinetic energy is projected directly onto the fluorescent screen without converging and passing through a pinhole. This is a simple but significant electron-optical design to obtain wide-range angular distribution with high angular resolution, and the analyzer can be suitably used for the two-dimensional angular distribution measurements of electrons and ions emitted from surfaces.

3.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4415-4422, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978424

RESUMO

Spatially controlling the Fermi level of topological insulators and keeping their electronic states stable are indispensable processes to put this material into practical use for semiconductor spintronics devices. So far, however, such a method has not been established yet. Here we show a novel method for doping a hole into n-type topological insulators Bi2X3 (X= Se, Te) that overcomes the shortcomings of the previous reported methods. The key of this doping is to adsorb H2O on Bi2X3 decorated with a small amount of carbon, and its trigger is the irradiation of a photon with sufficient energy to excite the core electrons of the outermost layer atoms. This method allows controlling the doping amount by the irradiation time and acts as photolithography. Such a tunable doping makes it possible to design the electronic states at the nanometer scale and, thus, paves a promising avenue toward the realization of novel spintronics devices based on topological insulators.

4.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 093102, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575223

RESUMO

We have developed an acceptance-cone-tunable (ACT) electron spectrometer for the highly efficient constant-energy photoelectron mapping of functional materials. The ACT spectrometer consists of the hemispherical deflection analyzer with the mesh-type electrostatic lens near the sample. The photoelectron trajectory can be converged by applying a negative bias to the sample and grounding the mesh lens and the analyzer entrance. The performance of the present ACT spectrometer with neither rotating nor tilting of the sample is demonstrated by the wide-angle observation of the well-known π-band dispersion of a single crystalline graphite over the Brillouin zone. The acceptance cone of the spectrometer is expanded by a factor of 3.30 when the negative bias voltage is 10 times as high as the kinetic energy of photoelectrons.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5376, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926890

RESUMO

The temperature dependence of the resistivity (ρ) of Ag-doped Bi2Se3 (AgxBi2-xSe3) shows insulating behavior above 35 K, but below 35 K, ρ suddenly decreases with decreasing temperature, in contrast to the metallic behavior for non-doped Bi2Se3 at 1.5-300 K. This significant change in transport properties from metallic behavior clearly shows that the Ag doping of Bi2Se3 can effectively tune the Fermi level downward. The Hall effect measurement shows that carrier is still electron in AgxBi2-xSe3 and the electron density changes with temperature to reasonably explain the transport properties. Furthermore, the positive gating of AgxBi2-xSe3 provides metallic behavior that is similar to that of non-doped Bi2Se3, indicating a successful upward tuning of the Fermi level.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(45): 30520-30532, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115310

RESUMO

To realize spintronic devices based on topological insulators (TIs), well-defined interfaces between magnetic metals and TIs are required. Here, we characterize atomically precisely the interface between the 3d transition metal Fe and the TI Bi2Te3 at different stages of its formation. Using photoelectron diffraction and holography, we show that after deposition of up to 3 monolayers Fe on Bi2Te3 at room temperature, the Fe atoms are ordered at the interface despite the surface disorder revealed by our scanning-tunneling microscopy images. We find that Fe occupies two different sites: a hollow adatom deeply relaxed into the Bi2Te3 quintuple layers and an interstitial atom between the third (Te) and fourth (Bi) atomic layers. For both sites, our core-level photoemission spectra and density-functional theory calculations demonstrate simultaneous chemical bonding of Fe to both Te and Bi atoms. We further show that upon deposition of Fe up to a thickness of 20 nm, the Fe atoms penetrate deeper into the bulk forming a 2-5 nm interface layer containing FeTe. In addition, excessive Bi is pushed down into the bulk of Bi2Te3 leading to the formation of septuple layers of Bi3Te4 within a distance of ∼25 nm from the interface. Controlling the magnetic properties of the complex interface structures revealed by our work will be of critical importance when optimizing the efficiency of spin injection in TI-based devices.

7.
Nano Lett ; 17(12): 7533-7538, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149568

RESUMO

The atomic scale characterization of dopant atoms in semiconductor devices to establish correlations with the electrical activation of these atoms is essential to the advancement of contemporary semiconductor process technology. Spectro-photoelectron holography combined with first-principles simulations can determine the local three-dimensional atomic structures of dopant elements, which in turn affect their electronic states. In the work reported herein, this technique was used to examine arsenic (As) atoms doped into a silicon (Si) crystal. As 3d core level photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of three types of As atoms at a total concentration of approximately 1020 cm-3, denoted as BEH, BEM, and BEL. On the basis of Hall effect measurements, the BEH atoms corresponded to electrically active As occupying substitutional sites and exhibiting larger thermal fluctuations than the Si atoms, while the BEM atoms corresponded to electrically inactive As embedded in the AsnV (n = 2-4) type clusters. Finally, the BEL atoms were assigned to electrically inactive As in locally disordered structures.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(4): 3860-3866, 2017 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347140

RESUMO

Mixed-anion perovskites such as oxynitrides, oxyfluorides, and oxyhydrides have flexibility in their anion arrangements, which potentially enables functional material design based on coordination chemistry. However, difficulty in the control of the anion arrangement has prevented the realization of this concept. In this study, we demonstrate strain engineering of the anion arrangement in epitaxial thin films of the Ca1-xSrxTaO2N perovskite oxynitrides. Under compressive epitaxial strain, the axial sites in TaO4N2 octahedra tend to be occupied by nitrogen rather than oxygen, which was revealed by N and O K-edge linearly polarized X-ray absorption near-edge structure (LP-XANES) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the LP-XANES indicated that the high occupancy of nitrogen at the axial sites is due to the partial formation of a metastable trans-type anion configuration. These results are expected to serve as a guide for the material design of mixed-anion compounds based on their anion arrangements.

9.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 24(Pt 1): 354-366, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28009578

RESUMO

The Photo-Emission and Atomic Resolution Laboratory (PEARL) is a new soft X-ray beamline and surface science laboratory at the Swiss Light Source. PEARL is dedicated to the structural characterization of local bonding geometry at surfaces and interfaces of novel materials, in particular of molecular adsorbates, nanostructured surfaces, and surfaces of complex materials. The main experimental techniques are soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoelectron diffraction in angle-scanned mode measures bonding angles of atoms near the emitter atom, and thus allows the orientation of small molecules on a substrate to be determined. In energy scanned mode it measures the distance between the emitter and neighboring atoms; for example, between adsorbate and substrate. STM provides complementary, real-space information, and is particularly useful for comparing the sample quality with reference measurements. In this article, the key features and measured performance data of the beamline and the experimental station are presented. As scientific examples, the adsorbate-substrate distance in hexagonal boron nitride on Ni(111), surface quantum well states in a metal-organic network of dicyano-anthracene on Cu(111), and circular dichroism in the photoelectron diffraction of Cu(111) are discussed.

10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36258, 2016 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811975

RESUMO

From the C 1s and K 2p photoelectron holograms, we directly reconstructed atomic images of the cleaved surface of a bimetal-intercalated graphite superconductor, (Ca, K)C8, which differed substantially from the expected bulk crystal structure based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Graphene atomic images were collected in the in-plane cross sections of the layers 3.3 Å and 5.7 Å above the photoelectron emitter C atom and the stacking structures were determined as AB- and AA-type, respectively. The intercalant metal atom layer was found between two AA-stacked graphenes. The K atomic image revealing 2 × 2 periodicity, occupying every second centre site of C hexagonal columns, was reconstructed, and the Ca 2p peak intensity in the photoelectron spectra of (Ca, K)C8 from the cleaved surface was less than a few hundredths of the K 2p peak intensity. These observations indicated that cleavage preferentially occurs at the KC8 layers containing no Ca atoms.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(8): 087201, 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768775

RESUMO

The interaction between the endohedral unit in the single-molecule magnet Dy_{2}ScN@C_{80} and a rhodium (111) substrate leads to alignment of the Dy 4f orbitals. The resulting orientation of the Dy_{2}ScN plane parallel to the surface is inferred from comparison of the angular anisotropy of x-ray absorption spectra and multiplet calculations in the corresponding ligand field. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism is also angle dependent and signals strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This directly relates geometric and magnetic structure. Element specific magnetization curves from different coverages exhibit hysteresis at a sample temperature of ∼4 K. From the measured hysteresis curves, we estimate the zero field remanence lifetime during x-ray exposure of a submonolayer to be about 30 seconds.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(1): 015501, 2015 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615477

RESUMO

When a core level is excited by circularly polarized light, the angular momentum of light is transferred to the emitted photoelectron, which can be confirmed by the parallax shift of the forward focusing peak (FFP) direction in a stereograph of atomic arrangement. No angular momentum has been believed to be transferred to normal Auger electrons resulting from the decay process filling core hole after photoelectron ejection. We succeeded in detecting a non-negligible circular dichroism contrast in a normal Auger electron diffraction from a nonmagnetic Cu(001) surface far off from the absorption threshold. Moreover, we detected angular-momentum-polarized Cu L(3)M(4,5)M(4,5) Auger electrons at the L(3) absorption threshold, where the excited core electron is trapped at the conduction band. From the kinetic energy dependence of the Auger electron FFP parallax shift, we found that the angular momentum is transferred to the Auger electron most effectively in the case of the (1)S(0) two-hole creation.

13.
Nano Lett ; 13(6): 2668-75, 2013 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23656509

RESUMO

Two limiting factors for a new technology of graphene-based electronic devices are the difficulty of growing large areas of defect-free material and the integration of graphene with an atomically flat and insulating substrate material. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on metal surfaces, in particular on copper, may offer a solution to the first problem, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been identified as an ideal insulating substrate material. The bottom-up growth of graphene/h-BN stacks on copper surfaces appears therefore as a promising route for future device fabrication. As an important step, we demonstrate the consecutive growth of well-aligned graphene on h-BN, both as single layers, by low-pressure CVD on Cu(111) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The resulting films show a largely predominant orientation, defined by the substrate, where the graphene lattice aligns parallel to the h-BN lattice, while each layer maintains its own lattice constant. The lattice mismatch of 1.6% between h-BN and graphene leads to a moiré pattern with a periodicity of about 9 nm, as observed with scanning tunneling microscopy. Accordingly, angle-resolved photoemission data reveal two slightly different Brillouin zones for electronic states localized in graphene and in h-BN, reflecting the vertical decoupling of the two layers. The graphene appears n-doped and shows no gap opening at the K[overline] point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(20): 207201, 2008 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18518574

RESUMO

Up until now there has been no direct method for detecting the electronic and magnetic structure of each atomic layer at the surface, which is an essential analysis technique for nanotechnology. For this purpose, we have developed a new method, diffraction spectroscopy, based on the photon energy dependence of the angular distribution of Auger electron emission. We have applied this method to analyze the magnetic structure of a Ni ultrathin film on a Cu(001) surface around the spin reorientation transition. Atomic-layer resolved x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra were obtained. Surface and interior core-level shifts and magnetic moments are determined for each atomic layer individually.

15.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 75(4 Pt 2): 046402, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17500999

RESUMO

This paper provides a way of focusing wide-angle charged-particle beams in multiple lens systems. In previous papers [H. Matsuda, Phys. Rev. E 71, 066503 (2005); 74, 036501 (2006)], it was shown that an ellipsoidal mesh, combined with electrostatic lenses, enables correction of spherical aberration over wide acceptance angles up to +/-60 degrees . In this paper, practical situations where ordinary electron lenses are arranged behind the wide-angle electrostatic lenses are taken into account using ray tracing calculation. For practical realization of the wide-angle lens systems, the acceptance angle is set to +/-50 degrees . We note that the output beams of the wide-angle electrostatic lenses have somewhat large divergence angles which cause unacceptable or non-negligible spherical aberration in additional lenses. A solution to this problem is presented showing that lens combinations to cancel spherical aberration are available, whereby wide-angle charged-particle beams can be finely focused with considerably reduced divergence angles less than +/-5 degrees .

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