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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9341, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518386

RESUMO

Mechanical failure (MF) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is a severe complication and often requires revision surgery. Predicting a patient's risk of MF is difficult, despite several potential risk factors that have been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish risk stratification model for predicting the MF based on demographic, and radiographic data. This is a multicenter retrospective review of the risk stratification for MF and included 321 surgically treated ASD patients (55 ± 19 yr, female: 91%). The analyzed variables were recorded for at least 2 yr and included age, gender, BMI, BMD, smoking status, frailty, fusion level, revision surgery, PSO, LIF, previous surgery, spinal alignment, GAP score, Schwab-SRS type, and rod materials. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors for MF. Each risk factor was assigned a value based on its regression coefficient, and the values of all risk factors were summed to obtain the PRISM score (range 0-12). We used an 8:2 ratio to split the data into a training and a testing cohort to establish and validate the model. MF developed in 41% (n = 104) of the training subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI, BMD, PT, and frailty were independent risk factors for MF (BMI: OR 1.7 [1.0-2.9], BMD: OR 3.8 [1.9-7.7], PT: OR 2.6 [1.8-3.9], frailty: OR 1.9 [1.1-3.2]). The MF rate increased with and correlated well with the risk grade as shown by ROC curve (AUC of 0.81 [95% CI 0.76-0.86]). The discriminative ability of the score in the testing cohort was also good (AUC of 0.86 ([95% CI 0.77-0.95]). We successfully developed an MF-predicting model from individual baseline parameters. This model can predict a patient's risk of MF and will help surgeons adjust treatment strategies to mitigate the risk of MF.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575446

RESUMO

Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a serious problem in the field of medical devices. It is urgently necessary to develop new biomaterials with bactericidal activity. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs), alternative antibacterial agents, are expected to overcome the bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to develop a new intelligent material in bone tissue engineering based on protamine-loaded hydroxyapatite (protamine/HAp) that uses AMPs rather than antibiotics. It was found that the adsorption of protamine to HAp followed the Langmuir adsorption model and was due to electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions. In vitro bacterial adhesion and growth on protamine/HAp was inhibited in a protamine dose-dependent manner. Adherent bacteria exhibited an aberrant morphology for high dosages of protamine/HAp, resulting in the formation of large aggregates and disintegration of the membrane. The released protamine from protamine/HAp also prevented the growth of planktonic bacteria in vitro. However, a high dosage of protamine from powders at loading concentrations over 1000 µg·mL-1 induced a cytotoxic effect in vitro, although those exhibited no apparent cytotoxicity in vivo. These data revealed that protamine/HAp (less than 1000 µg·mL-1) had both antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility and can be applied for bone substitutes in orthopedic fields.

3.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese Scoliosis Society Morbidity & Mortality Committee performed a longitudinal nationwide complication survey of spinal deformity surgery from 2012 to 2017. The present study aimed to analyze the survey results and report the complication trends of adult spinal deformity surgery in Japan. METHODS: All Japanese Scoliosis Society members were invited to participate in the survey. Adult spinal deformity was categorized into three groups by age: 20-39 years, 40-64 years and ≥65 years. Complications were grouped into death, blindness, neurological deficits (motor/sensory), infection, massive bleeding, hematoma, pneumonia, cardiac failure, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, gastrointestinal perforation, and instrumentation failure. RESULTS: The surveys were performed in 2012, 2014, and 2017. The overall complication rates were 21.6%, 26.0%, and 25.4%, respectively. The complication rates differed significantly by age group in all years such that older patients had a higher complication rate than younger patients. The rate of neurological deficits, particularly motor deficits, significantly increased in 2014 (3.1%-5.5%), and decreased in 2017 (4.3%). Massive bleeding and postoperative hematoma decreased significantly year by year (8.0%, 4.8%, 2.5% and 1.3%, 0.5%, 0.3%, respectively). The complication rate of instrumentation failure remained high, increasing without significant difference (5.2%, 5.8%, 6.5%, respectively), and was more common in the middle-aged and older patients. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical complication rates in patients with adult spinal deformity remain high, especially neurological deficits and instrumentation failure in patients aged over 40 years. However, the complication rates of massive bleeding and postoperative hematoma decreased over this period.

4.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(13): 877-883, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539290

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors influencing cervical alignment after corrective surgery for adult patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AdIS) SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Corrective surgery for spinal deformity influences postoperative cervical spinal alignment, but changes in the cervical alignment in adults with AdIS are scarcely reported. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 85 patients with AdIS who underwent posterior corrective surgery for thoracic or lumbar major curve and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical characteristics, radiographic parameters, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were evaluated. Cervical deformity (CD) was defined as one of the following cases: (1) T1 tilt minus C2-C7 angle more than 20°, (2) C2-C7 SVA more than 40 mm, (3) and C2-C7 angle less than -10°. Patients were divided into those with and without CD based on the defined criteria; statistically relevant factors were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 19 patients in the postoperative CD group. The average age at the time of surgery was lower in the CD group (26.5 vs. 31.4). In the CD group, the average preoperative T1 tilt was smaller (1.1° vs. 12.5°), and the C2-C7 angle was kyphotic (-16.1° vs. 3.0°). The average kyphotic angle at thoracic spine (T5-T12) was lower in the CD group preoperatively (12.5° vs. 19.5°) and postoperatively (15.2° vs. 20.8°). HRQOL outcomes were comparable between the groups. Of the patients with preoperative CD, 51.5% (n = 17) maintained their deformity at the final follow-up, and baseline C2-C7 angle was lower than those who converted to non-CD following surgery (n = 16) (-17.0° vs. -10.3°). CONCLUSION: More than half of the patients with baseline CD maintained their cervical malalignment postoperatively. Patients with postoperative CD presented cervical kyphotic and thoracic hypokyphotic alignments before surgery. Because CD has the potential to lead to cervical degeneration, careful follow-up observation is necessary for these young patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466460

RESUMO

Bacterial adhesion to the calcium phosphate surface is a serious problem in surgery. To prevent bacterial infection, the development of calcium-phosphate cements (CPCs) with bactericidal properties is indispensable. The aim of this study was to fabricate antibacterial CPCs and evaluate their biological properties. Silver-containing tricalcium phosphate (Ag-TCP) microspheres consisting of α/ß-TCP phases were synthesized by an ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis technique. The powders prepared were mixed with the setting liquid to fabricate the CPCs. The resulting cements consisting of ß-TCP and hydroxyapatite had a porous structure and wash-out resistance. Additionally, silver and calcium ions could be released into the culture medium from Ag-TCP cements for a long time accompanied by the dissolution of TCP. These data showed the bioresorbability of the Ag-TCP cement. In vitro antibacterial evaluation demonstrated that both released and immobilized silver suppressed the growth of bacteria and prevented bacterial adhesion to the surface of CPCs. Furthermore, histological evaluation by implantation of Ag-TCP cements into rabbit tibiae exhibited abundant bone apposition on the cement without inflammatory responses. These results showed that Ag-TCP cement has a good antibacterial property and good biocompatibility. The present Ag-TCP cements are promising for bone tissue engineering and may be used as antibacterial biomaterials.

6.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 6(1): 37, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spinal intramedullary endodermal cyst is a rare spinal cord tumour. In particular, an endodermal cyst that includes glial tissues is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of an individual with a thoracic spinal cord intramedullary endodermal cyst, which includes glial tissues that achieved gross total resection by surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man presented with a 10-month history of right thigh pain and numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-marginated 15-mm cystic lesion at the T7-T8 level. We performed cystectomy and achieved gross total resection. Pathological findings revealed an endodermal cyst, with the presence of glial tissues. No recurrence of cysts was observed upon MRI 2 years after the surgery. DISCUSSION: Endodermal cyst is defined by pathological findings of a cyst lined by columnar epithelium of presumed endodermal derivation. To date, only 104 reported cases of intramedullary endodermal cysts have been reported; our report was the third case that showed the presence of glial cells in the cyst during pathological examination. Intramedullary cysts are generally difficult to completely resect, with many recurrences. Although we achieved gross total resection, careful follow-up is necessary in the future.

7.
Asian Spine J ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460467

RESUMO

Study Design: Single-center retrospective study. Purpose: We aimed to explore the postoperative prognostic factors for spinal intramedullary ependymoma. Overview of Literature: Ependymoma (World Health Organization grade II) is the most frequent intramedullary spinal tumor and is treated by total resection. However, postoperative deterioration of motor function occasionally occurs. Methods: Eighty patients who underwent surgical resection at Keio University and Fujita Health University in Tokyo, Japan between 2003 and 2015 with more than 2 years of follow-up were enrolled. A good surgical result was defined as an improvement in the modified McCormick Scale score by one grade or more or having the same clinical grade as was observed preoperatively. Meanwhile, a poor result was defined as a reduction in the McCormick Scale score of one grade or more or remaining in grade IV or V at final follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the following factors were performed in the two groups: sex, age, preoperative Visual Analog Scale (VAS), tumor location, the extent of tumor resection, hemosiderin caps, cavity length, and tumor length on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: At final follow-up, 15 patients were included in the poor results group and 65 in the good results group. In the univariate analysis, the factors related to poor results were as follows: higher age, preoperative McCormick Scale score severity, higher preoperative VAS, thoracic location, hemosiderin capped, and non-gross total resection (GTR). A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted and showed that age, worse preoperative McCormick Scale score, and non-GTR were significant factors for poor prognosis. Conclusions: The independent risk factors for motor deterioration after ependymoma resection were age, worse preoperative McCormick Scale score, and non-GTR. Early surgery for patients with even mild neurological disorders could facilitate functional outcomes. These results may contribute to determining the optimal timing of surgery for spinal intramedullary ependymoma.

8.
Intern Med ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389947

RESUMO

We herein report a 64-year-old man who was treated with pembrolizumab for relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma. After the third administration of pembrolizumab, he showed acute anemia with a positive direct anti-globulin test. Because of the markedly erythroid hypoplasia, he was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) caused by pembrolizumab. He was initially treated with prednisolone, but the reticulocytes decreased after tapering prednisolone. He then received high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with prednisolone, and PRCA was successfully treated. Although the pathogenesis of PRCA caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) remains unclear, IVIG treatment may be effective for some steroid-refractory CPI-induced PRCA cases.

9.
Opt Lett ; 45(10): 2736-2739, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412454

RESUMO

We fabricate a dispersion-engineered As2S5 microstructured optical fiber for demonstration of frequency conversion in one of the atmospheric-transparent windows in the mid-infrared domain. The experimentally obtained results show that parametric wavelength conversion at 4.5 µm is obtained using fabricated microstructured optical fiber pumped with 200 fs laser pulses of average power of 20 mW at 2 µm. Obtained detuning frequency from the pump frequency was ∼84THz. To the best of our knowledge, the mid-infrared wavelength conversion at 4.5 µm in fiber configuration has been demonstrated for the first time. The experimentally observed result matches well with numerically simulated phase-matching conditions.

10.
J Orthop Res ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458477

RESUMO

The degree of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is qualitatively evaluated on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). However, it is difficult to assess subtle changes in IVD degeneration using T2WI. Q-space imaging (QSI) is a quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging modality used to detect subtle changes in microenvironments. This study aimed to evaluate whether QSI can detect the inhibitory effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in IVD degeneration. We classified female Wistar rats into control, puncture, and NAC groups (n = 5 per group). In the puncture and NAC groups, IVDs were punctured using a needle. The antioxidant NAC, which suppresses the progression of IVD degeneration, was orally administered in the NAC group 1 week prior to puncture. The progression and inhibitory effect of NAC in IVD degeneration were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): IVD height, T2 mapping, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and QSI. MRI was performed using a 7-Tesla system with a conventional probe (20 IVDs in each group). QSI parameters that were assessed included Kurtosis, the probability at zero displacement (ZDP), and full width at half maximum (FWHM). IVD degeneration by puncture was confirmed by histology, IVD height, T2 mapping, ADC, and all QSI parameters (P < .001); however, the inhibitory effect of NAC was confirmed only by QSI parameters (Kurtosis and ZDP: both P < .001; FWHM: P < .01). Kurtosis had the largest effect size (Kurtosis: 1.13, ZDP: 1.06, and FWHM: 1.02) when puncture and NAC groups were compared. QSI has a higher sensitivity than conventional quantitative methods for detecting the progressive change and inhibitory effect of NAC in IVD degeneration.

11.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 25(2): 172-176, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312200

RESUMO

Background: The vast majority of acute closed tendinous mallet injuries are treated with a splint. Very few studies have directly compared splinting versus pinning the distal interphalangeal joint for this injury. The aim of this cohort study is to determine the outcomes of both methods. Methods: A total of 59 patients with acute tendinous mallet injury were retrospectively enrolled (29 patients in conservative treatment and 30 patients in surgical treatment). Conservative treatment was performed using custom-made thermoplastic splint and surgical treatment was conducted with oblique K-wire fixation of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. The DIP joint was immobilized for eight weeks in both treatments. Active ranges of motion of the affected finger and Miller's classification were evaluated postoperatively. Results: The mean extension lag of the DIP joint in the surgical treatment group was significantly better than it was with conservative treatment (2.1° vs 13.8°). Three patients who were noncompliant with the splint showed poor results, while no patients in the surgical treatment group had a poor result. Conclusions: Surgical treatment with K-wire fixation leads to satisfactory results for acute tendinous mallet injury.

12.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323609

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an abrupt traumatic injury that leads to permanent functional loss, and no practical treatment is available. We have developed pharmaceutical recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (KP-100), and its efficacy for SCI has been verified using animal models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intrathecal KP-100 administration for SCI patients in the acute phase. This investigation was a multi-center, randomized, double-blind study. Subjects with modified Frankel grade A/B1/B2 at 72 h after SCI were included. KP-100 was administered intrathecally. Subjects were followed up for 168 days after the first administration. Outcomes were evaluated using American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores and subjected to analysis of covariance. Our results demonstrated that the subjects did not show any serious adverse events caused by KP-100. Forty-three subjects underwent neurological function testing (26 in KP-100 group; 17 in placebo group), which revealed that KP-100 contributed to motor improvement at Days 140 (p = 0.050) and 168 (p = 0.079). In the subset of subjects with Frankel grade A, the proportions of subjects who gained at least 1 point on their lower-extremity motor scores were 33.3% (5/15) and 6.3% (1/16) in the KP-100 and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.083). Therefore, KP-100 has the potential to be useful and beneficial for SCI patients during the acute phase. However, this was a phase I/II trial and did not definitely address the question of efficacy; a larger phase III trial would be required to assess the efficacy.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205706

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter retrospective case series OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of a surgical treatment for ASD in the United States (US) with those in Japan (JP) in a matched cohort. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical outcomes of thoracic-lumbar-sacral (TLS) spinal fusions in adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who live in Asian countries are poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 300 surgically treated ASDs of age > 50yr with the lowest instrumented vertebra at the pelvis and a minimum follow-up of 2y were consecutively included. Patients were propensity-score matched for age, gender, levels fused, and 2y postop sagittal spinal alignment. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared between the US and JP groups. RESULTS: A total of 186 patients were matched by propensity score and were almost identical within these parameters: age (US vs. JP: 66 ±â€Š8 vs. 65 ±â€Š7y), gender (females: 90 vs. 89%), levels fused (10 ±â€Š3 vs. 10 ±â€Š2), 2y C7SVA (5 ±â€Š5 vs. 5 ±â€Š4 cm), 2y PI-LL (9 ±â€Š15° vs. 9 ±â€Š15°), and 2y PT (25 ±â€Š10° vs. 24 ±â€Š10°). ODI scores and SRS-22 function and pain scores were similar at 2y between the US and JP groups (ODI: 27 ±â€Š19 vs. 28 ±â€Š14%, p = .72; SRS-22 function: 3.6 ±â€Š0.9 vs. 3.6 ±â€Š0.7, p = .54; SRS-22 pain: 3.6 ±â€Š1.0 vs. 3.8 ±â€Š0.8, p = .11). However, significantly lower satisfaction was observed in JP than in the US (SRS-22 satisfaction: 4.3 ±â€Š0.9 vs. 4.0 ±â€Š0.8, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment for ASD was similarly effective in patients in the US and in JP. However, satisfaction scores were lower in JP compared to the US. Differences in lifestyle and cultural expectations may impact patient satisfaction following ASD surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5532, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218490

RESUMO

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can occur throughout the entire spine and can sometimes lead to spinal disorder. Although patients with OPLL sometimes develop physical limitations because of pain, the characteristics of pain and effects on activities of daily living (ADL) have not been precisely evaluated in OPLL patients. Therefore, we conducted a multi-center prospective study to assess whether the symptoms of cervical OPLL are different from those of cervical spondylosis (CS). A total of 263 patients with a diagnosis of cervical OPLL and 50 patients with a diagnosis of CS were enrolled and provided self-reported outcomes, including responses to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ), JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ), visual analog scale (VAS), and SF-36 scores. The severity of myelopathy was significantly correlated with each domain of the JOACMEQ and JOABPEQ. There was a negative correlation between the VAS score for each domain and the JOA score. There were significantly positive correlations between the JOA score and the Mental Health, Bodily Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Emotional, and Role Physical domains of the SF-36. One-to-one matching resulted in 50 pairs of patients with OPLL and CS. Although there was no significant between-group difference in scores in any of the domains of the JOACMEQ or JOABPEQ, the VAS scores for pain or numbness in the buttocks or limbs were significantly higher in the CS group; however, there was no marked difference in low back pain, chest tightness, or numbness below the chest between the two study groups. The scores for the Role Physical and Body Pain domains of the SF-36 were significantly higher in the OPLL group than in the CS group, and the mean scores for the other domains was similar between the two groups. The results of this study revealed that patients with OPLL were likely to have neck and low back pain and restriction in ADL. No specific type of pain was found in patients with OPLL when compared with those who had CS.

15.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r) has been shown to be reliable, valid, and responsive to change in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) undergoing surgery. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is the smallest difference in a health-related quality of life score that is considered to be worthwhile or clinically important to the individual. The authors hypothesized that the proportion of patients with ASD achieving an MCID in the SRS-22r score would be different between two culturally different cohorts. The purpose of this study was to compare the proportion of patients with ASD achieving MCID for the SRS-22r domains in North American (NA) and Japanese cohorts. METHODS: A total of 137 patients from North America (123 women, mean age 60.0 years) and 60 patients from Japan (56 women, mean age 65.5 years) with at least 2 years of follow-up after corrective spine surgery for ASD were included. Except for self-image, published Japanese MCID values of SRS-22r for ASD were higher (function = 0.90, pain = 0.85, self-image = 1.05, subtotal = 1.05) than the published NA MCID values (function = 0.60, pain = 0.40, self-image = 1.23, subtotal = 0.43). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant improvement in all SRS-22r domain scores at 2 years compared to baseline in both cohorts. Except for mental health (NA = 0.32, Japanese = 0.72, p = 0.005), the mean improvement from baseline to 2 years was similar between the NA and Japanese cohorts. The proportion of patients achieving MCID was higher in North America for function (NA = 51%, Japanese = 30%, p = 0.006), pain (NA = 80%, Japanese = 47%, p < 0.001), and subtotal (NA = 72%, Japanese = 35%, p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference for self-image (NA = 53%, Japanese = 58%, p = 0.454). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar improvements in SRS-22r domain scores from baseline to 2 years postoperatively, the proportion of patients reaching SRS-22r MCID for function, pain, and subtotal after ASD surgery was higher in the NA cohort than in the Japanese cohort. This may imply that patients in North America and Japan may value observed changes in clinical status differently.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3433, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103040

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of posterior tethers on the development of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). We evaluated the ability of posterior tethers to the proximal motion segment stiffness in long instrumented spinal instrumentation and fusion using a whole body human FE model. A series of finite element (FE) analysis of long segmental spinal fusion (SF) from the upper thoracic vertebra (T1) or lower thoracic vertebra (T9) to the sacrum with pedicle screws and rods were performed using an entire human body FE model (includes 234,910 elements), and compressive stresses (CS) on the anterior column, and tensile stresses (TS) on the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) in the upper-instrumented vertebra (UIV) and the vertebra adjacent to the UIV (UIV + 1) were evaluated with posterior tethers or without posterior tethers. The models were tested at three T1 tilts (0, 20, 40 deg.), with 20% muscle contraction. Deformable material models were assigned to all body parts. Muscle-tendon complexes were modeled by truss elements with a Hill-type muscle material model. The CS of anterior column decreased with increasing T1 slope with tethers in both models, while the CS remained relatively large in T9 model compared with T1 model (T1 UIV; 0.96 to 1.56 MPa, T9 UIV; 4.79 to 5.61 MPa). The TS of the supraspinous ligament was markedly reduced in both T1 and T9 models with posterior tethers (11-35%). High vertebral CS on UIV and UIV + 1 were seen in the T9 UIV model, and the TS on the PLC were increased in both UIV models. Posterior tethers may decrease PJK development after SF with a proximal thoracic UIV, while both posterior tethers and vertebral augmentation may be necessary to reduce PJK development with a lower thoracic UIV.

17.
Spine Deform ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109312

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a multi-center retrospective cohort study included consecutive pediatric patients who were admitted to 8 institutions for the treatment of congenital spinal deformity from 1991 to 2012. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare curve corrections and balances, reoperations, and complications at 2-year follow-up between those treated early vs. late. Although early intervention has been recommended, no empirical study has examined the optimal timing of short fusion among patients with congenital spinal deformity. METHODS: Patients with congenital spinal deformity with formation failure undergoing vertebrectomy with short fusion (≤ 6 fusion segments) were categorized as early (surgery at ≤ 6 years) and late (7-18 years) fusion. Outcomes included coronal and sagittal curve corrections at immediate and 2-year evaluations; loss of curve correction from immediate to 2-year follow-up; coronal and sagittal balance at 2 years; and inter-operative, major and minor short-term postoperative, and long-term postoperative complications and reoperations. RESULTS: Early fusion (N = 79) compared to late fusion (N = 96) was associated with greater percent curve correction at immediate (71% vs. 60%, p = 0.0046) and 2-year (63% vs. 52%, p = 0.0153) evaluations adjusting for surgeon experience and preoperative coronal balance. These associations were significant for males and those with 3-level fusions but not 4 to 6-level fusions. Early fusion compared with late fusion had more intraoperative (6% vs. 1%) and postoperative long-term complications (27% vs. 18%), as well as unplanned reoperations (13% vs. 9%). Early vs. late fusion had fewer short-term complications, both major (6% vs. 15%) and minor (6% vs. 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent early treatment achieved larger major curve correction by 10% compared to patients with late treatment when assessed at 2-year postoperative evaluation. However, early fusion should be considered with careful attention to possible increased risk of reoperations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

18.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 9(4): 465-477, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904914

RESUMO

Transplantation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) is a promising treatment for a variety of neuropathological conditions. Although previous reports have indicated the effectiveness of hiPSC-NS/PCs transplantation into the injured spinal cord of rodents and nonhuman primates, long-term observation of hiPSC-NS/PCs post-transplantation suggested some "unsafe" differentiation-resistant properties, resulting in disordered overgrowth. These findings suggest that, even if "safe" NS/PCs are transplanted into the human central nervous system (CNS), the dynamics of cellular differentiation of stem cells should be noninvasively tracked to ensure safety. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides molecular-functional information and helps to detect specific disease conditions. The current study was conducted to visualize Nestin (an NS/PC marker)-positive undifferentiated neural cells in the CNS of immune-deficient (nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune-deficient) mice after hiPSC-NS/PCs transplantation with PET, using 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands as labels. TSPO was recently found to be expressed in rodent NS/PCs, and its expression decreased with the progression of neuronal differentiation. We hypothesized that TSPO would also be present in hiPSC-NS/PCs and expressed strongly in residual immature neural cells after transplantation. The results showed high levels of TSPO expression in immature hiPSC-NS/PCs-derived cells, and decreased TSPO expression as neural differentiation progressed in vitro. Furthermore, PET with [18 F] FEDAC (a TSPO radioligand) was able to visualize the remnant undifferentiated hiPSC-NS/PCs-derived cells consisting of TSPO and Nestin+ cells in vivo. These findings suggest that PET with [18 F] FEDAC could play a key role in the safe clinical application of CNS repair in regenerative medicine.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 839, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964942

RESUMO

Osteomyelitis, which often arises from a surgical-site infection, is a serious problem in orthopaedic surgery. However, there are no specific biomarkers for osteomyelitis. Here, to identify specific plasma biomarkers for osteomyelitis, we conducted metabolome analyses using a mouse osteomyelitis model and bioluminescence imaging. We divided adult male pathogen-free BALB/C mice into control, sham-control, and infected groups. In the infected group, a bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus strain was inoculated into the femur, and osteomyelitis was detected by bioluminescence imaging. We next analysed the metabolome, by comprehensively measuring all of the small molecules. This analysis identified 279 metabolites, 12 of which were significantly higher and 45 were significantly lower in the infected group than in the sham-control and control groups. Principal component analysis identified sphingosine as the highest loading factor. Several acyl carnitines and fatty acids, particularly ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly lower in the infected group. Several metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle were lower in the infected group than in the other groups. Thus, we identified two sphingolipids, sphinganine and sphingosine, as positive biomarkers for mouse osteomyelitis, and two components in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, two-oxoglutarate and succinic acid, as negative biomarkers.

20.
J Orthop Sci ; 25(2): 213-218, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to musculoskeletal dysfunction, locomotive syndrome elevates the risk of requiring nursing care. Among degenerative musculoskeletal disorders, lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) associates with locomotive syndrome; however, whether lumbar spinal surgery for LSS improves locomotive syndrome remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to identify the efficacy of lumbar spinal surgery on locomotive syndrome among elderly patients with LSS. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinical data from multiple institutions of patients (age >65 years) who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Patients were examined for the locomotive syndrome risk test, including the stand-up Test, the two-step Test, and the 25-question risk assessment, 1-day preoperatively and 6-month and 1-year postoperatively. Using a logistic regression model, we identified factors associated with improvement of locomotive syndrome in the total assessment. RESULTS: Overall, we examined the data of 166 patients in this study. Upon converting each score of three tests to the stage of locomotive syndrome, the two-step test and the 25-question risk assessment revealed marked improvement in the postoperative distribution of stages. However, the stand-up test revealed a comparable distribution of stages pre- and postoperatively. In the total assessment, the postoperative distribution of stages was significantly improved than that preoperatively. The multivariable analysis revealed that failed back surgery syndrome [odds ratio (OR), 0.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-1.05; P = 0.057)] and preoperative stage of 2 in stand-up test (OR, 0.2; 95% CI: 0.05-1.02; P = 0.054) tended to have inverse association with postoperative improvement of locomotive syndrome in the total assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar spinal surgery improved the stage of locomotive syndrome among elderly patients with LSS. This study suggests that lumbar spinal surgery for LSS could be beneficial in alleviating locomotive syndrome.

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