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2.
J Gastroenterol ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478052

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: A fully automated, novel, high-sensitivity hepatitis B core-related antigen assay (iTACT-HBcrAg) has been developing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of measuring HBcrAg, using that assay, to diagnose HBV reactivation in a multi-center setting, compared with ultra-high-sensitivity HBsAg (iTACT-HBsAg) and HBV DNA assays. METHODS: Forty-four patients with HBV reactivation from 2008 to 2020 were enrolled in four hospitals. Serial serum specimens from the patients were assessed retrospectively for their HBcrAg levels by iTACT-HBcrAg (lower limit of detection; 2.0 log U/mL) and HBsAg levels by iTACT-HBsAg (lower limit of detection; 0.0005 IU/mL); these were compared to the HBV DNA levels. HBV reactivation was defined as detection of serum HBV DNA, including unquantifiable detection. RESULTS: At HBV reactivation and/or thereafter, HBV DNA levels were quantified (≥ 1.3 log IU/mL) in the sera of 27 patients, and were below the level of quantification (< 1.3 log IU/mL) in the sera of 17 patients. Of the 27 patients with HBV reactivation and whose serum HBV DNA was quantified, the sera of 26 and 24 patients (96.3% and 88.9%) were positive by iTACT-HBcrAg and iTACT-HBsAg, respectively. HBcrAg was detectable by iTACT-HBcrAg before HBV DNA was quantifiable in 15 of the 27 patients. Of the 11 patients with HBV reactivation and undetectable HBcrAg by iTACT-HBcrAg at HBV reactivation and/or thereafter, 10 had unquantifiable HBV DNA and none developed HBV reactivation-related hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: The iTACT-HBcrAg assay is useful for monitoring HBV reactivation to determine the initiation of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

3.
Hepatol Commun ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344290

RESUMO

Despite reports of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after achieving sustained virological response (SVR), only few studies have demonstrated the incidence of other (non-HCC) malignancies. This study aimed to clarify the incidence, survival probability, and factors associated with malignancy, especially non-HCC malignancies, in patients with chronic HCV infection after achieving SVR. In this retrospective study, records of 3580 patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved SVR following direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment were analyzed. The cumulative post-SVR incidence of non-HCC malignancies was 0.9%, 3.1%, and 6.8% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The survival probability for patients with non-HCC malignancies was 99.1%, 78.8%, and 60.2% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, and the rate was significantly lower than that for patients with HCC. The Cox proportional hazards regression model identified Mac-2-binding protein glycan isomer (M2BPGi) cutoff index (COI) ≥ 1.90 at baseline and ≥ 1.50 at 12 weeks following DAA treatment as significant and independent factors associated with the post-SVR incidence of non-HCC malignancies. Furthermore, patients with either M2BPGi COI ≥ 1.90 at baseline or M2BPGi COI ≥ 1.50 at SVR12 had a significantly higher risk of post-SVR incidence of non-HCC malignancies than of HCC. Conclusion: M2BPGi measurements at baseline and SVR12 may help predict the post-SVR incidence of non-HCC malignancies in patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved SVR following DAA treatment. Early identification of these patients is critical to prolong patient survival.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157730

RESUMO

We examined the association between serum miRNA (-192-5p, -122-3p, -320a and -6126-5p) levels and the efficacy of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) monotherapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We enrolled 61 CHB patients treated with Peg-IFNα-2a weekly for 48 weeks, of whom 12 had a virological response (VR) and 49 did not VR (non-VR). A VR was defined as HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/ml, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative, and nucleos(t)ide analogue free at 48 weeks after the end of treatment. The non-VR group showed a significantly higher HBeAg-positivity rate, ALT, HBV DNA, and serum miR-192-5p levels at baseline (P = 0.024, P = 0.020, P = 0.007, P = 0.021, respectively). Serum miR-192-5p levels at 24-weeks after the start of treatment were also significantly higher in the non-VR than the VR group (P = 0.011). Multivariate logistic regression analysis for predicting VR showed that miR-192-5p level at baseline was an independent factor (Odds 4.5, P = 0.041). Serum miR-192-5p levels were significantly correlated with the levels of HBV DNA, hepatitis B core-related antigen, and hepatitis B surface antigen (r = 0.484, 0.384 and 0.759, respectively). The serum miR-192-5p level was useful as a biomarker for the therapeutic efficacy of Peg-IFN in CHB treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/sangue , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Intern Med ; 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110488

RESUMO

The case of a 28-year-old man who had primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis overlapping syndrome (PSC-AIH OS) complicated by ulcerative colitis (UC) is reported. First, he was diagnosed with PSC complicated by UC and initially treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and mesalazine. Twenty-four months later, liver damage reappeared, and we performed a liver biopsy, which showed the features of AIH. We eventually diagnosed him with PSC-AIH OS complicated by UC. If liver damage worsens in PSC patients, PSC-AIH OS should be considered. The optimum management approach for PSC-AIH OS should be established.

6.
Hepatol Res ; 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199427

RESUMO

AIMS: To prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation-related hepatitis, we examined the clinical usefulness of a highly sensitive HB core-related antigen (iTACT-HBcrAg) assay in patients with resolved HBV infection after nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) treatment for HBV reactivation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients with resolved HBV infection who experienced HBV reactivation (defined as HBV DNA levels of 1.3 log IU/ml or more), and who received systemic chemotherapies for hematological malignancies between 2008 and 2020. iTACT-HBcrAg, HBsAg-HQ, and antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were measured using samples stored after HBV reactivation. The lower limit of quantification for iTACT-HBcrAg was 2.0 log U/ml. RESULTS: HBV reactivation was diagnosed at a median HBV DNA level of 1.8 log IU/ml, and then all patients received NA treatment. No patient had HBV-related hepatitis with a median maximum HBV DNA level of 2.0 log IU/ml. The positivities of iTACT-HBcrAg and HBsAg-HQ were 96% and 52% after HBV reactivation, respectively. Of 25 patients with detectable iTACT-HBcrAg at the initiation of NA treatment, 17 (68%) achieved iTACT-HBcrAg loss. Median durations from NA treatment to HBV DNA loss and iTACT-HBcrAg loss or the last follow-up were 35 and 175 days, respectively. Recurrence of HBV reactivation after NA cessation was not observed in seven of eight patients who achieved iTACT-HBcrAg loss or seropositive for anti-HBs during follow-up, except for one without anti-HBs after allogeneic transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: iTACT-HBcrAg could be a potential surrogate marker for diagnosing early-stage HBV reactivation as well as safe cessation of NA treatment in patients with resolved HBV infection after HBV reactivation.

7.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 120-132, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy enables a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus associated cirrhosis. However, the impact of DAA therapy on liver-related events in patients with cirrhosis is unclear. METHODS: A total of 350 patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis administered DAA therapy at 29 Japanese hospitals were enrolled (Child-Pugh class A [CP-A]: 195 patients, CP-B: 131 patients and CP-C: 24 patients). RESULTS: The SVR rates of patients with CP-A, CP-B and CP-C were 96.9%, 93.1% and 83.3%, respectively (p = 0.006). Seventy patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and male sex, previous HCC treatment, platelet counts < 10.0 × 104/µl, alpha-fetoprotein levels ≥ 5.0 ng/ml and CP-C were identified as significant factors in the multivariate analysis. The cumulative HCC occurrence/recurrence rates at 1 year were 6.6%/45.2%. The cumulative rate of decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission at 1 year was 9.1%. In the multivariate analysis, CP-B and CP-C were identified as significant factors. During the median observation period of 14.9 months, 13 patients died and one patient received liver transplant. The overall survival rates at 1 year were 98.4% in patients with CP-A, 96.4% in those with CP-B and 85.6% in those with CP-C (CP-A vs. CP-B: p = 0.759, CP-A vs. CP-C: p = 0.001 and CP-B vs. CP-C: p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: HCC development and mortality in patients with CP-B were not different from those with CP-A. On the other hand, in patients with CP-C, the development of HCC and decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission, and death were frequent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000036150).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Resposta Viral Sustentada
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(1): 75-84, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to be a major global health burden. This study aims to estimate the all-cause excess mortality occurring in the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan, 2020, by sex and age group. METHODS: Daily time series of mortality for the period January 2015-December 2020 in all 47 prefectures of Japan were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. A two-stage interrupted time-series design was used to calculate excess mortality. In the first stage, we estimated excess mortality by prefecture using quasi-Poisson regression models in combination with distributed lag non-linear models, adjusting for seasonal and long-term variations, weather conditions and influenza activity. In the second stage, we used a random-effects multivariate meta-analysis to synthesize prefecture-specific estimates at the nationwide level. RESULTS: In 2020, we estimated an all-cause excess mortality of -20 982 deaths [95% empirical confidence intervals (eCI): -38 367 to -5472] in Japan, which corresponded to a percentage excess of -1.7% (95% eCI: -3.1 to -0.5) relative to the expected value. Reduced deaths were observed for both sexes and in all age groups except those aged <60 and 70-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality during the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan in 2020 was decreased compared with a historical baseline. Further evaluation of cause-specific excess mortality is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Hepatol Res ; 52(3): 235-246, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861090

RESUMO

AIM: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are currently available even for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Reportedly, hepatic functional reserve improved in the short term after achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR). We aimed to clarify the outcomes after achievement of SVR in patients with decompensated cirrhosis who were treated by DAAs in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter study of 12-week sofosbuvir/velpatasvir was conducted in 86 patients with decompensated cirrhosis, who were evaluated for 48 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: The cohort included 8 patients with Child-Pugh class A, 56 with B, and 22 with C. The proportion of Child-Pugh class A patients increased from 9.1% at baseline to 44.1% at 48 weeks post-treatment, while that of class B and C patients decreased from 66.2% to 35.1% and from 24.7% to 14.3%, respectively. Among the patients with Child-Pugh class B and C, univariate analysis identified low total bilirubin, Child-Pugh score, Child-Pugh class B, ALBI score, and high serum albumin as factors associated with improvement to Child-Pugh class A. The optimal cut-off value of the factors for predicting improvement to Child-Pugh class A were 1.4 mg/dl for total bilirubin, 2.9 g/dl for serum albumin, 8 points for Child-Pugh score, and -1.88 for ALBI score. CONCLUSION: Achievement of SVR with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir improved the liver functional reserve at 12 weeks post-treatment and maintained the stable effects until 48 weeks post-treatment in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Specifically, the patients with less advanced conditions had the likelihood of improving to Child-Pugh class A at 48 weeks post-treatment.

10.
Stat Med ; 41(7): 1157-1171, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747043

RESUMO

Estimation of the dose-response curve for efficacy and subsequent selection of an appropriate dose in phase II trials are important processes in drug development. Various methods have been investigated to estimate dose-response curves. Generally, these methods are used with equal allocation of subjects for simplicity; nevertheless, they may not fully optimize performance metrics because of nonoptimal allocation. Optimal allocation methods, which include adaptive allocation methods, have been proposed to overcome the limitations of equal allocation. However, they rely on asymptotics, and thus sometimes cannot efficiently optimize the performance metric with the sample size in an actual clinical trial. The purpose of this study is to construct an adaptive allocation rule that directly optimizes a performance metric, such as power, accuracy of model selection, accuracy of the estimated target dose, or mean absolute error over the estimated dose-response curve. We demonstrate that deep reinforcement learning with an appropriately defined state and reward can be used to construct such an adaptive allocation rule. The simulation study shows that the proposed method can successfully improve the performance metric to be optimized when compared with the equal allocation, D-optimal, and TD-optimal methods. In particular, when the mean absolute error was set to the metric to be optimized, it is possible to construct a rule that is superior for many metrics.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Liver Int ; 42(1): 124-134, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We recently analysed and reported the features of the micro biome under hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the effect of HCV infection on bile acid (BA) metabolism in the gut-liver axis remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the gut-liver axis in HCV-infected patients. METHODS: The faecal BAs composition and gut microbiota from 100 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients were compared with those from 23 healthy individuals. For transcriptional analysis of the liver, 22 mild CHC (fibrosis stages [F] 0-2) and 42 advanced CHC (F3-4) cases were compared with 12 healthy individuals. The findings were confirmed using chimeric mice with human hepatocytes infected with HCV HCR6. RESULTS: Chronic hepatitis C patients, even at earlier disease stages, showed BA profiles distinct from healthy individuals, in which faecal deoxycholic acid (DCA) was significantly reduced and lithocholic acid or ursodeoxycholic acid became dominant. The decrease in faecal DCA was correlated with reduction in commensal Clostridiales and increase in oral Lactobacillales. Impaired biosynthesis of cholic acid (CA) was observed as a reduction in the transcription level of cytochrome P450 8B1 (CYP8B1), a key enzyme in CA biosynthesis. The reductions in faecal DCA and liver CYP8B1 were also observed in HCV-infected chimeric mice. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hepatitis C alters the intestinal BA profile, in association with the imbalance of BA biosynthesis, which differs from the pattern in NAFLD. These imbalances appear to drive disease progression through the gut-microbiome-liver axis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite C Crônica , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261878, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is insufficient data on the clinical course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the immune-tolerant (IT) and immune-clearance, inactive (IC) phases over a long follow-up period. DESIGN: We enrolled 466 CHB patients from our historical cohort, including 56 IT+MA  (mildly active), 134 IC, 230 with chronic active hepatitis (CH) and 46 with liver cirrhosis (LC), who were categorized to each phase by at least one year of follow-up period from the first visit to our hospital. We investigated long-term risks, and their factors, of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the transition between the clinical phases, especially in the IT+MA and IC groups. RESULTS: Of the 56 patients in the IT+MA group, 27 remained the IT+MA phase, but 29 transitioned to the CH phase and started nucleot(s)ide analogue (NA) treatment during the follow-up period. Meanwhile, of the 134 patients in the IC group, only 5 started NA treatment after progressing to the CH phase. The development of HCC from the IT+MA, IC, CH, and LC groups was observed in 2, 2, 9, and 20 cases, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of developing HCC in the IT+MA, IC, CH, and LC groups were 9.9, 1.8, 3.0, and 53.1% at 10 years. In the CH and LC group, patients who developed HCC were older, had higher levels of FIB-4 index, M2BPGi, HBcrAg and AFP, and had lower levels of albumin and platelet counts. In CH patients, FIB-4 index levels were elevated at the diagnosis of HCC compared to baseline, whereas these decreased during the follow-up period in non-HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: HCC occurred at a certain rate among patients in the IT+MA and IC groups. Careful follow-up is required for CH patients with higher levels of FIB-4 index and/or M2BPGi because of the high incidence of HCC development. (299 words).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Albuminas/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 200, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome sequence technology has revealed a novel type of genetic rearrangement referred to as complex structural variations (SVs). Previous studies have elucidated the complex SVs in human hepatitis B viruses (HBVs). In this study, we investigated the existence of complex SVs in HBVs from non-human primates (NHPs). METHODS: Searches for nucleotide sequences of NHP HBV were conducted using the PubMed, and genetic sequences were retrieved from databases. The candidate genetic sequences harboring complex SVs were analyzed using the CLUSTALW program and MAFFT. Additional bioinformatical analyses were performed to determine strains with complex SVs and to elucidate characteristics of NHP HBV strains. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-four HBV strains from NHPs were identified from databases. SVs and complex SVs were observed in 11 (7.1%) strains. Three gibbon HBV (GiHBV) strains showed complex SVs consisting of an insertion and a deletion in the pre-S1 region. One GiHBV strain possessed a 6-nt insertion, which are normally specific to human HBV genotype A (HBV/A) in the Core region, and further analyses clarified that the 6-nt insertion was not caused by recombination, but rather by simple insertion. Another chimpanzee HBV strain showed complex SVs in the pre-S1 region, which were composed of human HBV/E, G-specific polymorphic SV, and an additional 6-nt insertion. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, complex SVs were observed in HBV strains from NHPs, in addition to human HBV strains, as shown in previous studies. These data suggest that complex SVs could also be found in other members of hepadnaviruses, and may play a role in their genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Animais , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Filogenia , Primatas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506563

RESUMO

Evaluating liver fibrosis is crucial for disease severity assessment, treatment decisions, and hepatocarcinogenic risk prediction among patients with chronic hepatitis C. In this retrospective multicenter study, we aimed to construct a novel model formula to predict cirrhosis. A total of 749 patients were randomly allocated to training and validation sets at a ratio of 2:1. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was made via transient elastography using FibroScan. Patients with LSM ≥12.5 kPa were regarded as having cirrhosis. The best model formula for predicting cirrhosis was constructed based on factors significantly and independently associated with LSM (≥12.5 kPa) using multivariate regression analysis. Among the 749 patients, 198 (26.4%) had LSM ≥12.5 kPa. In the training set, multivariate analysis identified logarithm natural (ln) type IV collagen 7S, ln hyaluronic acid, and ln Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive Mac-2-binding protein (WFA+-Mac-2 BP) as the factors that were significantly and independently associated with LSM ≥12.5 kPa. Thus, the formula was constructed as follows: score = -6.154 + 1.166 × ln type IV collagen 7S + 0.526 × ln hyaluronic acid + 1.069 × WFA+-Mac-2 BP. The novel formula yielded the highest area under the curve (0.882; optimal cutoff, -0.381), specificity (81.5%), positive predictive values (62.6%), and predictive accuracy (81.6%) for predicting LSM ≥12.5 kPa among fibrosis markers and indices. These results were almost similar to those in the validated set, indicating the reproducibility and validity of the novel formula. The novel formula scores were significantly, strongly, and positively correlated with LSM values in both the training and validation data sets (correlation coefficient, 0.721 and 0.762; p = 2.67 × 10-81 and 1.88 × 10-48, respectively). In conclusion, the novel formula was highly capable of diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and exhibited better diagnostic performance compared to conventional fibrosis markers and indices.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 25(3): e416-e420, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377178

RESUMO

Introduction Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is commonly classified based on the presence or absence of nasal polyps (NPs). Eosinophil infiltration is observed in NPs of patients in Western countries. In contrast, in East Asian countries, including Japan, CRS with NPs (CRSwNP) is subdivided based on the presence (eosinophilic CRS [ECRS]) or absence (non-eosinophilic CRS [NECRS]) of eosinophils in NPs. However, detailed analyses of other immune cells, such as lymphocytes, in NPs have not been performed. Therefore, clarification of the types of cells that infiltrate NPs is important to understand CRS pathogenesis. Objectives We analyzed the lymphocytes that infiltrate the paranasal sinus mucosa of ECRS and NECRS patients. Methods Eighteen patients with CRSwNP participated in this study, out of whom 6 were NECRS patients, and 12 were ECRS patients. The mucosa specimens, collected from patients during sinus surgeries, were subjected to collagenase treatment to prepare single cell suspensions. Then, mononuclear cells were isolated, and CD4 + T, CD8 + T, and CD20 + B-cell populations were examined using flow cytometry. Results In both NECRS and ECRS patients, CD8 + T-cells were dominant over CD4 + T-cells. Notably, CD4 + T-cell/B-cell ratio, but not CD8 + T-cell/B-cell or CD4 + T-cell/CD8 + T-cell ratios, was significantly higher in ECRS patients than in NECRS patients. Conclusion The CD4 + T-cell/B-cell ratio can be used as a potential indicator to differentiate between ECRS and NECRS.

16.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(7): 1290-1299, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278176

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can de novo develop in patients with chronic hepatitis C even after the achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR). We characterized de novo HCC after SVR, comparing it with HCC that developed in patients during persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Characteristics, survival rates, and recurrence rates after curative treatment in 178 patients who developed initial HCC after SVR diagnosed between 2014 and 2020 were compared with those of 127 patients with initial HCC that developed during persistent HCV infection diagnosed between 2011 and 2015; HCC was detected under surveillance in both groups. HCC was less advanced and liver function worsened less in patients with SVR than in patients with persistent HCV. The survival rate after diagnosis was significantly higher for patients with SVR than for patients with persistent HCV (1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates, 98.2%, 92.5%, and 86.8% versus 89.5%, 74.7%, and 60.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). By contrast, the recurrence rate after curative treatment was similar between groups (1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence rates, 11.6%, 54.6%, and 60.4% versus 24.0%, 46.7%, and 50.4%, respectively; P = 0.7484). Liver function improved between initial HCC diagnosis and recurrence in patients with SVR (P = 0.0191), whereas it worsened in the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, patients with SVR could receive curative treatment for recurrence more frequently than patients with persistent HCV (80.4% versus 47.8%, respectively; P = 0.0008). Conclusion: Survival of patients with de novo HCC after SVR was significantly higher than that of patients in whom HCC developed during persistent HCV infection, despite similar rates of recurrence after curative treatment. A higher prevalence of curative treatment for recurrent HCC and improved liver function contributed to this result.

17.
Laryngoscope ; 131(10): E2689-E2695, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study investigated the relationships between anatomical findings around the eustachian tube (ET) and eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) accompanied by eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). STUDY DESIGN: This study employed axial, coronal, sagittal and oblique computed tomography. METHODS: Patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery at the Department of Otolaryngology, Toho University Medical Center Omori Hospital and were diagnosed with ECRS (106 patients) based on the Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis study were included. Subsequently, the presence of EOM accompanied by ECRS in 212 ear sides was assessed, and preoperative sinus computed tomography was used to evaluate various anatomical findings, such as the development of the sphenoid sinus and mastoid cells at the apex of petrous bone, the angle and length of the ET, and the size of the tympanic orifice of the ET. The relationships between these anatomical findings and the presence of EOM were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: EOM accompanied by ECRS was associated with a high peripheral blood eosinophil count and bronchial asthma. Among anatomical factors, the absence of peri-ET cells or petrous apex cells, and a low angle and short length of the ET, were risk factors for the onset of EOM. CONCLUSION: Anatomical factors such as the absence of peri-eustachian cells or petrous apex cells, and low angle or short length of the ET, are risk factors for the onset of EOM along with ECRS. Assessment of these factors may help in preventing the future onset or aggravation of EOM. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2689-E2695, 2021.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/cirurgia , Tuba Auditiva/anatomia & histologia , Otite Média/cirurgia , Rinite/cirurgia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Asma/complicações , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809955

RESUMO

We evaluated the impact of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on healthcare access in Japan in terms of the number of outpatients and hospitalized patients as well as the length of hospital stays, during the first wave of the pandemic, up to June 2020. This observational study evaluated the monthly average number of outpatients per day at hospitals, the average number of hospitalized patients per day, and the average length of hospital stays per patient, from December 2010 to June 2020, using the hospital reports data, which are open aggregated data on the utilization of hospitals from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. These numbers were compared with those from the same period of previous years, using a quasi-Poisson regression model. We found a nationwide decrease in the number of outpatients in general hospitals and hospitalized patients, particularly in long-term care beds in Japan, as well as the excess length of hospital stays among psychiatric care patients during the first wave of the COVID-19. This limited access to healthcare demonstrated the importance of the long-term health monitoring of vulnerable populations and the need for urgent management support to healthcare facilities in preparation for possible prolonged pandemics in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pharm Stat ; 20(4): 806-819, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675157

RESUMO

The purpose of assessing adverse events (AEs) in clinical studies is to evaluate what AE patterns are likely to occur during treatment. In contrast, it is difficult to specify which of these patterns occurs in each patient. To tackle this challenging issue, we constructed a new statistical model including nonnegative matrix factorization by incorporating background knowledge of AE-specific structures such as severity and drug mechanism of action. The model uses a meta-analysis framework for integrating data from multiple clinical studies because insufficient information is derived from a single trial. We demonstrated the proposed method by applying it to real data consisting of three Phase III studies, two mechanisms of action, five anticancer treatments, 3317 patients, 848 AE types, and 99,546 AEs. The extracted typical treatment-specific AE patterns coincided with medical knowledge. We also demonstrated patient-level safety profiles using the data of AEs that were observed by the end of the second cycle.

20.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 302-310, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A fully automated, novel high-sensitivity hepatitis B core-related antigen assay (iTACT-HBcrAg) has been developed. We demonstrate the clinical utility of iTACT-HBcrAg for monitoring chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and for the early detection of HBV reactivation. METHODS: After fundamental assessments, the clinical performance of iTACT-HBcrAg was compared with other HBV markers. i) Serial sera, available from 161 HBeAg-negative patients with CHB and persistently undetectable HBV DNA, were measured by iTACT-HBcrAg and a conventional HBcrAg assay (G-HBcrAg). ii) Serial sera from 13 HBV-reactivated patients were measured by iTACT-HBcrAg and an ultra-high-sensitivity HBsAg immune complex transfer-chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (lower limit of detection; 0.0005 IU/ml, ICT-CLEIA) to compare HBV DNA detection. iii) To elucidate the various HBcrAg components detected by iTACT-HBcrAg, OptiPrep density gradient centrifugation analysis was performed on sera obtained before and after HBV reactivation. RESULTS: The analytical performance of iTACT-HBcrAg was satisfactory. The sensitivity of iTACT-HBcrAg (2.1 Log U/ml) was approximately 10-fold greater than that of G-HBcrAg (2.8 Log U/ml). i) HBcrAg was detectable in the sera of 97.5% (157/161) of patients with CHB by iTACT-HBcrAg, of whom 75.2% (121/161) had ≥2.8 Log U/ml HBcrAg and 22.4% (36/161) had 2.1-2.8 Log U/ml HBcrAg, which was undetectable by G-HBcrAg. ii) 9 and 2 of 13 HBV-reactivated patients were HBcrAg-positive by iTACT-HBcrAg before and at HBV DNA positivity, respectively; 7 and 4 were HBcrAg-positive by iTACT-HBcrAg before and at HBsAg-positivity by ICT-CLEIA, respectively. iii) The HBcrAg detected by iTACT-HBcrAg before HBV reactivation was contained in empty particles (22 KDa precore protein). CONCLUSIONS: iTACT-HBcrAg could be used to better monitor responses to anti-HBV treatments in HBeAg-negative patients and for the early detection of HBV reactivation. LAY SUMMARY: A fully automated, novel high-sensitivity hepatitis B core-related antigen assay (iTACT-HBcrAg) has been developed. iTACT-HBcrAg can be used to monitor HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B, as well as for the early detection of HBV reactivation. iTACT-HBcrAg could be used as a general marker of disease progression and treatment response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/análise , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Infecção Latente/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Japão , Infecção Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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