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1.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117086, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848898

RESUMO

Lead poisoning of wild birds by ingestion of lead ammunition occurs worldwide. Histopathological changes in organs of lead-intoxicated birds are widely known, and lead concentration of each organ is measurable using mass spectrometry. However, detailed lead localization at the suborgan level has remained elusive in lead-exposed birds. Here we investigated the detailed lead localization in organs of experimentally lead-exposed ducks and kites by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In both the ducks and kites, lead accumulated diffusely in the liver, renal cortex, and brain. Lead accumulation was restricted to the red pulp in the spleen. With regard to species differences in lead distribution patterns, it is noteworthy that intensive lead accumulation was observed in the arterial walls only in the kites. In addition, the distribution of copper in the brain was altered in the lead-exposed ducks. Thus, the present study shows suborgan lead distribution in lead-exposed birds and its differences between avian species for the first time. These findings will provide fundamental information to understand the cellular processes of lead poisoning and the mechanisms of species differences in susceptibility to lead exposure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Incisivo , Terapia a Laser , Animais , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas , Plasma , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(8): 1510-1519, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083328

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to toxic metals remains a public health problem with lifelong impacts on childhood growth and development. We aimed to investigate metals effects on preschool children's anthropometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, from Jul 2013 to Mar 2016. We measured scalp hair metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, manganese, and cobalt), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in 207 preschool children's (36 to 72 months old). Results: A significant negative correlation between children's hair lead levels and children's weight was found (r= -0.178, P<0.05). Linear regression analysis confirmed the relationship when adjusted for the confounders, including children's age, sex, height, family income, and maternal education (ß= -0.191; t= -3.426, P< 0.01). The ANOVA analysis showed a significant (P<0.01) difference between hair lead level and children's weight-for-age percentiles. Totally and separately, in almost all weight percentiles, hair lead levels were higher in girls than boys. Conclusion: The present study on Iranian children showed the current levels of lead exposure might negatively influence on children growth, with higher risk for girls than boys.

4.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 163: 109202, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561043

RESUMO

We developed a mixing medical device by attaching Shirasu porous glass Millipore membrane to prepare water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion in a shorter time to be applied as 10B-entrapped WOW emulsion for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Single-dose toxicity studies by intra-arterial injection of 10BSH-entrapped WOW were performed in rabbits and pig, and no side effects were observed. We hope to proceed to the preclinical and clinical studies for further evaluation of 10B compound as multidisciplinary treatments for HCC.

5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124581, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445333

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems and has attracted worldwide attention. Pb causes hematological, central nervous system, as well as renal toxicity, and so on. Although many investigations about Pb in blood to evaluate pollution status and toxic effects have been reported, there are open question about biological behavior of Pb. In order to reveal any toxicological mechanisms or influences, we focused on the local distribution of Pb in mice organs. Lead acetate (100 mg/L and 1000 mg/L) in drinking water were given to the BALB/c mice (male, seven weeks of age, N = 24) for three weeks. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the liver and inhomogeneous distribution in the kidney and brain. The hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus had higher concentrations than other areas such as the white matter. Surprisingly, in the kidney, Pb tended to accumulate in the medulla rather than the cortex, strongly suggesting that high sensitivity areas and high accumulation areas differ. Moreover, distribution of stromal interacting protein 1 (STIM1) which is candidate gene of Pb pathway to the cells was homogenous in the liver and kidney whereas inhomogeneous in the brain. In contrast to our hypothesis, interestingly, Pb exposure under the current condition did not induce mRNA expressions for any candidate channel or transporter genes. Thus, further study should be conducted to elucidate the local distribution of Pb and other toxic metals, and pathway that Pb takes to the cells.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/química , Chumbo/análise , Fígado/química , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/análise , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise Espectral
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 147, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mirtazapine has a good tolerability and safety profile that demonstrates several benefits over other antidepressants and it is associated with few fatalities. Boric acid is an odorless white powder that is generally not recognized as a poisonous substance. We report a case of cardiac arrest induced by the intentional ingestion of mirtazapine, boric acid, and sennosides, by a patient who required percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 49-year-old Japanese woman with a history of depression; she was found in an unconscious state after ingesting boric acid (unknown amount), mirtazapine (1950 mg), and sennosides (780 mg). On arrival, she was in a deep coma with marked hypotension induced by atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and diffuse hypokinetic cardiac motion. She had systemic diffuse erythema. Her serum concentrations of boric acid and mirtazapine on arrival were 560.49 mg/L and 1270 ng/mL, respectively. She experienced repeated cardiac arrest, and was therefore treated with tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass, and continuous hemodialysis filtration. Stable circulation and respiration and a normal kidney function were finally obtained and she was transferred to a local medical facility in a persistent unconscious state. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of a return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest induced by the intentional ingestion of boric acid and mirtazapine, requiring percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass for survival. To maintain cerebral perfusion during percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass, even in a prolonged state of cardiac arrest induced by overdose, is medically, ethically, and economically challenging.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/envenenamento , Ácidos Bóricos/administração & dosagem , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Mirtazapina/envenenamento , Ácidos Bóricos/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ind Health ; 57(5): 627-636, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760651

RESUMO

In Japan, the agricultural working environment has undergone significant changes from self-employment to enterprises and employees. As the structure of the agricultural industry changes, there has been a growing interest in occupational health and safety because agriculture is a hazardous industry. However, the public is not aware of the actual situation regarding occupational accidents in agricultural enterprises because most Japanese farmers are not necessarily required to report occupational accidents. The aim of this study is to explore the risk factors regarding occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,606 employees at 101 agricultural enterprises in Japan. Information on occupational accidents, personal characteristics, and working conditions was collected by questionnaires. A total of 337 valid responses were obtained. Of these respondents, 104 (30.9%) experienced occupational accidents. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that permanent employment (OR 3.67, 95% CI, 1.84-7.33), pesticide use (OR 2.61, 95% CI, 1.52-4.47), and long working hours (OR 1.76, 95% CI, 1.15-2.68) were associated with the risk of occupational accidents. This study revealed the risk factors for occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. It is suggested that work-hour restrictions for permanent employees might contribute to reducing occupational accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 8, 2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In health examinations for local inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas, only healthy people are investigated, suggesting that patients with severe cadmium nephropathy or itai-itai disease may be overlooked. Therefore, we performed hospital-based screening to detect patients with cadmium nephropathy in two core medical institutes in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Subjects for this screening were selected from patients aged 60 years or older with elevated serum creatinine levels and no definite renal diseases. We enrolled 35 subjects from a hospital in Odate city and 22 from a clinic in Kosaka town. Urinary ß2-microglobulin and blood and urinary cadmium levels were measured. RESULTS: The criteria for renal tubular dysfunction and the over-accumulation of cadmium were set as a urinary ß2-microglobulin level higher than 10,000 µg/g cr. and a blood cadmium level higher than 6 µg/L or urinary cadmium level higher than 10 µg/g cr., respectively. Subjects who fulfilled both criteria were diagnosed with cadmium nephropathy. Six out of 57 patients (10.5% of all subjects) had cadmium nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This hospital-based screening is a very effective strategy for detecting patients with cadmium nephropathy in cadmium-polluted areas, playing a complementary role in health examinations for local inhabitants. REGISTRATION NUMBER: No. 6, date of registration: 6 June, 2010 (Akita Rosai Hospital), and No. 1117, date of registration: 26 December, 2013 (Akita University).


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Cádmio/complicações , Intoxicação por Cádmio/urina , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação por Cádmio/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Nefropatias/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo
9.
Chemosphere ; 212: 994-1001, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286556

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) poisoning in raptors and water birds is a serious problem in many countries. However, only a small fraction of Pb poisoning has been detected in birds. Bone specimens may be useful indices of Pb exposure because bones contain ∼90% of the total Pb body burden. The original purpose of this study was to comprehensively analyze Pb accumulation in various bone types using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since our results showed that Pb accumulation differed greatly depending on bone type, a secondary objective was defined, aiming to investigate the fine Pb distribution and its relation to bone structure and bone marrow by using laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS. Our findings suggested that bone samples (1) consisting of trabecular tissue and (2) those that contain bone marrow could accumulate high levels of Pb following acute exposure. The shorter turnover time of trabecular bone can cause a rapid accumulation of Pb, and bone marrow may have an important role for internal exposure of Pb to bone tissue. Pb is accumulated in bones via blood flow, and bone marrow receives blood from outside the bones. In conclusion, bone samples provide valuable information on Pb exposure and could be useful to investigate and understand mortalities related to suspected Pb poisoning.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Imagem Molecular , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 291: 230-233, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227370

RESUMO

In cases of criminal thallium poisoning, forensic investigation is required to identify the amount and time of thallium exposure. Usually, blood and urine thallium levels are respectively used as biomarkers. Additionally, hair has the unique potential to reveal retrospective information. Although several studies have attempted to clarify how thallium is distributed in hair after thallium poisoning, none have evaluated the time course of changing thallium distribution. We investigated changes in the distribution of thallium in hair at different time points after exposure in five criminal thallotoxicosis patients. Scalp hair samples were collected twice, at 2.6 and 4.2-4.5months after an exposure incident by police. Results of our segmented analysis, a considerable amount of thallium was detected in almost all hair sample segments. The thallium exposure date estimated from both hair sample collections matched the actual exposure date. We found that determination of thallium amounts in hair samples divided into consecutive segments provides valuable information about exposure period even if a considerable time passes after exposure. Moreover, when estimating the amount of thallium exposure from a scalp hair sample, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to individual differences in its decrease from hair.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Tálio/análise , Tálio/envenenamento , Adulto , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parestesia/induzido quimicamente , Chá/química , Tálio/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 200-205, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6 and lithium on suicide-related behaviors separately. This study was performed to comprehensively investigate the effects of naturally absorbed EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid and lithium in relation to suicide attempt and deliberate self-harm, with adjustment for each other. METHODS: We analyzed plasma EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid levels and serum lithium levels of 197 patients including 33 patients with suicide attempts, 18 patients with deliberate self-harm, and 146 control patients. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender, EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid and log-transformed lithium levels revealed that the negative associations with EPA levels (adjusted OR 0.972, 95% CI 0.947-0.997, p = 0.031) and log-transformed lithium levels (adjusted OR 0.156, 95% CI 0.038-0.644, p = 0.01) and the positive association with DHA levels (adjusted OR 1.026, 95% CI 1.010-1.043, p = 0.002) were significant in patients with suicide attempts than in control patients. The analysis also demonstrated that the positive association with arachidonic acid levels (adjusted OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.005-1.025, p = 0.004) was significant in patients with deliberate self-harm than in control patients. LIMITATIONS: The limitations are relatively small number of patients and the effects of demographics of individual patients could not be adjusted for the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that, as naturally absorbed nutrients, higher EPA and lithium levels may be associated with less suicide attempt, and that higher arachidonic acid levels may be associated with more deliberate self-harm.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Lítio/sangue , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/sangue , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 73(2): 210-214, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848873

RESUMO

The low birthrate and aging population of Japan are entering a serious phase. As measures against the declining birthrate, improvement of the environment is promoted to support childbirth and child-rearing, but even if the birthrate increases in the future, it will take time before the effect is observed as an increase in the population. As the number of children and young people is decreasing, in order to maintain a wealthy and sustainable society, we should create an environment wherein each child can grow healthily and demonstrate sufficient abilities in participating in society. The authors have been studying the influence of exposure to environmental chemical substances on the development of children. Lead is especially considered to impair neurological development even at low concentrations of exposure. In this paper, using lead as an example, we discuss risk assessment and countermeasures for the health effects of trace chemical substances on a society with a declining birthrate. Substances that show neurotoxicity increase social costs even at low concentrations of exposure. To preserve and promote social vitality in Japan despite the declining birthrate and aging population, it is essential that measures are taken on the basis of scientifically reasonable cost/benefit assessment. For this purpose, we think that it is necessary to analyze costs and benefits in addition to the risk assessment of low concentrations of chemical substances.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
13.
Reprod Toxicol ; 76: 78-83, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360564

RESUMO

Adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure on pregnancy outcomes remain a public health concern. We assessed the relationship between prenatal mercury exposure and newborn anthropometric characteristics in 334 mother-child pairs from the early stages of pregnancy to delivery in Tokyo, Japan, between December 2010 and October 2012. We found a negative correlation between blood mercury levels during the first and second trimesters of gestation and birth weight (r = -0.134 and -0.119, respectively; p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the relationship between first-trimester maternal blood mercury levels and birth weight when adjusted for independent variables (ß = -0.170, t = -2.762; p = 0.006). Mean mercury levels in umbilical cord blood were twice as high as maternal blood levels (10.15 ±â€¯7.74 and 4.97 ±â€¯3.25 µg/L, respectively; r = 0.974, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that pregnant women and women of reproductive age should avoid mercury exposure, even at low levels, because of its potentially adverse effects on fetal development.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Antropometria , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mercúrio/sangue , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 22(1): 37, 2017 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workers in Japan are not sufficiently active; however, it remains unclear how their leisure-time physical activity habits may be developed. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship of age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity in youth to adulthood leisure-time physical activity habits among Japanese workers. METHODS: In 2012, 968 workers (333 males and 635 females) from three companies and six hospitals in the Tokai region of Japan agreed to complete and submit a self-administered questionnaire. Intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity at ages 12 and 20 years was assessed retrospectively, and workers' current participation in regular leisure-time physical activity was assessed as an outcome measure. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean ages for males and females were 40 and 37 years, respectively. Strenuous leisure-time physical activity at age 12 years was significantly positively associated with adulthood participation in leisure-time physical activity among male workers [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.02, 5.14)]. Additionally, both strenuous and moderate physical activity at age 20 years was significantly positively associated with participation in regular leisure-time physical activity in adulthood among males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that some leisure-time physical activity in youth may predict adult workers' participation in regular leisure-time physical activity in Japan. Encouragement of leisure-time physical activity in youth could therefore be an effective measure to develop adult leisure-time physical activity habits among workers.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Iran J Public Health ; 46(8): 1018-1027, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the level of exposure to many toxic metals decreased recently, the adverse effects of these metals on children's growth and development remain a serious public health issue. METHODS: The present study was conducted in three teaching hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. To study the relationship between metals and childhood growth, concentrations of zinc and several potentially toxic metals (lead, cadmium, antimony, cobalt, and molybdenum) were measured in scalp hair for 174 children, aged 20 to 36 months. RESULTS: The hair concentrations of cobalt were significantly (P<0.05) higher in children at the lower percentile of weight than in higher-weight children (0.026 ± 0.04 vs. 0.015 ± 0.01 µg/g, respectively). Hair contents of lead, cobalt, and antimony were significantly higher (P<0.05) in girls than in boys (8.08 ± 8.7 vs. 4.92 ± 5.6 µg/g for lead, 0.026 ± 0.03 vs. 0.16 ± 0.02 µg/g for cobalt, and 0.188 ± 0.29 vs. 0.102 ± 0.12 µg/g for antimony). There were also significant correlations between lead and other metals in the children's hair. CONCLUSION: Gender may play a significant role in absorption and/or accumulation of metals. It should be considered when we study metal toxicity in children.

16.
Exp Ther Med ; 13(6): 3103-3108, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588667

RESUMO

Physical activity helps to prevent the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, childbearing generally reduces parents' level of physical activity, particularly in mothers. Therefore, mothers with young children generally have lower levels of physical activity and have a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine this risk in Japanese working mothers with young children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursery schools in Nagano city, Japan. All mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding abnormal findings at their proximate annual medical examination, and were asked to record their normal physical activity. A total of 182 mothers completed the questionnaires, and 36 reported having abnormal findings (ABN group). Mothers in the ABN group were significantly older than those without abnormal findings (NOR; P=0.043). No significant differences in physical activity were observed between the two groups; however, mothers in the ABN group spent a significantly longer time sitting than those in the NOR group (P=0.028). Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, mothers in the ABN group had a significantly higher educational background (P=0.040) and a higher annual family income (P<0.001) compared with those in the NOR group, and significantly more mothers held full-time jobs (55.9 vs. 36.0%; P=0.005). Full-time working mothers typically had a significantly higher family income (P<0.001) and spent a significantly longer time sitting (P<0.001) compared with mothers in part-time and other work. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that sedentary lifestyles, namely the amount of time spent sitting, may increase the risk of Japanese working mothers with young children developing non-communicable diseases.

17.
Br J Radiol ; 90(1074): 20170004, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a 10BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. METHODS: We prepared the 10BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 1012 n cm-2. Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. RESULTS: Biodistribution results have revealed that 10B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis observed after neutron irradiation in the groups treated with 10BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion, whereas many tumour nodules were recognized in the liver, abdominal cavity, peritoneum and bilateral lobes of the lung in the non-injected group. CONCLUSION: Tumour growth suppression and cancer-cell-killing effect was observed from the morphological and pathological analyses of the 10BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion-injected group, indicating its feasibility to be applied as a novel intra-arterial boron carrier for BNCT. Advances in knowledge: The results of the current study have shown that entrapped 10BSH has the potential to increase the range of therapies available for hepatocellular carcinoma which is considered to be one of the most difficult tumours to cure.


Assuntos
Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Animais , Boro , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Papaver , Óleos Vegetais , Coelhos , Sementes , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 37, 2017 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether physical activity reduces the risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) for non-obese people remains unclear. The present cross-sectional study examined the association between physical activity and SDB among non-obese male Japanese workers. METHODS: All 200 workers in a company in Tokyo, Japan, who drove a motor vehicle as part of their job, were invited to be screened for SDB to prevent traffic accidents. Of these, 195 agreed to participate in this study. The number of apnea and hypopnea episodes occurring during one night was measured using a single-channel airflow monitor to obtain an individual respiratory disturbance index (RDI). SDB was defined as RDI ≥15 apneas/hypopneas/h. Non-obese males (body mass index <30 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SDB by physical activity level tertile, as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of SDB was 26.9%. The unadjusted analysis showed a significant inverse association between physical activity and SDB: crude ORs for the tertiles of physical activity were 1.00 (low), 1.58 (middle), and 0.27 (high) (95% CI 0.08-0.88; P for trend = 0.007). However, this association was attenuated after adjusting for covariates: Adjusted ORs were 1.00 (low), 1.65 (middle), and 0.41 (high) (95% CI 0.10-1.61; P for trend = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional study among non-obese male workers in Japan, we found no significant association between physical activity and SDB.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 35(4): 583-592, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy hypertension is the most common gestational complication and poses a critical risk for mother and fetus. Whether environmental factors may play an important role in disease occurrence is not fully determined. METHODS: To investigate the effects of prenatal manganese (Mn) exposure on gestational blood pressure, 386 women were examined. RESULTS: Early pregnancy blood Mn was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with blood pressure through gestation. A significant association between odds of pre-hypertension with blood Mn was shown (OR:1.150, 95% CI:1.052-1.258). CONCLUSION: The current study results might suggest the blood Mn level during early stage of pregnancy as a potential risk factor for increasing the risk of gestational blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Manganês/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Manganês/sangue , Gravidez
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