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1.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983704

RESUMO

Autopsy imaging (Ai) was performed for a King Penguin. Ai-computed tomography (CT) revealed air sac membrane thickening, multiple nodules in the cranial air sac, suspected abscess, lung infiltration, and air sac contraction. Based on these findings, respiratory disorder was concerned. Aspergillosis, which is the highly observed in penguins, was considered as the primary differential diagnosis. The cultured sample showed characteristic conidial head of Aspergillus spp., the DNA of which was 100% identical to that of A. fumigatus. The cause of death was determined to respiratory failure due to aspergillosis. Ai-CT findings facilitated the dissection workflow and alerted the pathologist to potential hazards during the autopsy. Ai is useful to determine the cause of death and for readiness and safe pathological dissection.

2.
Magn Reson Med Sci ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) using a 5s(3s)3s scheme is robust to tachycardia, but some errors are occasionally observed in myocardial T1 mapping. We sought to evaluate the relationship between measurement errors in T1 mapping and heart rate (HR) using a confidence map. METHODS: We enrolled 69 male patients with normal native T1 values of the septal myocardium measured by a 5s(3s)3s MOLLI. The degree of measurement errors in the septal myocardium was assessed by two independent observers on a confidence map using a 4-point scale: 0, no errors; 1, errors located on the myocardial contour; 2, errors extended into the myocardial contour; and 3, errors extended into the midwall. We compared the scores of measurement errors and the average, maximum, minimum or variability of the HR indicated during the MOLLI scan (iHR), image phases of MOLLI or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). RESULTS: Patients with score >1 for the septal myocardium had significantly lower minimum iHR than those with a score ≤1 (P < 0.01; 49.8 ± 10.1 vs. 59.6 ± 9.7 beat per min). CONCLUSION: The confidence map shows more measurement errors in patients with lower minimum iHR. The myocardial T1 values should be measured carefully in patients with bradycardia during MOLLI scanning.

3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 323-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893427

RESUMO

Recent guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have stressed the necessity to improve the quality of CPR. Our previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of monitoring cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) during CPR by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The present study evaluates whether the NIRO-CCR1, a new NIRS device, is as useful in the clinical setting as the NIRO-200NX. We monitored CBO in 20 patients with cardiac arrest by NIRS. On the arrival of patients at the emergency department, the attending physician immediately assessed whether the patient was eligible for this study after conventional advanced life support and, if eligible, measured CBO in the frontal lobe by NIRS. We found that in all patients, the cerebral blood flow waveform was in synchrony with the chest compressions. Moreover, the tissue oxygenation index increased following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients undergoing CPB, including one patient in whom CBO was monitored using the NIRO-CCR1. In addition, although the NIRO-CCR1 could display the pulse rate (Tempo) in real time, Tempo was not always detected, despite detection of the cerebral blood flow waveform. This suggested that chest compressions may not have been effective, indicating that the NIRO-CCR1 also seems useful to assess the quality of CPR. This study suggests that the NIRO-CCR1 can measure CBO during CPR in patients with cardiac arrest as effectively as the NIRO-200NX; in addition, the new NIRO-CCR1 may be even more useful, especially in prehospital fields (e.g. in an ambulance), since it is easy to carry.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Parada Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oximetria , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Projetos Piloto , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 331-337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893428

RESUMO

Obesity, a risk factor of coronary artery disease, is known to cause peripheral microcirculatory disturbances. This study evaluated the relationship between the degree of obesity and peripheral microcirculatory disturbances, using peripheral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a vascular occlusion test (VOT). We compared correlations between the NIRS parameter changes induced by VOT and body mass index (BMI) in patients with and without statin therapy. A NIRS probe was set on the right thenar eminence, brachial artery blood flow was blocked for 3 min, and then released. Although total hemoglobin (ΔcHb), deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHHb) and tissue oxygenation index (ΔTOI) were not correlated with BMI, a significant negative correlation was found between oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb) and BMI in the overall study population (r = -0.255, p-value 0.02). In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between ΔO2Hb and BMI in patients without statin therapy (r = -0.353, p-value 0.02) but not in patients with statin therapy (r = -0.181, p-value 0.27). These findings suggest that ΔO2Hb may be a useful indicator to assess peripheral microcirculation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 355-360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893431

RESUMO

Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with visceral fat and various cardiac disorders, such as atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple and non-invasive inspection method to assess EAT, to prevent unfavorable cardiac events. This study assessed correlations between near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) changes induced by a vascular occlusion test (VOT) and EAT volume measured by cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. We also assessed correlations between body mass index (BMI) and EAT volume in the same population. In addition, these correlations were compared in patients treated with statin therapy and in those without statin therapy. A NIRS probe was set on the right thenar eminence, and brachial artery blood flow was blocked for 3 min before being released. A negative correlation was found between oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb) and EAT volume in the overall study population (r = -0.236, p = 0.03). Interestingly, although a strong correlation was observed in patients without statin therapy (r = -0.488, p < 0.001), this correlation was not observed in patients with statin therapy (r = 0.157, p = 0.34). These findings suggest that NIRS measurements with VOT may be a useful method to identify patients with high EAT volume and high cardiovascular risks.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(2): 190-200, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Higher fish consumption has been reported to be associated with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that higher fish intake may be associated with lower serum level of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels, representing the entire dyslipidemia spectrum, and a healthy lifestyle. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 1270 apparently healthy males over the age of 50 years without lipid-modifying therapy at the Health Planning Center of Nihon University Hospital between April and August 2018. The average number of days of fish intake per week was 2.6 ± 1.4. We performed analysis of variance using fish consumption as a categorical variable (0-1 day, 2-3 days, 4-5 days, or 6-7 days per week). The serum non-HDL-C levels in the 6-7 days fish intake group were significantly lower than those in the 0-1 and 2-3days fish intake groups. Furthermore, with increasing frequency of fish intake per week, the proportion of subjects with cigarette smoking decreased (p = 0.026), that of subjects engaging in habitual aerobic exercises increased (p = 0.034), and the sleep duration of the subjects increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a high frequency of fish intake, that is a fish intake of 6-7 days per week, was associated with healthier lifestyle behaviours as well as lower non-HDL-C levels, and thus may represent a component of a healthy lifestyle associated with a lower risk of CAD in Japanese males over the age of 50. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN (http://www.umin.ac.jp/). STUDY ID: UMIN000035899.

7.
Nutrition ; 70: 110591, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal dysmotility in critically ill patients is important as enteral nutrition is crucial. However, normal gut motility is impaired under conditions of critical illness subsequent to severe insult. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) form an extensive network associated with the myenteric plexus in the enteric nervous system. There are few reports about ICC distribution in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICC in critically ill patients. METHODS: Postmortem colon harvest was obtained from critically ill patients. Control specimens were obtained from patients without bowel movement problems who underwent hemicolectomy. The tissues were stained with c-Kit for ICC. The number of ICC was identified by counting from 10 high-power fields (HPFs). RESULTS: Specimens from six patients were analyzed and compared with those from six control patients. All patients had abnormalities of crypt architecture and inflammatory cell infiltrations. Mucosal thickness tended to be lower in the critically ill patients than in the controls (147 ± 47 versus 231 ± 127 µm; P = 0.15). Muscle layer thickness tended to be higher in the critically ill patients than in the controls (494 ± 163 versus 394 ± 258 µm; P = 0.44). ICC in the critically ill patients were almost depleted in the colon compared with those in the controls. Significantly fewer ICC were present in the critically ill patients than in the controls (0.45 versus 7.25 cells/HPF; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Critical illness is associated with diminished numbers of ICC in the colon. This finding could have implications for dysmotility in critically ill patients.

8.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(2): 222-230, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185091

RESUMO

AIMS: Anomalous origin of the coronary artery (AOCA) with an inter-arterial course (IAC) between the great vessels poses a risk for a life-threatening cardiovascular event. We assessed, in a registry-based study, the clinical features, treatment strategies, and prognoses of life-threatening cardiovascular events ensuant to AOCA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Included were 65 AOCA patients (48 men/17 women, aged 41 ± 23 years) from 40 clinical centres who had experienced sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) (n = 30), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 5), angina (n = 23), or syncope (n = 7). The anomalous vessel was the right coronary artery in 72% of patients and left coronary artery in 28%; the ostium was slit-like in 42%. Coronary luminal narrowing ≥75% was absent in patients with SCA or syncope (86% and 57%, respectively), but occlusion or narrowing was seen in those with AMI (100%) or angina (52%). Age ≤40 years, male sex, sporting activity, absence of prodromal symptoms, acutely angled (≤30°) take-off from the aorta, and absence of luminal narrowing of the IAC segment were associated with SCA in this patient group. Coronary vasospasm was inducible in 12 of 17 patients without coronary narrowing. Management included surgical revascularization (n = 26) percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 9), and medical treatment (n = 26). Four SCA patients died while hospitalized; no others died during the median 5.0 (range, 1.8-7.0)-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AOCA, age ≤40 years, male sex, sporting activity, and an acute take-off angle appear to be risk factors for SCA. Appropriate management can be beneficial. Confirmation in a large-scale study is warranted.

9.
J Cardiol ; 75(1): 74-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relations between characteristics and outcomes of patients in Japan with atrial fibrillation (AF) and the type of medical facility providing their outpatient care are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared patient characteristics and outcomes between 2 university hospitals (n=1178), 20 general hospitals (n=1308), and 41 private clinics (n=751) (follow-up: 39.3 months) in the prospective SAKURA AF Registry. Private clinic patients were significantly older than university hospital and general hospital patients (73.4±9.2 vs. 70.3±9.8 and 72.6±8.9 years; p<0.001), and these patients' CHADS2 scores were significantly lower than general hospital, but higher than university hospital patients (1.8±1.1 vs. 2.0±1.2 and 1.6±1.1; p<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier incidences of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) (1.72 vs. 1.58 vs. 0.84 events per 100 patient-years; p=0.120), a cardiovascular event (4.09 vs. 2.44 vs. 1.40; p<0.001), and death were higher (2.39 vs. 2.21 vs. 1.24; p=0.015) for university and general hospital patients than for private clinic patients; the incidences of major bleeding were equivalent (1.78 vs. 1.33 vs. 1.16; p=0.273). After multivariate adjustments, this trend persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse clinical events at small to large hospitals appear to be higher than those at private clinics, suggesting that careful attention for preventing stroke/SE and cardiovascular events should be paid to patients at a university or general hospital.

10.
Heart Vessels ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696252

RESUMO

Early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) is desirable for preventing strokes. Not only does AF often go undetected in patients being followed up for various disease conditions, but the optimal detection method also remains to be elucidated. In a prospective observational study of 24-h Holter monitoring versus 14-day external loop recording performed for detection of previously undiagnosed AF in 868 Japanese outpatients (aged 75 ± 6 years), with a CHA2DS2-vasc score ≥ 1, but no prior AF episodes, AF was detected during the initial monitoring period in 16 (1.8%) patients, in 7 (1.1% [7/645]) by 24-h monitoring and 9 (4.0% [9/223]) by 14-day monitoring (P = 0.005), and overall in 32 (3.7%) during the 1-year study period. Absence of a beta-blocker therapy and the serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level were independent predictors of a new detection of AF. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy was given to 22 (69%) of the 32 patients in whom AF was detected, and no difference in the incidence of subsequent major adverse events was found between the patients managed with and without oral OAC therapy. Previously unknown AF was documented at a prevalence of 3.7% per year among Japanese with a notable CHA2DS2-VASc score, and 14-day external loop monitoring was significantly more effective for detection of the disorder. A large-scale prospective AF screening study conducted to clarify the type or types of patients who would benefit from "early" OAC therapy for primary stroke prevention is warranted.

11.
Circ J ; 83(12): 2418-2427, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of discontinuing oral anticoagulant (OAC) after ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Japanese patients has not been clarified.Methods and Results:A study based on the Atrial Fibrillation registry to Follow the long-teRm Outcomes and use of aNTIcoagulants aftER Ablation (AF Frontier Ablation Registry) was conducted. Data were collected from 3,451 consecutive patients (74.1% men; age, 63.3±10.3 years) who had undergone AF ablation at any of 24 cardiovascular centers in Japan between August 2011 and July 2017. During a 20.7-month follow-up period, OAC therapy was discontinued in 1,836 (53.2%) patients; 51 patients (1.5%) suffered a stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), 71 (2.1%) suffered major bleeding, and 36 (1.0%) died. Patients in whom OAC therapy was discontinued were significantly younger than those in whom OACs were continued, and their CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significantly lower. The incidences of stroke/TIA, major bleeding, and death were significantly lower among these patients. Upon multivariate adjustment, stroke events were independently associated with relatively high baseline CHA2DS2-VASc scores but not with OAC status. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidences of stroke/TIA, major bleeding, and death were relatively low among patients for whom OAC therapy was discontinued, stroke/TIA occurrence was strongly associated with a high baseline stroke risk rather than with OAC status. Thus, discontinuation of OAC therapy requires careful consideration, especially in patients with a high baseline stroke risk.

12.
J Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined statin plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) therapy might be a potentially effective treatment option to prevent coronary artery disease (CAD). The serum EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio has been identified as a potential new risk marker for CAD. Few data exist whether administration of EPA could affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size. We hypothesized that the addition of EPA to ongoing statin therapy may result in altered HDL heterogeneity. METHODS: We conducted this 6-month, single-center, prospective, randomized open-label clinical trial to investigate the effect of the additional administration of EPA on the HDL heterogeneity (HDL2, HDL3, and HDL2/HDL3 ratio) in stable CAD patients receiving treatment with statins. We assigned stable CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to the EPA group (1800mg/day: n=50) or the control group (n=50). RESULTS: A significant decrease in the serum HDL3 level (-4.7% vs. -0.5%, p=0.037), but not of the serum HDL2 level, and a significant increase in the HDL2/HDL3 ratio (5.5% vs. -5.1%, p=0.032) were observed in the EPA group as compared to the control group. Multiple regression analysis with adjustments for coronary risk factors identified the achieved EPA/ AA ratio as an independent and significant predictor of an increase of the HDL2/HDL3 ratio (ß=0.295, p=0.001). Furthermore, the change in the serum cholesterol ester transfer protein mass was positively correlated with the change in the EPA/AA ratio in the EPA group (r=0.286, p=0.044), but not in the control group (r=0.121, p=0.401). CONCLUSION: Administration of EPA might decrease the serum HDL3 level, resulting in an increase in the HDL2/HDL3 ratio. Furthermore, increased EPA/AA ratio by the addition of EPA to ongoing statin therapy might be an indicator of an increase in the HDL2/HDL3 ratio, thereby regulating HDL particle size. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN (http://www.umin.ac.jp/) Study ID: UMIN000010452.

13.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(11): 2106-2116, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the clinical efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients has been demonstrated, their efficacy in EGFR-mutant NSCLCs with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and the role of radiotherapy remain unclear. This study aimed to determine if it is preferable to add upfront cranial radiotherapy to EGFR-TKIs in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC with newly diagnosed brain metastases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with CNS metastases who received EGFR-TKIs as a first-line therapy. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were enrolled and 39 patients received upfront brain radiotherapy, while 65 patients received first and second generation EGFR-TKIs first. The median time to treatment failure (TTF) was 7.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-9.4). The median survival time (MST) was 24.0 months (95% CI: 20.1-30.1). The overall response rate of the CNS was 37%. The median CNS progression-free survival (PFS) was 13.2 months (95% CI: 10.0-16.2). Brain radiotherapy prior to EGFR-TKI prolonged TTF (11.2 vs. 6.8 months, P = 0.038) and tended to prolong CNS-PFS (15.6 vs. 11.1 months, P = 0.096) but was not significantly associated with overall survival (MST 26.1 vs. 24.0 months, P = 0.525). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that poor performance status and the presence of extracranial metastases were poor prognostic factors related to overall survival. CONCLUSION: EGFR-TKI showed a favorable effect for EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with CNS metastases. Prolonged TTF and CNS-PFS were observed with upfront brain radiotherapy.

14.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(5): 1050-1062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increased cardiac troponin T (cTnT) level identifies a high-risk group in patients with end-stage renal disease; however, the mechanism of cTnT elevation remains unclear in such patients without acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, we explored the relationship between cTnT levels and the hemodynamic parameters and the prognostic potential of cTnT in stable patients with chronic hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: We included consecutive 174 patients with HD who were referred for coronary angiography due to stable coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), or heart failure (HF). Hemodynamic measurement was performed, and plasma cTnT, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) were measured at the same time. The potential of 3 biomarkers to predict all-cause mortality, cardiac death or hospitalized HF, and vascular event was assessed. RESULTS: Increased log cTnT levels were correlated with increased log BNP and log ANP levels (r = 0.531, p < 0.001 and r = 0.411, p < 0.001, respectively). Not increased log cTnT, but increased log BNP and log ANP were associated with the presence of CAD and the extent of CAD. In contrast, they were all associated with the New York Heart Association functional classification and the presence of PAD and significantly correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) in an independent manner. Increased cTnT and BNP levels were associated with the mortality and hospitalized HF. However, increased cTnT was not associated with vascular events, unlike increased BNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HD without ACS, increased cTnT reflected increased LVEDP and the presence of HF or PAD independently, and it did not reflect the presence of CAD in contrast to increased BNP. cTnT and BNP were significant prognostic predictors; however, increased cTnT was associated with HF-related events, not with arteriosclerotic events.

15.
Theriogenology ; 140: 164-170, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476686

RESUMO

Artificial insemination (AI) may be a useful tool in the reproductive management of endangered animals, including bears. To establish an AI program for bears, we investigated follicular dynamics using weekly transrectal ultrasonography in six captive brown bears. Along with ultrasonography, we monitored plasma progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17ß (E2) concentrations. Furthermore, two bears were administered a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce ovulation on the first day on which the largest follicle reached more than 10.0 mm in diameter. Brown bears showed two patterns of follicular development in the early and late periods of the breeding season. In the early period (May to mid-June), multiple follicular waves were observed; namely, many follicles developed, and the largest follicles grew to less than 6.0 mm in diameter then regressed. In the late period (mid-June to July), one or two follicles grew to greater than 6.0 mm in diameter and developed as dominant follicles. Moreover, the growth rate of the largest follicle in the late period was faster than that in the early period of the breeding season. One bear with a follicle of 13.1 mm ovulated spontaneously, and one bear ovulated when the follicle was 10.2 mm in diameter after GnRH agonist treatment. Plasma E2 concentrations increased and showed peaks five to seven days before the largest follicles reached their maximum size. Plasma P4 concentrations increased on the day the corpus luteum could be detected using ultrasonography. This is the first study that showed there are two patterns of follicular development in brown bears. Furthermore, the largest follicle reaching greater than 10.0 mm in diameter could be an indicator of the appearance of ovulatory follicles.

16.
Intern Med ; 58(23): 3351-3359, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366795

RESUMO

Objective We aimed to stratify the risk of major cardiovascular (MCV) events in Japanese patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who had normal single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI) findings and to compare the risk by generation. Methods This was a retrospective study. The composite endpoint was the occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. Patients The study subjects were 2,035 patients with normal SPECT MPI findings at baseline who had been followed up to confirm their prognosis for 3 years. The patients were categorized into 3 age groups: very elderly (≥80 years old, n=311), elderly (65-79 years old, n=1,097), and younger (<65 years old, n=542). Results During the follow-up, 68 patients experienced MCV events: cardiovascular death (n=29), non-fatal myocardial infarction (n=15), and non-fatal stroke (n=24). The MCV event rate was significantly higher in very elderly patients than in other patients. Multivariate predictors were age categories, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, atrial fibrillation, and stress left ventricular ejection fraction. The MCV event rate was 6.1% in very elderly patients. However, the MCV event rate in those with normal cardiac and renal functions without atrial fibrillation was 3.3%, which was similar to that in elderly and younger patients. Conclusion The MCV event rate was high in very elderly patients despite their normal SPECT MPI findings at baseline. Therefore, very elderly patients with multivariate risks should be carefully followed to avoid a poor prognosis.

17.
Acute Med Surg ; 6(3): 259-264, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304027

RESUMO

Aims: There have been some reports about the efficacy of trauma team activation. In November 2015, we implemented a trauma call system, wherein a general surgeon, neurosurgeon, and orthopedic surgeon are called to the emergency department when severe trauma patients are transferred to our emergency department. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this trauma call system. Methods: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a trauma call system for trauma cases with an Injury Severity Score ≥16. We compared the mortality of trauma cases and the time from arrival to the start of the examination and intervention before and after implementing this trauma call system. Results: There was no significant difference in the mortality rates before and after the implementation of the trauma call system. The median time from arrival to the start of contrast-enhanced computed tomography or transcatheter arterial embolization improved from 54 to 19 min (P = 0.015) and 171 to 84 min (P = 0.030), respectively, after the implementation of the trauma call system. Conclusion: Our trauma call system did not significantly improve the mortality of trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16. However, it was effective for reducing the time from the arrival to the start of contrast-enhanced computed tomography or transcatheter arterial embolization.

18.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 812-821, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308323

RESUMO

Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) of atrial fibrillation (AF) can reduce the AF burden and, potentially, reduce the long-term risk of strokes and death. However, it remains unclear whether anticoagulants can be stopped after PVI because of post-ablation AF recurrence in some patients. This study aimed to investigate the discontinuation rate of anticoagulants and long-term incidence of strokes after PVI.We enrolled 512 consecutive Japanese patients with AF (mean age, 63.4 ± 10.4 years; 123 women; 234 with non-paroxysmal AF; CHADS2 score/CHA2DS2-VASC score, 1.32 ± 1.12/2.21 ± 1.54) who underwent PVI between 2012 and 2015. During a 28.0 ± 17.1 -month follow-up, anticoagulants were terminated in 230 (44.9%) of the 512 patients, AF recurred in 200 (39.1%), and 10 (1.95%) suffered from a stroke. Death occurred in 5 (0.98%) patients. Although the incidence of strokes, by a Kaplan-Meier analysis, was similar, the incidence of death was lower (Hazard ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.93, P = 0.041) in the AF ablation group than the control group without ablation after 1:1 propensity score matching (the control data was derived from 2,986 patients in the SAKURA AF Registry, a large-cohort AF registry).Anticoagulants were discontinued in nearly half the patients who underwent AF ablation; of these, 39.1% experienced AF recurrences, 1.95% suffered from strokes, and 0.98% died, but the risk of death after AF ablation appeared to be lower than that in a propensity score-matched control group without ablation during long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 849-853, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308325

RESUMO

The diagnostic performance of 320-detector cardiac computed tomography (CCT) for the detection of thrombi in the left atrial appendage (LAA), relative to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the gold standard, has not yet been evaluated. A total of 91 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo pulmonary vein isolation and underwent TEE and CCT were enrolled in this study. Delayed scanning on CCT was performed following early scanning, at 60 seconds after the start of the contrast injection. The radiation dose was estimated for both scans. The early scans showed a contrast medium filling defect (FD) in the LAA in 27 patients, whereas the delayed scans showed an FD in the LAA in six patients. Of these, five patients were confirmed to have a thrombus in the LAA by TEE. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 100, 74.4, 18.5, 100, and 75.8% for early scanning and 100, 98.8, 83.3, 100, and 98.9% for delayed scanning, respectively. The area under the curve for the detection of a thrombus in the LAA on the delayed scans was significantly larger than that for the detection on the early scans (0.99 versus 0.87, P < 0.001). The estimated median radiation doses for the early and delayed scans were 2.86 and 0.42 mSv, respectively. Addition of delayed scanning to early scanning improved the diagnostic performance for the detection of a thrombus in the LAA and may obviate unnecessary TEE, with minimal additional radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Trombose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/etiologia
20.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 35(12): 2053-2062, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355684

RESUMO

Background: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are increasing in prevalence in Japan, real-world data regarding clinical outcomes in Japanese AF patients with CAD are limited.Methods: The SAKURA AF Registry is a prospective multi-center registry created to investigate outcomes of oral anticoagulant (OAC) use in Japanese AF patients. A study was conducted involving 3237 enrollees from 63 Tokyo-area institutions who were followed up for a median of 39.3 months. Clinical adverse events were compared between the patients accompanied with (n = 312) and without CAD (n = 2925).Results: The incidence of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality rates were significantly higher among patients with CAD than among those without CAD (5.98 vs 2.52 events per 100 patient-years, respectively, p < 0.001; 3.27 vs 1.94 deaths per 100 patient-years, respectively, p = 0.012), but there was no difference in strokes/transient ischemic attacks or systemic embolisms (1.70 vs 1.34). After a multivariate adjustment, CAD remained a risk factor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-2.25, p = 0.018). Among CAD patients, the propensity score-adjusted risk for major bleeding was significantly decreased among direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) users in comparison to that among warfarin users (HR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.07-0.94, p = 0.04), but other adverse clinical events did not differ significantly between these two groups.Conclusions: CAD did not appear to be a major determinant of strokes/TIAs, major bleeding, or all-cause mortality, but appeared to increase the risk of cardiovascular events in Japanese AF patients. The risk of major bleeding in CAD patients appeared to decrease when a DOAC rather than warfarin was administered. The data suggested that patients with AF and concomitant CAD require careful management and follow-up to reduce cardiovascular risks, and DOACs may be a better choice over warfarin when considering the risk of major bleeding.

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