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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of screening tests for the detection of head and neck cancer at an early stage is an important strategy to improving prognosis. Our objective was to identify plasma circulating microRNAs for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer (oral and laryngeal subsites), within a multicenter International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. METHODS: A high-throughput screening phase with 754 miRNAs was performed in plasma samples of 88 cases and 88 controls, followed by a validation phase of the differentially expressed miRNAs, identified in the screening, in samples of 396 cases and 396 controls. Comparison of the Fold Changes were carried out using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Dunn's multiple comparison test. RESULTS: We identified miR-151-3p (FC=1.73, p=0.007) as differentially expressed miRNAs in the screening and validation phase. The miR-151-3p was the only overexpressed miRNA in validation sample of head and neck (HNC) patients with early stage at diagnosis (FC=1.81, p=0.008) and it was confirmed upregulated both in smoker early-stage cases (FC=3.52, p=0.024) and in non-smoker early-stage cases (FC=1.60, p=0.025) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified miR-151-3p as an early marker of HNC. This miRNA was the only upregulated in patients at early stages of the disease, independently of the smoking status. IMPACT: The prognosis for head and neck is still poor. The discovery of a new diagnostic biomarker could lead to an earlier tumor discovery and therefore to an improvement in patient prognosis.

2.
Cancer Sci ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065483

RESUMO

The application of advanced molecular technology has significantly expanded lymphoma classification, allowing risk stratification and treatment optimization. Limited evidence suggests the presence of a genetic predisposition in lymphoma, indicating the potential for better individualized clinical management based on a novel lymphoma classification. Herein, we examined the impact of germline pathogenic variants in 27 cancer-predisposing genes with lymphoma risk and explored the clinical characteristics of pathogenic variant carriers. This study included 2,066 lymphoma patients and 38,153 cancer-free controls from the Japanese population. Following quality control of sequencing data, samples from 1,982 lymphoma patients and 37,592 controls were further analyzed. We identified 309 pathogenic variants among 4,850 variants in the 27 cancer-predisposing genes. Pathogenic variants in the following four cancer-predisposing genes were associated with a high risk of lymphoma: ATM (odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-5.51; p = 1.06 × 10-2 ), BRCA1 (OR, 5.88; 95% CI, 2.65-13.02; p = 1.27 × 10-5 ), BRCA2 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.60-5.42; p = 5.25 × 10-4 ), and TP53 (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 1.43-19.02; p = 1.23 × 10-2 ). The proportion of carriers of these genes was 1.6% of lymphoma patients. Furthermore, pathogenic variants in these genes were especially associated with a higher risk of mantle cell lymphoma (OR, 21.57; 95% CI, 7.59-61.26; p = 8.07 × 10-9 ). These results provide novel insights concerning monogenic form into lymphoma classification. Some lymphoma patients may benefit from surveillance and targeted treatment, such as other neoplasms.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040498

RESUMO

The associations between blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and colorectal cancer risk are controversial. We evaluated potential causal relationships between blood lipids and colorectal cancer risk. Using the baseline data from the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies, we estimated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-exposure associations (n=34,546 for TC, n=50,290 for HDL-C, n=51,307 for triglycerides, and n=30,305 for LDL-C). We also estimated the SNP-outcome associations in another Japanese dataset (n=7,936 colorectal cancer cases and n=38,042 controls). We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses for the association between each blood lipid type and the risk of colorectal cancer using an inverse variance-weighted method. The total variances explained by the selected SNPs in TC (68 SNPs), HDL-C (50 SNPs), log-transformed triglycerides (26 SNPs), and LDL-C (35 SNPs) were 7.0%, 10.0%, 6.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. The odds ratios for colorectal cancer were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.32) per 1 standard deviation (SD) (33.3 mg/dL) increase in TC, 1.11 (0.98-1.26) per 1 SD (15.4 mg/dL) increase in HDL-C, 1.06 (0.90-1.26) per 1 SD (0.5 log-mg/dL) increase in log-transformed triglycerides, and 1.17 (0.91-1.50) per 1 SD (29.6 mg/dL) increase in LDL-C. Sensitivity analyses consistently suggested the positive association between TC and colorectal cancer, whereas results of each lipid component were inconsistent. In conclusion, this large Mendelian randomization study of a Japanese population showed a potentially causal association between high TC and colorectal cancer risk, although the association between each lipid component and colorectal cancer remained inconclusive.

5.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 84(2): 374-387, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967946

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori infection is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer. The infection is acquired mainly in early childhood and is influenced by environmental factors, including socioeconomic status and sibling number. However, the impact of socioeconomic status and sibling number on Helicobacter pylori infection has not been well studied in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic status, represented by education level, and sibling number on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among 3,423 non-cancer subjects who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2005 and 2013. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding variables. Of the 3,423 subjects, 1,459 (42.6%) were Helicobacter pylori-positive. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection linearly decreased with increasing socioeconomic status [ORs (95% CIs) of moderate and high socioeconomic status relative to low socioeconomic status of 0.67 (0.53-0.84) and 0.43 (0.34-0.54), respectively; P trend=9.7×10-17]. In contrast, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection linearly increased with increasing sibling number [ORs (95% CIs) of SN 3-4 and ≥5 relative to sibling number ≤2 of 1.74 (1.47-2.06) and 2.54 (2.12-3.04), respectively; P trend=1.2×10-24]. This study showed that socioeconomic status and sibling number were significantly associated with the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Irmãos , Classe Social
6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(9): 1727-1734, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and gastric cancer in East and Southeast Asia where most of gastric cancer is non-cardia gastric cancer. METHODS: On the basis of 8,997 gastric cancer cases among the Asia Cohort Consortium participants from China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore (N = 538,835), we assessed gastric cancer risk according to BMI by calculating hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: A U-shaped associations between BMI and gastric cancer risk were observed. Gastric cancer risks in underweight group (<18.5 kg/m2) and in obesity group (≥27.5 kg/m2) were higher than reference BMI group (23-24.9 kg/m2; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25 for underweight; HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22 for obesity, respectively). The associations of underweight and obesity with gastric cancer risk were consistent in the analyses for non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. No significant association of underweight and obesity with the risk of cardia gastric cancer, diffuse-type gastric cancer, and early-onset gastric cancer was observed. In addition, we found that the U-shaped association between BMI and gastric cancer risk remained in nonsmokers, while only underweight was related to increased gastric cancer risk in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: BMI has a U-shaped association with gastric cancer risk in East and Southeast Asian population, especially for the non-cardia gastric cancer, intestinal-type gastric cancer, and late-onset gastric cancer. IMPACT: Future studies with consideration of anatomic location and histology of gastric cancer are needed to establish the association of underweight as well as obesity with gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Magreza
7.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269550, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the risk of death from cancer is still a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of MetS and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) with cancer mortality in a Japanese population. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 28,554 eligible subjects (14,103 men and 14,451 women) aged 35-69 years. MetS was diagnosed based on the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO), using the body mass index instead of waist circumference. The Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total cancer mortality in relation to MetS and its components. Additionally, the associations of obesity and the metabolic health status with cancer mortality were examined. RESULTS: During an average 6.9-year follow-up, there were 192 deaths from cancer. The presence of MetS was significantly correlated with increased total cancer mortality when the JASSO criteria were used (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.21), but not when the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.78-1.53). Metabolic risk factors, elevated fasting blood glucose, and MUHO were positively associated with cancer mortality (P <0.05). CONCLUSION: MetS diagnosed using the JASSO criteria and MUHO were associated with an increased risk of total cancer mortality in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Adulto , Colesterol , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Cancer ; 151(10): 1726-1736, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765848

RESUMO

Several polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been developed to predict the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in European descendants. We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 22 702 cases and 212 486 controls of Asian ancestry to develop PRSs and validated them in two case-control studies (1454 Korean and 1736 Chinese). Eleven PRSs were derived using three approaches: GWAS-identified CRC risk SNPs, CRC risk variants identified through fine-mapping of known risk loci and genome-wide risk prediction algorithms. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and area under the curve (AUC). PRS115-EAS , a PRS with 115 GWAS-reported risk variants derived from East-Asian data, validated significantly better than PRS115-EUR derived from European descendants. In the Korea validation set, OR per SD increase of PRS115-EAS was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.46-1.82; AUC = 0.63), compared with OR of 1.44 (95% CI = 1.29-1.60, AUC = 0.60) for PRS115-EUR . PRS115-EAS/EUR derived using meta-analysis results of both populations slightly improved the AUC to 0.64. Similar but weaker associations were found in the China validation set. Individuals among the highest 5% of PRS115-EAS/EUR have a 2.52-fold elevated CRC risk compared with the medium (41-60th) risk group and have a 12% to 20% risk of developing CRC by age 85. PRSs constructed using results from fine-mapping and genome-wide algorithms did not perform as well as PRS115-EAS and PRS115-EAS/EUR in risk prediction, possibly due to a small sample size. Our results indicate that CRC PRSs are promising in predicting CRC risk in East Asians and highlights the importance of using population-specific data to build CRC risk prediction models.

9.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 150(2): 465e-472e, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scars and keloids tend to cause serious functional and cosmetic impediments to patients. As these scars are not life threatening, many patients do not seek proper treatment. Thus, educating physicians and patients regarding these scars is important. The authors aimed to develop an algorithm for a scar screening system and compare the accuracy of the system with that of physicians. This algorithm was designed to involve health care providers and patients. METHODS: Digital images were obtained from Google Images (Google LLC, Mountain View, Calif.), open access repositories, and patients in the authors' hospital. After preprocessing, 3768 images were uploaded to the Google Cloud AutoML Vision platform and labeled with one of the four diagnoses: immature scars, mature scars, hypertrophic scars, and keloid. A consensus label for each image was compared with the label provided by physicians. RESULTS: For all diagnoses, the average precision (positive predictive value) of the algorithm was 80.7 percent, the average recall (sensitivity) was 71 percent, and the area under the curve was 0.846. The algorithm afforded 77 correct diagnoses with an accuracy of 77 percent. Conversely, the average physician accuracy was 68.7 percent. The Cohen kappa coefficient of the algorithm was 0.69, while that of the physicians was 0.59. CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a computer vision algorithm that can diagnose four scar types using automated machine learning. Future iterations of this algorithm, with more comprehensive accuracy, can be embedded in telehealth and digital imaging platforms used by patients and primary doctors. The scar screening system with machine learning may be a valuable support tool for physicians and patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, II.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Queloide , Algoritmos , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etiologia , Humanos , Queloide/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizado de Máquina
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2214181, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639382

RESUMO

Importance: Marital status has been shown to be associated with mortality, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. Objective: To examine the association of marital status with total and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included individual participant data from 16 prospective studies in the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2015. Asian participants with complete information on marital and vital status were included. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. The analysis began in February 2021 and ended in August 2021. Exposures: Marital status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 623 140 participants (326 397 women [52.4%] and 296 743 men [47.6%]; mean [SD] age, 53.7 [10.2] years; mean [SD] follow-up time, 15.5 [6.1] years), 123 264 deaths were ascertained. Compared with married individuals, those who were unmarried had pooled HRs of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.07-1.24) for total mortality, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.22) for cerebrovascular disease mortality, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.09-1.31) for coronary heart disease mortality, 1.17 (95% CI, 1.07-1.28) for circulatory system diseases mortality, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.11) for cancer mortality, 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.23) for respiratory diseases mortality, and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.34) for external causes of death. Positive associations with total mortality were also observed for those who were single (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.41-1.86), separated (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.61), divorced (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.69), and widowed (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13). In subgroup analyses, the positive association persisted across baseline health conditions, and the risk of death was more pronounced among men or people younger than 65 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This large pooled cohort study of individual participant data provides strong evidence that being unmarried, as well as belonging to the unmarried subcategories, was positively associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Investment of targeted social support services might need to be considered in light of the mortality differences between married and unmarried individuals.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Ásia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Breast Cancer ; 29(5): 869-879, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play critical roles in immune surveillance, an important defence against tumors. Imputing HLA genotypes from existing single-nucleotide polymorphism datasets is low-cost and efficient. We investigate the relevance of the major histocompatibility complex region in breast cancer susceptibility, using imputed class I and II HLA alleles, in 25,484 women of Asian ancestry. METHODS: A total of 12,901 breast cancer cases and 12,583 controls from 12 case-control studies were included in our pooled analysis. HLA imputation was performed using SNP2HLA on 10,886 quality-controlled variants within the 15-55 Mb region on chromosome 6. HLA alleles (n = 175) with info scores greater than 0.8 and frequencies greater than 0.01 were included (resolution at two-digit level: 71; four-digit level: 104). We studied the associations between HLA alleles and breast cancer risk using logistic regression, adjusting for population structure and age. Associations between HLA alleles and the risk of subtypes of breast cancer (ER-positive, ER-negative, HER2-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage, and late-stage) were examined. RESULTS: We did not observe associations between any HLA allele and breast cancer risk at P < 5e-8; the smallest p value was observed for HLA-C*12:03 (OR = 1.29, P = 1.08e-3). Ninety-five percent of the effect sizes (OR) observed were between 0.90 and 1.23. Similar results were observed when different subtypes of breast cancer were studied (95% of ORs were between 0.85 and 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: No imputed HLA allele was associated with breast cancer risk in our large Asian study. Direct measurement of HLA gene expressions may be required to further explore the associations between HLA genes and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Antígenos HLA , Alelos , Asiáticos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Int J Cancer ; 151(7): 1068-1080, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616624

RESUMO

Sleep duration is emerging as an important modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We assessed the association between sleep duration and cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese adults using data from six population-based cohorts with 271 694 participants. During a total follow-up period of about 5.9 million person-years, we identified 40 751 incident cancer cases and 18 323 cancer deaths. We computed study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression models and pooled the estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. Sleep duration of ≥10 hours (vs 7 hours) was associated with increased risk of cancer incidence among women (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.38), but not men, and increased risk of cancer mortality among men (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.39) and women (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.20-1.73). Sleep duration of ≤5 hours (vs 7 hours) was not associated with cancer incidence and mortality. However, among postmenopausal women, sleep durations of both ≤5 and ≥10 hours (vs 7 hours) were associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality. Among Japanese adults, sleep duration of ≥10 hours is associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality among women and cancer mortality among men.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 871-878, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420638

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical importance of genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers is widely recognized. However, there is insufficient evidence to include other cancer types that are potentially associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in clinical management guidelines. Objective: To evaluate the association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants with additional cancer types and their clinical characteristics in 100 914 individuals across 14 cancer types. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control analysis to identify cancer types and clinical characteristics associated with pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 included DNA samples and clinical information from 63 828 patients with 14 common cancer types and 37 086 controls that were sourced from a multi-institutional hospital-based registry, BioBank Japan, between April 2003 and March 2018. The data were analyzed between August 2019 and October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Germline pathogenic variants in coding regions and 2 bp flanking intronic sequences in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based target sequence method. Associations of (likely) pathogenic variants with each cancer type were assessed by comparing pathogenic variant carrier frequency between patients in each cancer type and controls. Results: A total of 65 108 patients (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 64.1 [11.6] years; 27 531 [42.3%] female) and 38 153 controls (mean [SD] age at registration, 61.8 [14.6] years; 17 911 [46.9%] female) were included in this study. A total of 315 unique pathogenic variants were identified. Pathogenic variants were associated with P < 1 × 10-4 with an odds ratio (OR) of greater than 4.0 in biliary tract cancer (OR, 17.4; 95% CI, 5.8-51.9) in BRCA1, esophageal cancer (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.9-11.0) in BRCA2, and gastric cancer (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.6-10.5) in BRCA1, and (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.1-7.1) in BRCA2 in addition to the 4 established cancer types. We also observed an association with 2 and 4 other cancer types in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Biliary tract, female breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers showed enrichment of carrier patients according to the increased number of reported cancer types in relatives. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this large-scale registry-based case-control study suggest that pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with the risk of 7 cancer types. These results indicate broader clinical relevance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Neoplasias , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies on low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC) are limited by a low number of cases. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic significance of age, stage, and CA-125 levels on survival in a multi-institutional cohort of women with pathologically confirmed LGSC. METHODS: Women with LGSC were identified from the collaborative Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Cases of newly diagnosed primary LGSC were included if peri-operative CA-125 levels were available. Age at diagnosis, FIGO stage, pre- and post-treatment CA-125 levels, residual disease, adjuvant chemotherapy, disease recurrence, and vital status were collected by the participating institutions. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Multivariable (MVA) Cox proportional hazard models were used and hazard ratios (HR) calculated. RESULTS: A total of 176 women with LGSC were included in this study; 82% had stage III/IV disease. The median PFS was 2.3 years and the median OS was 6.4 years. Age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with worse PFS (p = 0.23) or OS (p = 0.3) (HR per year: 0.99; 95%CI, 0.96-1.01 and 0.98; 95%CI 0.95-1.01). FIGO stage III/IV was independently associated with PFS (HR 4.26, 95%CI 1.43-12.73) and OS (HR 1.69, 95%CI 0.56-5.05). Elevated CA-125 (≥35 U/mL) at diagnosis was not significantly associated with worse PFS (p = 0.87) or OS (p = 0.78) in MVA. Elevated CA-125 (≥35 U/mL) after completion of primary treatment was independently associated with worse PFS (HR 2.81, 95%CI 1.36-5.81) and OS (HR 6.62, 95%CI 2.45-17.92). In the MVA, residual disease was independently associated with PFS (0.022), but not OS (0.85). CONCLUSION: Advanced LGSC was associated with poor long-term prognosis. FIGO stage and abnormal post-treatment CA-125 level are key prognostic factors inversely associated with PFS and OS. HIGHLIGHTS: 1. Through a multi-center collaborative effort, data from 176 women with low-grade serous ovarian cancer were analyzed. 2. Although low-grade serous ovarian cancer is often considered indolent, the progression-free and overall survival are poor. 3. Elevated post-treatment CA-125 levels are independently associated with poor survival.

16.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 29(9): 5972-5983, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of PLC status in PDAC patients. METHODS: Patients intending to undergo resection for PDAC between 2007 and 2020 were included. Survival was compared among patients who underwent resection with negative or positive PLC status and those who did not undergo resection. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the prognostic impact of positive PLC status. A systematic literature review was performed to evaluate the correlation between prognosis and the positive PLC rate. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients formed the study cohort and were divided as follows: 438 in the negative PLC group, 18 in the positive PLC group, and 24 in the no resection group. Although the median survival time significantly differed between the negative and positive PLC groups (35.7 vs. 13.6 months, P < 0.001), it did not significantly differ between the positive PLC and no resection groups (13.6 vs. 12.2 months, P = 0.605). Multivariable analyses demonstrated that positive PLC status (hazard ratio = 3.54, 95% confidence interval = 1.97-6.38, P < 0.001) was the strongest poor prognostic factor. Based on statistical analyses for the systematic review, the prognostic impact of positive PLC status weakened significantly as the institutional positive PLC rate increased (P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Resection did not improve the prognosis of patients with positive PLC status in our cohort. The institutional positive PLC rate may be a good reference for surgical indication in these patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Lavagem Peritoneal , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 233: 109365, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nalmefene is the only medication marketed to reduce the consumption of alcohol in patients with alcohol dependence, but it remains unclear which patients could most benefit from it. This study aimed to identify clinical moderators that affect treatment response to nalmefene in patients with alcohol dependence. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, phase 3 study of nalmefene on Japanese patients with alcohol dependence, the relationship between the reduction of heavy drinking days (HDD) and total alcohol consumption (TAC) at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment and baseline variables of the participants were analyzed in a linear regression and multiple adjusted analysis. RESULTS: Age < 65, no family history of problem drinking, age at onset of problem drinking ≥ 25, and not currently smoking were possible positive moderators. Nalmefene showed a significant HDD reduction in patients with age < 65 or no family history of problem drinking, and a significant TAC reduction in patients with age at onset of problem drinking ≥ 25 or who were not currently smoking. After multiple adjusted analyses, age < 65 (p = .028), no family history of problem drinking (p = .047), and age at onset of problem drinking ≥ 25 (p = .030) were statistically significant. Not currently smoking (p = .071) was marginally significant. In combination, these moderators indicated synergistic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-dependent patients with favorable prognostic factors such as non-smoking status, no family history of problem drinking, and a late-onset of problem drinking selectively benefit from nalmefene. Further research is needed to validate these exploratory results.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol , Humanos , Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico
18.
Oral Dis ; 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the pooled case-control data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to compare cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption risk factors for head and neck cancer between less developed and more developed countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The location of each study was categorized as either a less developed or more developed country. We compared the risk of overall head and neck cancer and cancer of specific anatomic subsites associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Additionally, age and sex distribution between categories was compared. RESULTS: The odds ratios for head and neck cancer sites associated with smoking duration differed between less developed and more developed countries. Smoking greater than 20 years conferred a higher risk for oral cavity and laryngeal cancer in more developed countries, whereas the risk was greater for oropharynx and hypopharynx cancer in less developed countries. Alcohol consumed for more than 20 years conferred a higher risk for oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx cancer in less developed countries. The proportion of cases that were young (<45 years) or female differed by country type for some HNC subsites. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the degree of industrialization and economic development affects the relationship between smoking and alcohol with head and neck cancer.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(6): 1216-1226, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of colorectal cancer is not fully understood. METHODS: Using genetic variants and metabolomics data including 217 metabolites from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1,357), we built genetic prediction models for circulating metabolites. Models with prediction R2 > 0.01 (Nmetabolite = 58) were applied to predict levels of metabolites in two large consortia with a combined sample size of approximately 46,300 cases and 59,200 controls of European and approximately 21,700 cases and 47,400 controls of East Asian (EA) descent. Genetically predicted levels of metabolites were evaluated for their associations with colorectal cancer risk in logistic regressions within each racial group, after which the results were combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of the 58 metabolites tested, 24 metabolites were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk [Benjamini-Hochberg FDR (BH-FDR) < 0.05] in the European population (ORs ranged from 0.91 to 1.06; P values ranged from 0.02 to 6.4 × 10-8). Twenty one of the 24 associations were replicated in the EA population (ORs ranged from 0.26 to 1.69, BH-FDR < 0.05). In addition, the genetically predicted levels of C16:0 cholesteryl ester was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk in the EA population only (OREA: 1.94, 95% CI, 1.60-2.36, P = 2.6 × 10-11; OREUR: 1.01, 95% CI, 0.99-1.04, P = 0.3). Nineteen of the 25 metabolites were glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols (TAG). Eighteen associations exhibited significant heterogeneity between the two racial groups (PEUR-EA-Het < 0.005), which were more strongly associated in the EA population. This integrative study suggested a potential role of lipids, especially certain glycerophospholipids and TAGs, in the etiology of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified potential novel risk biomarkers for colorectal cancer by integrating genetics and circulating metabolomics data. IMPACT: The identified metabolites could be developed into new tools for risk assessment of colorectal cancer in both European and EA populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Asiáticos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Metabolômica/métodos
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1190-1203, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between body mass index (BMI) and oesophageal cancer (OC) has been consistently negative among Asians, whereas different associations based on histological OC subtypes have been observed in Europeans and North Americans. We examined the association between BMI and OC mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis to evaluate the association between BMI and OC mortality among 842 630 Asians from 18 cohort studies. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: A wide J-shaped association between BMI and overall OC mortality was observed. The OC mortality risk was increased for underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2: HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.80-2.70) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2: HR = 4.38, 95% CI 2.25-8.52) relative to the reference BMI (23-25 kg/m2). This association pattern was confirmed by several alternative analyses based on OC incidence and meta-analysis. A similar wide J-shaped association was observed in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and alcohol synergistically increased the OC mortality risk in underweight participants (HR = 6.96, 95% CI 4.54-10.67) relative to that in reference BMI participants not exposed to smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSION: Extreme obesity and being underweight were associated with an OC mortality risk among Asians. OC mortality and BMI formed a wide J-shaped association mirrored by OSCC mortality. Although the effect of BMI on OSCC and oesophageal adenocarcinoma mortality can be different in Asians, further research based on a large case-control study is recommended.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Magreza , Ásia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações
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