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1.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129211, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316473

RESUMO

In this study, the six indicator non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls NDL-PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180), as well as four organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene (DDE) were measured in 98 maternal and 49 cord sera samples of a group of Lebanese women who gave birth in three hospitals in Greater Beirut, between March and July 2018. Results showed that the levels of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in maternal serum were below critical limits as well as those in other countries (Tunisia, France, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Greenland, Canada, Brazil, and China). The ratios of cord serum concentrations to maternal serum concentrations of analyzed POPs were higher than 1. PCB maternal serum concentrations were found to be linked to illegal incineration (OR = 5.78; p = 0.004) as well as eggs (OR = 4.68; p = 0.027) and fruits and vegetables consumption (OR = 3.92; p = 0.016). OCP concentrations were linked to red meat and cold cuts intake (OR = 3.67-4.59; p = 0.001-0.004). While PCB levels were not correlated to newborns anthropometric measurements, OCP levels in cord serum were found to be positively linked to the birth length of newborns (p = 0.014-0.027).


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Brasil , Canadá , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , França , Groenlândia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Recém-Nascido , Praguicidas/análise , Polônia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Portugal , Gravidez , Gestantes , Espanha , Tunísia
2.
F1000Res ; 9: 1254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299557

RESUMO

Background: The expanding burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Countries requires urgent public health vigilance and actions. This study aimed at establishing a database analysis of total sugar, salt and iron content in Lebanese foods, focusing on traditional dishes. Methods: The collection of food samples was done using stratified sampling techniques. These samples were classified into five strata, taking into account variation by geographical area (Mount Lebanon, Bekaa, Beirut, Tripoli, and Saida). The number of samples per governorate was estimated to be 30 according to the variability in the dishes' composition. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total sugar, salt, and iron. Results: Among all the governorates, all the tested traditional Lebanese dishes contained little total sugar. More than 60% of the samples tested were rich in sodium. The sodium content ranges were 120-720 mg/100 g in Mount Lebanon, 240-960 mg/100 g in Bekaa, 80-520 mg/100g in Beirut, 252-1952 mg/100g in Tripoli and 40-680 mg/100 g in Saida. The highest mean amount of sodium was observed in the dishes Fatayer Sabanikh and Malfouf Mehche (≥ 600 mg/100 g). Furthermore, more than 80% of the samples had poor amounts of iron in all governorates. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for multi-cultural education and awareness on food sources of salt and iron, and the health effects regarding high intake of salt and low intake of iron. This study is a stepping stone for further research exploring total sugar, salt and iron content of traditional dishes, as well as potential intake by individuals in the Lebanese population.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ferro , Humanos , Líbano , Valor Nutritivo , Açúcares
3.
Heliyon ; 6(9): e04995, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995645

RESUMO

One of the drawbacks of canning is the migration of various chemicals from the package into the food product. This work aimed at analyzing the concentrations of Bisphenol A (in 137 samples) and heavy metals (in 51 samples) of canned tuna commercialized in Lebanon while evaluating the variability across different brands, packing media, layer, and proximity to the expiry date. Accordingly, BPA was detected in 12 samples out of the 137 samples, run in duplicates. The estimated daily intake of BPA for the selected samples (n = 274) was lower than the tolerable daily intake of BPA, 0.004 mg/kg/day. Therefore, there is no health risk associated with BPA as a result of consuming canned tuna commercialized in the Lebanese market. Besides, the study has shown that 66 samples out of 102 were contaminated with Zn whereas 100% of the samples were contaminated with Aluminum and Tin. However, the calculated Health Risk Index of all the considered heavy metals are all within the safe limits as defined by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and Codex Alimentarius.

4.
J Clin Densitom ; 23(3): 465-471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657026

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to explore the relations between muscular maximal strength indices and bone parameters (bone mineral density [BMD], hip geometry indices, and trabecular bone score [TBS]) in a group of elderly women. This study included 35 healthy elderly women whose ages range between 65 and 75 yr (68.1 ± 3.1 yr). BMD (in gram per square centimeter) was determined for each individual by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN). L1-L4 TBS and hip geometry indices were also evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal muscle strength of bench press (1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press), maximal muscle strength of leg press (1-RM leg press), and handgrip were measured using validated methods. 1-RM bench press was positively correlated to TH BMD (r = 0.40; p < 0.05), FN BMD (r = 0.41; p < 0.05), FN section modulus (r = 0.33; p < 0.05), and FN cross-sectional moment of inertia (r = 0.35; p < 0.05). 1-RM leg press was positively correlated to TH BMD (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), FN BMD (r = 0.35; p < 0.05), FN cross-sectional area (r = 0.38; p < 0.05), and TBS (r = 0.37; p < 0.05). Handgrip was correlated only to FN cross-sectional moment of inertia (r = 0.43; p < 0.01). This study suggests that 1-RM bench press and 1-RM leg press are positive determinants of BMD in elderly women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Força Muscular , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
5.
Food Chem ; 309: 125736, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679854

RESUMO

Chilling and freezing are essential for poultry meat preservation. Fresh poultry, visually indistinguishable from frozen-thawed poultry, presents an attractive target for adulteration. Activity levels of the mitochondrial enzyme ß-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HADH) can indicate previous freezing. This study aims to optimize the analysis method and determine a more sensitive cut-off limit distinguishing fresh from frozen poultry. 125 chicken breasts were sampled from the Lebanese market. Two sets of chilled breasts were analyzed before and after freezing at -22 °C for 5 days, with/without defrosting at 4 °C for 24 h. Frozen breasts samples were studied before and after refreezing at -22 °C. HADH activity was measured by spectrophotometry and found to be significantly higher for frozen samples. Using a cut off limit of 0.3, resulted in the correct identification of all frozen poultry samples instead of 93%. Greater control over incorrectly labelled poultry meat and increased consumer protection can be achieved using the modified thermal identification method.


Assuntos
3-Hidroxiacil-CoA Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Congelamento , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Espectrofotometria
6.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt B): 108789, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population is 90% from food intake. Dietary patterns provide a global estimation of exposure to POPs, taking into account multiple food sources of environmental contaminants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of dietary, socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related variables with clusters of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in a sample of students and employees of Saint Joseph University of Beirut. METHODS: A total of 302 participants were randomly recruited. Questionnaires covering dietary, socio-demographic, and lifestyle-related characteristics were administered. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Serum concentrations of six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and four OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ß-hexachlorocyclohexanes (ß-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured, and cluster analysis was applied. We evaluated the association of dietary intake with PCBs/OCPs exposure using two different approaches: food consumption categories and dietary patterns retrieved from principal component analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Three clusters of PCBs/OCPs were obtained: middle-level, high-level, and low-level. Practicing physical activity was associated with a three times higher risk of having high-level PCBs/OCPs, after adjustment for confounding variables (ORa = 2.97; CI = 1.23-7.19; p < 0.05). The highest tertile of fish and shellfish consumption increased by three-folds the odds of having high-level PCBs/OCPs (ORa = 3.41; CI = 1.07-10.84; p < 0.05). PCA revealed six dietary patterns. A "cereals, fats and oils, and eggs" dietary pattern was associated with 50% increase in the risk of having high-level PCBs/OCPs (ORa = 1.48; CI = 1.03-2.13; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present results offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the factors increasing exposure to POPs, namely fish consumption and the "cereals, fats and oils, and eggs" dietary pattern. We also demonstrated that physical activity was positively associated with a higher risk of exposure to PCBs and OCPs, knowing that data on this matter are scarce.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Praguicidas
7.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(8): 616-622, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237464

RESUMO

The exposure to exhaust emissions from fuels as diesel and pyrolysis oil may result in adverse effects on human lungs. This study investigated the effects of exposing mice to the exhaust emissions from diesel, biodiesel or pyrolysis oil, for 1 hour/day for 3 days, on lung oxidative stress and whether selenium administration into these mice affects the oxidative stress. The levels of lung malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were increased after exposure to pyrolysis oil exhaust. The intraperitoneal injection of 1.78 µg selenium/kg body weight 15 minutes before the exposure to the pyrolysis oil exhaust (pyrolysis oil + selenium group) restored the normal levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. The catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the groups of the mice exposed to the exhaust emissions from pyrolysis oil, biodiesel or diesel. Selenium pretreatment of these groups showed no significant change in the activities of both enzymes. In conclusion, the increased lung levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide after the exposure to the exhaust emission from pyrolysis oil were restored to normal by selenium administration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Óleos Combustíveis , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gasolina , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Pirólise
8.
Food Chem ; 288: 228-238, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902287

RESUMO

For the very first time, this study investigates the simultaneous migration of several metals and bisphenol compounds from coated tinplate cans into vegetable foods highly consumed worldwide. The role played by heat treatment, food type and brand, storage conditions, can denting and cooking food directly in cans is also assessed. Migration of bisphenol compounds (only BPA and BADGE·2H2O detected) was mainly affected by sterilization, whereas metal release was greatly influenced by storage. Based on a Principal Component Analysis different migration pattern groups were highlighted: BPA and Zn (and Pb to a lesser extent) showed similar migration trends, with dependence on food type, brand and storage temperature. Cd, Ni and Cu were similarly influenced by food type and can brand. Fe has a particular trend, with clear influence of storage time, and to a lesser extent of food type. Overall Fe and BADGE·2H2O migration were favored in acidic food.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva , Metais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/química
9.
J Clin Densitom ; 22(2): 272-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056312

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe femoral neck (FN) geometry among eumenorrheic underweight women around the age of peak bone mass. Proximal femur geometry and body composition were assessed in 12 underweight women and in 24 healthy controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Hip Structural Analysis program was used to determine bone geometry at the FN. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and the cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were significantly lower in underweight women than in controls (p < 0.05). There was a trend toward lower sectional modulus (Z) and strength index in underweight women (p < 0.15). Body weight, body mass index, and lean mass (LM) were positively correlated with CSA, CSMI, Z, and neck-shaft angle (r = 0.428-0.611, p < 0.05). After controlling for body weight, body mass index, and LM, the differences in CSA, CSMI, Z, and neck-shaft angle were no more statistically significant between the 2 groups. The multivariate analysis retained LM as the main predictor of CSA, CSMI, and Z in the whole population. The present study suggests that thinness is associated with low resistance to axial forces (CSA) and bending load (Z and CSMI) in adult eumenorrheic women. LM seems to be a key determinant of FN geometry in underweight women.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Magreza , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Tamanho do Órgão , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 37(3): 520-528, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191458

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study we aimed to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and bone variables across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum in women aged 20-35 years. The study included 13 underweight women (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), 24 normal weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), and 20 overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) aged between 20 and 35 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck, lumbar spine trabecular bone score, femoral neck geometry were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness and lower limb muscle power were estimated using the 20-m shuttle run test and the Sargent jump test, respectively. The associations between bone variables and physical fitness were different according to BMI categories. Correlations between physical fitness and bone parameters are particularly significant in normal BMI and less significant in low and high BMI. Multivariate ANCOVA regression models demonstrated that absolute VO2max (L/min) is a strong determinant of all the bone parameters regardless of BMI. Implementing strategies for increasing VO2max (L/min) by increasing lean mass and promoting resistance and/or high-intensity interval training could be effective to optimize bone health in underweight and overweight young adult women.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Antropometria , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Consumo de Oxigênio , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Clin Densitom ; 21(3): 446-452, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678393

RESUMO

Optimizing bone mass in adulthood is of great importance to prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in later age. Vitamin D is an essential component of bone health. Low-serum vitamin D is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), which is an important predictor of fracture risk. However, most cells, apart from renal tubular cells, are exposed to free rather than to total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Whether free vitamin D would be a better marker than total vitamin D is still under debate. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between serum total vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein (BP), free vitamin D, and bone parameters in a group of young Lebanese women. This study included 88 young female adults aged between 18 and 35 yr. Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the lumbar spine trabecular bone score was derived. Bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD were measured at the whole body (WB), the lumbar spine (L1-L4), the total hip (TH), and the femoral neck (FN). To evaluate hip bone geometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were analyzed at the FN, the intertrochanteric region, and the femoral shaft by the Hip Structure Analysis program. The cross-sectional area, the index of axial compression strength, and the section modulus (Z), as well as index of bending strength, were measured from bone mass profiles. Composite indices of FN strength (compressive strength index [CSI], bending strength index, and impact strength index [ISI]) were calculated as previously described. Direct measurement of free 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was performed by immunoassay, which detects free vitamin D by ELISA on a microtiter plate. Serum vitamin D BP was measured using a Quantikine ELISA kit, which employed the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Serum free vitamin D was positively correlated with WB BMC (r = 0.26, p < 0.05), WB BMD (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), L1-L4 BMD (r = 0.28, p < 0.05), TH BMD (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), FN BMD (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), CSI (r = 0.24, p < 0.05), and ISI (r = 0.28, p < 0.05). No positive correlations were detected between the total vitamin D level, the vitamin D BPs, and BMD. The positive associations between free vitamin D and several bone variables (WB BMC, WB BMD, L1-L4 BMD, TH BMD, FN BMD, CSI, bending strength index, and ISI) remained significant after adjustment for weight. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the free vitamin D serum level is a stronger positive determinant of bone parameters and hip bone strength indices in young female adults than total serum vitamin D.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Força Compressiva , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Líbano , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Densitom ; 21(3): 453-458, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657024

RESUMO

The relationship between vitamin D and trabecular bone score (TBS) in young adults remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and TBS in a healthy adult population. A total of 54 men and 61 women whose ages range from 18 to 35 participated in the present study. Participants with 25(OH)D insufficiency (between 21 and 29 ng/mL) were 55.7%, and those with 25(OH)D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) were 11.4%. TBS positively correlated with 25(OH)D in men (r = 0.393; p <0.05) and women (r = 0.324; p < 0.05). In both genders, TBS was significantly higher in 25(OH)D-sufficient participants (≥30 ng/mL). The present study provides evidence that vitamin D positively affects bone health and suggests that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be essential for optimal TBS values.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Humanos , Líbano , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(15): 14350-14360, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616737

RESUMO

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were banned by the Stockholm Convention many years ago; however, they are still detected in the environment due to their high persistence, their current illegal use, and their import from countries where they have not been banned. We evaluated the serum concentrations of selected OCPs (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ß-hexachlorocyclohexanes (ß-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in a sample of Lebanese adults using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer detector. The mean concentrations of HCB, ß-HCH, DDT, and DDE were 7.1, 8.6, 2.1, and 18.9 ng/g of lipids, respectively, and the major contributor among the four OCPs was DDE. The OCP levels in the present study were in general lower than the values observed in several countries worldwide and their concentrations at the 95th percentile were lower than the biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) excluding any appreciable health risk. We observed an inverse association between HCB concentrations and body mass index (BMI) as well as HCB, ß-HCH, and DDE levels, and smoking habits. Milk consumption however was positively associated with an increased serum level of ß-HCH. This study, which was the first to investigate OCP serum levels in a Lebanese population, provides a baseline to which future measurements can be compared.


Assuntos
DDT/análise , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , DDT/química , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/química , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hexaclorobenzeno/química , Hexaclorocicloexano/química , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(4): 3705-3716, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888480

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that are still routinely detected 30 years after their restriction in many countries. PCBs have been associated with several non-communicable diseases. They are best measured via human biomonitoring (HBM). The concentrations of six indicator PCBs (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in the serum samples of 316 Lebanese students and employees from Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon, using gas chromatography coupled to an iron trap mass spectrometer detector. PCBs were detected in 56.3 to 59.2% of the serum samples. The sum of PCB (∑PCBs) levels ranged from

Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Laticínios/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (4): 530-1, 2003 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12638984

RESUMO

Beta zeolite supported on silicon carbide, with high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength, was successfully used as an active and stable catalyst for Friedel-Crafts reactions in a fixed bed configuration.

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