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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A known barrier to getting breast cancer survivors (BCSs) to engage in habitual exercise is a lack of information on recommended physical activity levels provided to them by oncology care providers (OCPs). However, the actual situation in Japan remains unclear. This study sought to clarify OCPs' awareness and practice related to Japan's physical activity recommendation for BCSs and to ascertain barriers to routine information provision. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey involving members of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) and the Japanese Association of Cancer Rehabilitation between Dec. 2018 and Feb. 2019. RESULTS: Of 10,830 members, 1,029 (9.5%) responded. Only 19.1% were aware of the details of the JBCS physical activity recommendation, and only 21.2% routinely provided physical activity information to BCSs. Factors related to being aware of the recommendation details were 1) availability of the guidelines, 2) experience reading relevant parts of the guidelines, and 3) involvement in multidisciplinary team case meetings. Barriers to routine information provision were 1) absence of perceived work responsibility, 2) underestimation of survivors' needs, 3) lack of resources, 4) lack of self-efficacy about the recommendation, and 5) poor knowledge of the recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Only one fifth of the OCPs routinely provided physical activity information. Barriers to provision were poor awareness, self-efficacy, and attitudes and unavailable resources. The physical activity recommendation needs to be disseminated to all OCPs and an information delivery system needs to be established for BCSs to receive appropriate information and support to promote their engagement in habitual physical activity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770156

RESUMO

(1) Background: The efficacy of the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy, with trauma-focused exposure has not been sufficiently demonstrated for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with multiple comorbidities. This study examined the effects of UP treatment with trauma-focused exposure on symptoms of PTSD and comorbidities in a client who was hesitant about exposure. (2) Methods: The client, who had comorbid dysthymia, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, and bulimia nervosa, participated in the UP for 20 sessions over 6 months. The principal diagnosis and symptoms of the comorbid disorders were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at the 3-month follow-up. This treatment was conducted as part of a clinical study (UMIN000008322). (3) Results: The client showed improvement in the principal diagnosis and symptoms of the comorbid disorders post-intervention compared with baseline and no longer met the diagnostic criteria for any of the disorders. Considerable symptom improvement was observed with imaginal exposure to trauma memories. (4) Conclusions: The UP was an effective alternative treatment for PTSD and symptoms of comorbidities in this client who was hesitant about exposure to traumatic memories, and that the inclusion of trauma-focused exposure provided sufficient therapeutic effects. Further research is needed to examine the generalizability of our findings.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Fobia Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
3.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is an increasingly recognized major symptom of breast cancer which can seriously disrupt the quality of life during and many years after treatment. Sleep problems have also been linked with survival in women with breast cancer. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of insomnia in breast cancers survivors, clarify the clinical characteristics of their sleep difficulties and use machine learning techniques to explore clinical insights. METHODS: Our analysis of data, obtained in a nationwide questionnaire survey of breast cancer survivors in Japan, revealed a prevalence of suspected insomnia of 37.5%. With the clinical data obtained, we then used machine learning algorithms to develop a classifier that predicts comorbid insomnia. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated using 8-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: When using optimal hyperparameters, the L2 penalized logistic regression model and the XGBoost model provided predictive accuracy of 71.5 and 70.6% for the presence of suspected insomnia, with areas under the curve of 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. Population segments with high risk of insomnia were also extracted using the RuleFit algorithm. We found that cancer-related fatigue is a predictor of insomnia in breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of sleep problems and its link with mortality warrants routine screening. Our novel predictive model using a machine learning approach offers clinically important insights for the early detection of comorbid insomnia and intervention in breast cancer survivors.

4.
J Pers Med ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683128

RESUMO

A recent meta-analysis found that probiotics have moderate-to-large beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, it remains unclear how the baseline gut microbiota before probiotic administration influences the host's response to probiotics. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the predicted functional profile of the gut microbiota influences the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 29 patients with schizophrenia consumed Bifidobacterium breve A-1 (synonym B. breve MCC1274) for 4 weeks. We considered patients who showed a 25% or more reduction in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score at 4 weeks from baseline to be "responders" and those who did not to be "non-responders". We predicted the gut microbial functional genes based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and applied the linear discriminant analysis effect size method to determine the gut microbial functional genes most likely to explain the differences between responders and non-responders at baseline. The results showed that lipid and energy metabolism was elevated at baseline in responders (n = 12) compared to non-responders (n = 17). These findings highlight the importance of assessing the gut microbial functional genes at baseline before probiotic therapy initiation in patients with psychiatric disorders.

5.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate changes in depressive symptoms after bereavement and the impact of pre-loss resilience on such changes and on the extent of complicated grief and posttraumatic growth. METHODS: Prospective cohort surveys were provided to family caregivers of patients with cancer in four palliative care units (PCUs) before and after bereavement. Pre-loss Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale scores, pre- and post-loss Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores, post-loss Brief Grief Questionnaire scores, and the expanded Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scores were determined. RESULTS: Out of 186 bereaved family caregivers, 71 (38.2%) responses were analyzed, among which 47% pre-loss and 15% post-loss responses suggested to be a high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Approximately 90% of family caregivers at a high risk for post-loss MDD were already at a high risk for pre-loss MDD. Even after adjustment of the background variables as covariates, the interaction effect between family caregivers' pre-loss depressive symptoms and resilience on post-loss depressive symptoms was observed (F = 7.29; p < 0.01). Moreover, pre-loss resilience was not associated with other bereavement outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among family caregivers of patients with cancer in PCUs, 47% and 15% had high risk for MDD before and after bereavement, respectively. Moreover, pre-loss resilience mitigated post-loss depressive symptoms among family caregivers who had high risk for MDD before bereavement. However, considering the study's small sample size, further research is needed.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-severe cancer-related fatigue occurs in 45% of patients with cancer and interferes with many aspects of quality of life. Although physical exercise has level 1 evidence for improvement of cancer-related fatigue, it has a relatively high behavioural demand compared with other non-pharmacological interventions. The aim of this updated meta-analysis was to address the efficacy of light therapy in improving cancer-related fatigue in patients with cancer. METHODS: We included randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy of bright white light (BWL) therapy in ameliorating cancer-related fatigue in patients with cancer. This meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. The target outcomes were changes in cancer-related fatigue associated with BWL or dim red light (DRL). RESULTS: There were 9 articles with 231 participants included. The main results revealed that daily morning BWL for 30 min was associated with significantly better improvement in fatigue severity compared with DRL (k=5, Hedges' g=-0.414, 95% CI -0.740 to -0.087, p=0.013). The subgroup without psychiatric comorbidities (k=4, Hedges' g=-0.479, 95% CI -0.801 to -0.156, p=0.004) was associated with significantly better improvement in fatigue severity with BWL than with DRL. In contrary, BWL was not associated with significantly different changes in depression severity or quality of life compared with DRL. Finally, BWL was associated with similar acceptability (ie, dropout rate) and safety profile (ie, any discomfort) as those of DRL. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides an updated evidence on the rationale for application of BWL in ameliorating cancer-related fatigue in patients with different types of cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202140090.

8.
Methods Protoc ; 4(3)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287371

RESUMO

The fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is the most common and most severe unmet need among cancer survivors. Safe treatments for the FCR that are easily disseminated are greatly needed. Our primary aim is a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy and effect size of perilla oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and Bifidobacterium, a probiotic, on FCR in breast cancer survivors after the completion of chemotherapy. This study has been planned as an exploratory clinical study (phase II) and will be conducted as a three-arm, 12-week parallel group, masked-rater randomized controlled trial. Fifteen participants will be randomized with 1:1:1 allocation to receive Bifidobacterium plus perilla oil, Bifidobacterium alone, or no intervention (control). Interventions will end within 12 weeks after the random allocation of each participant. The participants will be outpatients with invasive breast cancer aged 20 years or older whose chemotherapy was completed at least 6 months before registration; hormone therapy may be ongoing. The primary outcome will be severity of FCR at 12 weeks assessed by masked raters using the 4-item Concerns about Recurrence Scale concerning overall fear of recurrence. The study protocol for the current study is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCTs031200029).

9.
Sleep Med Rev ; 57: 101469, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836486

RESUMO

This network meta-analysis aimed at investigating efficacy/tolerability of pharmacologic/hormonal interventions for menopausal sleep disturbances. Major databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining pharmacologic or hormonal interventions with either placebo or active controlled designs. Primary outcomes were improvements in sleep disturbance severity/tolerability (i.e., overall dropout rates), whereas secondary outcome was adverse event-related discontinuation rates. Analysis of 43 RCTs with 25 treatment arms involving 32,271 women during/after menopausal transition (age: 61.24 ± 4.23, duration: 90.83 ± 66.29 wks) showed therapeutic effect of melatonin-fluoxetine [SMD = -2.47 (95% CI:-4.19-0.74)] against sleep disturbances compared to placebo. Subgroup analysis of 15 RCTs on vasomotor symptoms demonstrated superior benefits of gabapentin [SMD = -1.04 (95% CI:-1.90-0.18)], oral combined hormone therapy [SMD = -0.62 (95% CI:-1.06-0.18)], and bazedoxifene-conjugated estrogens [SMD = -0.50 (95% CI:-0.96-0.04)] to placebo/control. Despite benefits of raloxifene-only [SMD = -1.86 (95% CI:-3.09-0.63)] and raloxifene-oral estrogen [SMD = -2.64 (95% CI:-4.64-0.63)], patient selection may be a confounder. Dropout rates were comparable between interventions and placebo/control. Eszopiclone [RR = 3.84 (95% CI: 1.14-12.87)] and oral combined hormone therapy [RR = 2.51 (95% CI: 1.04-6.07)] were associated with higher rates of adverse event-related discontinuation. The results support combined estrogen-progesterone therapy for menopausal sleep disturbances associated with vasomotor symptoms but showed no significant effects of hypnotics in this clinical setting.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Sono , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 184, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To review the settings and outcomes of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions for breast cancer survivors, and to explore the feasibility of prescribing exercise for breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted for studies published up to May 31, 2020. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials of HIIT intervention in breast cancer survivors. Studies were grouped by whether the intervention was conducted during or after breast cancer treatment, and intervention methods and outcomes were reviewed within each group. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were identified, and 13 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Intervention was conducted during treatment in 8 studies, and after treatment in 5. Intervention duration ranged from 3 to 16 weeks, with 2 or 3 sessions per week, for a total of 9 to 36 sessions. All interventions were supervised; 12 were lab-based, and 1 was community-based. One of most promising outcomes was improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness by HIIT. CONCLUSION: This review found that all studies on HIIT for breast cancer survivors investigated lab-based, supervised interventions, but not home-based or unsupervised. HIIT is a time-efficient method for increasing cardiovascular function in breast cancer survivors, but further research is necessary to determine its effects on other outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4003, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597590

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on depression are not definitively known. In a previous population-based prospective cohort study, we found a reverse J-shaped association of intake of fish and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the intermediate metabolite of EPA and DHA, with major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine the association further in a cross-sectional manner, in the present study we analyzed the level of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs and the risk of MDD in 1,213 participants aged 64-86 years (mean 72.9 years) who completed questionnaires and underwent medical check-ups, a mental health examination, and blood collection. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for MDD according to plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA quartiles. MDD was diagnosed in 103 individuals. There were no significant differences in any n-3 PUFAs (i.e., EPA, DHA, or DPA) between individuals with and without MDD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between any individual n-3 PUFAs and MDD risk. Overall, based on the results of this cross-sectional study, there appears to be no association of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs with MDD risk in the elderly Japanese population.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 452, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432057

RESUMO

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (abbreviated as beta-blockers) have been used for treating various cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential for asthma exacerbation is one of the major adverse effects of beta-blockers. This study aimed to compare the level of risk for an asthma attack in patients receiving various beta-blockers. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of either placebo-controlled or active-controlled design. The current network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted under a frequentist model. The primary outcome was the incidence of asthmatic attack. A total of 24 RCTs were included. Overall NMA revealed that only oral timolol [risk ratio (RR) = 3.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-10.85)] and infusion of propranolol [RR = 10.19 (95% CI 1.29-80.41)] were associated with significantly higher incidences of asthma attack than the placebo, whereas oral celiprolol [RR = 0.39 (95% CI 0.04-4.11)], oral celiprolol and propranolol [RR = 0.46 (95% CI 0.02-11.65)], oral bisoprolol [RR = 0.46 (95% CI 0.02-11.65)], oral atenolol [RR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.20-1.28)], infusion of practolol [RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.03-25.14)], and infusion of sotalol [RR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.08-10.65)] were associated with relatively lower incidences of asthma attack than the placebo. In participants with a baseline asthma history, in addition to oral timolol and infusion of propranolol, oral labetalol, oxprenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol exhibited significantly higher incidences of asthma attack than did the placebo. In conclusion, oral timolol and infusion of propranolol were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing an asthma attack in patients, especially in those with a baseline asthma history, and should be avoided in patients who present a risk of asthma.Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42020190540.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estado Asmático/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/efeitos adversos , Bisoprolol/administração & dosagem , Bisoprolol/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Celiprolol/administração & dosagem , Celiprolol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Practolol/administração & dosagem , Practolol/efeitos adversos , Propranolol/administração & dosagem , Propranolol/efeitos adversos , Risco , Sotalol/administração & dosagem , Sotalol/efeitos adversos , Estado Asmático/epidemiologia , Timolol/administração & dosagem , Timolol/efeitos adversos
13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 1091-1104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between midlife dietary habits and risk of dementia remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption in midlife and risk of dementia in later life. METHODS: This population-based cohort study assessed food frequency (average intake in 1995 and 2000) and cognition (2014-2015) in 1,127 participants (aged 45-64 in 1995). We used logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnoses for consumption quartiles of fish, PUFA-rich fish, total n-3 PUFAs, total n-6 PUFAs, types of PUFAs, and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. Estimated ORs were adjusted for age; sex; education; smoking status; alcohol consumption frequency; physical activity; histories of cancer, myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus; and depression. RESULTS: Significantly reduced risks of dementia over non-dementia (MCI plus cognitively normal) were observed in the second (OR = 0.43 (95% CI = 0.20-0.93)), third (OR = 0.22 (95% CI = 0.09-0.54)), and highest quartiles (OR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.18-0.86)) for fish; the third (OR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.16-0.92)) and highest quartiles (OR = 0.44 (95% CI = 0.19-0.98)) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); the second (OR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.18-0.84)), third (OR = 0.30 (95% CI = 0.13-0.70)), and highest quartiles (OR = 0.28 (95% CI = 0.12-0.66)) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); and the third (OR = 0.36 (95% CI = 0.16-0.85)) and highest quartiles (OR = 0.42 (95% CI = 0.19-0.95)) for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). CONCLUSION: High intake of fish in midlife might aid in preventing dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Idoso , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1854511, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505638

RESUMO

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are known to occur after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Peritraumatic distress has been indicated as a risk factor for PTSD and can be measured by the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI). However, no studies have yet measured peritraumatic distress after ACS using the PDI to predict PTSD. Objectives: This prospective cohort study examined the impact of peritraumatic distress on PTSD symptoms at 6 months after ACS. Methods: We used the PDI to assess peritraumatic distress in patients treated for ACS at a teaching hospital in Tokyo within 7 days after percutaneous coronary intervention. They were followed up over the next 6 months and were assessed for PTSD symptoms at 6 months using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The association between peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptoms was examined by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The study enrolled 101 ACS patients, and 97 completed the follow-up assessment. PDI total score was an independent predictor of PTSD symptoms after adjustment for potential covariates (beta = 0.38; p < 0.01). Limitations: The results were obtained from a single teaching hospital and assessment of PTSD symptoms was questionnaire based. Conclusion: We provide the first evidence that PDI score can predict the development of PTSD symptoms in ACS patients. Assessing peritraumatic distress after ACS with the PDI may be useful for initiating early intervention against PTSD symptoms.

15.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1129-1139, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics. METHODS: This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course. RESULTS: Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobreviventes , Violência
16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 61(1): 71-80, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800969

RESUMO

CONTEXT: No standard preventive or therapeutic methods have been established for preoperative anxiety and postoperative delirium in patients with cancer. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the therapeutic effect of yokukansan for perioperative psychiatric symptoms in patients with cancer as well as to confirm its safety profile. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial conducted at a single center in Tokyo, Japan. About 195 patients with cancer scheduled to undergo tumor resection took one packet of the study drug, which was administered orally. Coprimary outcomes were change in preoperative anxiety assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety and incidence of postoperative delirium assessed with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Interim analysis was performed with one-third (n = 74) of the target number of registered patients. RESULTS: Because this trial was canceled based on the results of the interim analysis and the protocol treatment was discontinued in patients who were already registered, conclusions were based on the full analysis set of 160 participants. There were no significant differences between groups in the change of mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety score (intervention group [SD] 0.4 [3.0] vs. placebo group 0.5 [3.0]; P = 0.796) or the incidence of postoperative delirium (32% vs. 30%; P = 0.798). There were no serious adverse events in either group. CONCLUSION: In patients with cancer undergoing highly invasive surgeries, yokukansan demonstrated no significant efficacy for the treatment of preoperative anxiety or the prevention of postoperative delirium. Yokukansan is already used in daily practice in Japan, but we should be careful with its future use.


Assuntos
Delírio , Neoplasias , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B1 , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Japão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Pineal Res ; 69(2): e12663, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347977

RESUMO

Although exogenous melatonin supplementation has been suggested to be effective for episodic migraine prophylaxis, there is no conclusive evidence comparing the efficacy of exogenous melatonin supplementation to the other FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for episodic migraine prophylaxis. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy of exogenous melatonin supplementation in patients with episodic migraine. The randomized placebo-controlled trials or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) incorporating a placebo in the study designs were included in our analyses. All of the NMA procedures were conducted under the frequentist model. The primary outcome was changes in frequency of migraine days and response rate after migraine prophylaxis with melatonin supplementation or pharmacological interventions. We included 25 RCTs in total with 4499 patients (mean age = 36.0 years, mean female proportion = 78.9%). The NMA demonstrated that migraine prophylaxis with oral melatonin 3 mg/d (immediate-release) at bedtime was associated with the greatest improvement in migraine frequency [mean difference = -1.71 days, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.27 to -0.14 days compared to placebo] and the second highest response rate (odds ratio = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.46 to 12.00 compared to placebo). Furthermore, oral melatonin 3 mg (immediate-release) at bedtime was the most preferred pharmacological intervention among all of the investigated interventions when improvements in migraine frequency, response rate, dropout rate, and rates of any adverse events were taken into account. This pilot NMA suggests the potential prophylactic role of exogenous melatonin supplementation in patients with episodic migraine.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Metanálise em Rede , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
BMC Emerg Med ; 20(1): 16, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work has indicated that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) within 60 days of trauma exposure, can reliably produce likelihood estimates of chronic PTSD among trauma survivors admitted to acute care centers. Administering the CAPS is burdensome, requires skilled professionals, and relies on symptoms that are not fully expressed upon acute care admission. Predicting chronic PTSD from peritraumatic responses, which are obtainable upon acute care admission, has yielded conflicting results, hence the rationale for a stepwise screening-and-prediction practice. This work explores the ability of peritraumatic responses to produce risk likelihood estimates of early CAPS-based PTSD symptoms indicative of chronic PTSD risk. It specifically evaluates the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) as a risk-likelihood estimator. METHODS: We used individual participant data (IPD) from five acute care studies that used both the PDEQ and the CAPS (n = 647). Logistic regression calculated the probability of having CAPS scores ≥ 40 between 30 and 60 days after trauma exposure across the range of initial PDEQ scores, and evaluated the added contribution of age, sex, trauma type, and prior trauma exposure. Brier scores, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the mean slope of the calibration line evaluated the accuracy and precision of the predicted probabilities. RESULTS: Twenty percent of the sample had CAPS ≥ 40. PDEQ severity significantly predicted having CAPS ≥ 40 symptoms (p < 0.001). Incremental PDEQ scores produced a reliable estimator of CAPS ≥ 40 likelihood. An individual risk estimation tool incorporating PDEQ and other significant risk indicators is provided. CONCLUSION: Peritraumatic reactions, measured here by the PDEQ, can reliably quantify the likelihood of acute PTSD symptoms predictive of chronic PTSD and requiring clinical attention. Using them as a screener in a stepwise chronic PTSD prediction strategy may reduce the burden of later CAPS-based assessments. Other peritraumatic metrics may perform similarly and their use requires similar validation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS): NCT00146900.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
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