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1.
Mitochondrial DNA ; 24(6): 697-704, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544706

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization is one of the major pressures on amphibian species. Elucidating changes in genetic structure will be useful in evaluating the effects of urbanization on amphibian populations. Our study focused on Rana japonica, which is common in complex agricultural landscapes known as satoyama, which are also under intense development pressure. We conducted landscape genetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies of 13 breeding sites in a rapidly urbanizing area of Japan. We found several breeding sites had significantly higher F(st) values, and we also identified the barriers to gene flow between these sites. Observation of past aerial photographs revealed that these barriers coincided with the construction of man-made structures in the last few decades, suggesting that urbanization has restricted gene flow in R. japonica. Our results show that landscape genetic approaches are useful in conservation planning where rapid habitat degradation has taken place.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Ranidae/genética , Urbanização , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Densidade Demográfica
2.
Zoolog Sci ; 27(9): 746-54, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20822403

RESUMO

We performed a phylogeographic analysis of the Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus, using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). In total, 119 haplotypes were recovered from 197 samples isolated from 82 localities on three main islands of the Japanese archipelago: Honshu, Sikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and the Oki Islands. Results showed two distinct clades at a genetic distance of 3.5%, equivalent to an estimated 1.2 million years. The two clades, encompassing seven subclades, showed an apparent geographic affinity to Kyushu, Shikoku and the nearby area of Honshu (southern group) by one clade, whereas the other clade covered the remaining area of Honshu (northern group). The landscape shape interpolation analysis exhibited a higher genetic diversity in the southern parts of central Honshu (northern group) and Shikoku and Kyushu regions (southern group), suggesting the existence of multiple geographical origins of population expansion in each clade. The Bayesian skyline plot analysis showed that lineage diversifications occurred about 0.35, 0.20 and 0.05 million years ago (Mya), which coincide closely with the glacial-interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene. Therefore, we suggest that the Japanese hare population once inhabited northern and southern refugia, and subsequently developed several populations through local demographic fluctuations. The present day demarcation in the northern and southern geographic groups is considered to be a temporal remnant of Pleistocene population dynamics and the geographic boundary between them could move or fade away in time.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Lebres/genética , Animais , Demografia , Japão
3.
Anal Sci ; 26(8): 913-6, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20702948

RESUMO

This study examined the potential utility of DNA sequence analysis to discriminate and identify plant material in forensic investigations. DNA was extracted from plant leaf fragments of 11 species stored for 5 to 22 years after collection. The trnH-psbA intergenic spacer and 316 bp of the rbcL gene were successfully amplified and sequenced for all fragments except for the trnH-psbA spacer of one sample. All of the plant samples were discriminated in pairwise comparisons of the sequences. Using a combination of local and global genetic databases is likely to provide greater reliability in search results to identify forensic samples from sequence data.


Assuntos
DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genética Forense/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Íntrons/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
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