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2.
J Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is unknown if these diagnoses are associated or if their combination confers additional cardiovascular risk. We aim to define the incidence of ED in RA, and determine if ED correlates with increased cardiovascular risk in RA. METHODS: Medical information concerning RA, ED and cardiovascular diagnoses for men with RA (n=260) diagnosed in Olmsted county, Minnesota and age-matched male comparators was extracted from a comprehensive medical record system. RESULTS: ED incidence was similar between the RA cohort and comparators (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.55-1.16). In men with RA, ED diagnosis was associated with a trend toward an increase in peripheral arterial disease (HR 2.22; 95% CI 0.98-5.03) and a significantly decreased rate of myocardial infarction (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.07-0.90), heart failure (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.94) and death (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.36-0.87). In men with RA and ED, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor use was associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79), with a trending decreased risk of some cardiovascular diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Incidence of ED was not statistically increased in RA. Although patients with both RA and ED had a similar overall cardiovascular risk to those with RA alone, men with both RA and ED had decreased risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction and death, as well as an increased risk of peripheral arterial disease. Further studies are needed to clarify these associations and their implications for pathogenesis and therapeutics.

3.
J Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac involvement is a poor prognostic marker in systemic sclerosis (SSc). While diastolic dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, and arrhythmias are traditionally considered features of primary cardiac involvement in SSc, the incidence of valvular heart disease (VHD) is not well reported. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of VHD at time of SSc diagnosis and incidence of VHD during follow up compared to non-SSc subjects. METHODS: Medical records of patients with suspicion of SSc were reviewed to identify incident cases. SSc subjects were matched 1:2 by age- and sex to non-SSc subjects. RESULTS: The study included 78 incident SSc cases and 156 non-SSc comparators [56 years (± 15.7), 91% female]. A nearly 4-fold increase in the prevalence of moderate/severe VHD prior to SSc diagnosis compared to non-SSc subjects (6% vs. 0%; P=0.004) was identified. During follow up, 18 SSc and 12 non-SSc patients developed moderate/severe VHD. The cumulative incidence of VHD at 10 years after SSc incidence/index was 17.9% (95% CI: 10.7-29.9%) in patients with SSc compared with 2.3% (95% CI: 0.7-6.3%) in non-SSc subjects (HR: 4.23; 95% CI: 2.03-8.83). Coronary heart disease was the only significant risk factor for VHD. CONCLUSION: SSc patients have a 4-fold increase in the prevalence of moderate/severe VHD at diagnosis compared to non-SSc patients. They also have a 4-fold increased risk of developing moderate/severe VHD after diagnosis of SSc. Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation have a much higher prevalence in SSc patients, besides secondary tricuspid regurgitation. Underlying mechanisms for this association require further elucidation.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have estimated the healthcare resource usage of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The purpose of this study was to compare hospitalization among incident cases of SSc vs age- and sex-matched comparators. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based cohort of patients with SSc in Olmsted County, MN from Jan 1, 1980 to Dec 31, 2016 was assembled. A 2:1 cohort of age- and sex-matched patients without SSc from the same population was randomly selected for comparison. All hospitalizations in the geographic area from Jan. 1, 1987 to Sept. 30, 2018 were obtained. Rates of hospitalization, lengths of stay, and readmissions were compared between groups. RESULTS: 76 incident SSc cases and 155 non-SSc comparators (mean age of 56 ± 16 years at diagnosis/index, 91% female) were included. Rates of hospitalization among cases and comparators were 31.9 and 17.9 per 100 person-years, respectively (rate ratio [RR]:1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.52-2.08). Hospitalization rates were higher in patients with SSc than comparators during the first 5 years after SSc diagnosis (RR: 2.16; 95%CI: 1.70-2.74). This difference decreased over time and was no longer significant at ≥15 years after SSc incidence/index. Lengths of stay (median (IQR) 4 (2-6) vs 3(2-6); p=0.52) and readmission rates (25% vs 23%; p=0.51) were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with SSc were hospitalized more frequently than comparators, indicating high inpatient care needs in this population. Hospitalization rates were highest during the first 5 years following SSc diagnosis.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037004

RESUMO

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), which can arise from a broad spectrum of distinct aetiologies, can manifest as a pulmonary complication of an underlying autoimmune and connective tissue disease (CTD-ILD), such as rheumatoid arthritis-ILD and systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD). Patients with clinically distinct ILDs, whether CTD-related or not, can exhibit a pattern of common clinical disease behaviour (declining lung function, worsening respiratory symptoms and higher mortality), attributable to progressive fibrosis in the lungs. In recent years, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib has demonstrated efficacy and safety in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), SSc-ILD and a broad range of other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, including those associated with CTDs. Data from phase II studies also suggest that pirfenidone, which has a different-yet largely unknown-mechanism of action, may also have activity in other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, in addition to its known efficacy in IPF. Collectively, these studies add weight to the hypothesis that, irrespective of the original clinical diagnosis of ILD, a progressive fibrosing phenotype may arise from common, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fibrosis involving pathways associated with the targets of nintedanib and, potentially, pirfenidone. However, despite the early proof of concept provided by these clinical studies, very little is known about the mechanistic commonalities and differences between ILDs with a progressive phenotype. In this review, we explore the biological and genetic mechanisms that drive fibrosis, and identify the missing evidence needed to provide the rationale for further studies that use the progressive phenotype as a target population.

7.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060308

RESUMO

We thank Huang and colleagues1 for their interest in our study on the changes in the presentation of incident gout and the risk of subsequent flare1 We reported changes over time in gout presentation with podagra becoming less frequent, whereas hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease were predictors of future flares2.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a population-based cohort of men with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Data pertaining to demographics, ED, and potential confounding diagnosis were extracted from a comprehensive medical record system for a population-based cohort of men with PsA and an age-matched male comparator cohort. Cumulative incidence of ED adjusted for competing risk of death was compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: There were 128 age-matched pairs of men with PsA and without PsA in the described cohorts. At baseline there was a 7% prevalence of ED in men with PsA prior to diagnosis compared to a 3% prevalence of ED in the comparator cohort (p=0.16). After PsA diagnosis / index date, diagnosis with PsA was associated with an increased risk of ED (age-adjusted HR 1.45, 95%CI: 0.79-2.68), but this association did not reach statistical significance. This was based on 24 cases of ED in the men with PsA and 18 cases within the comparator cohort. No confounding factors or ED treatment strategies differed significantly between men with PsA and ED and comparators with ED. CONCLUSION: Men with PsA may have an increased risk of ED, which was detected, but likely underpowered in this study. Whether this difference is secondary to higher prevalence of traditional risk factors of ED in men with PsA compared to general population will require further study.

9.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 22(12): 86, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067687

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK) comprise the primary systemic large-vessel vasculitides. In these conditions, arterial stenosis, occlusion, aneurysm, and dissection can lead to severe disease-related consequences. This review focuses on disease-related manifestations of GCA and TAK, emphasizing the impact of these findings on long-term morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Vision loss remains a main contributor of morbidity in GCA. Non-invasive imaging allows for recognition of aortic disease in GCA but monitoring and intervention guidelines require further development. TAK represents a severe disease of early-onset with high risk of morbidity due to aortic, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neurologic involvement. Overall, patients with GCA have similar mortality rates to comparators but mortality is notably higher than the general population in TAK. A multidisciplinary approach of expert subspecialists is required to assist with the complex care of patients with GCA and TAK in order to appropriately surveil, identify, and address the multi-faceted co-morbidities of these diseases.

11.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(11): 662, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913336

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1776, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869535
13.
14.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(9): 481-495, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759996

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common type of primary vasculitis in Western countries. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is the second most common inflammatory rheumatic disease of the elderly after rheumatoid arthritis. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone of treatment for GCA and PMR, which are interrelated diseases. Glucocorticoids are effective, but adverse effects occur in a high proportion of patients. Careful use of glucocorticoids and the application of preventive strategies can minimize these adverse effects. Possible long-term complications of GCA include aneurysm and stenosis of vessels, even in patients with apparently clinically inactive disease; acute blindness is rare during glucocorticoid treatment. In PMR, whether subclinical chronic inflammation can lead to long-term damage is less clear. Management of both GCA and PMR is hampered by the lack of universally accepted definitions of remission and other disease states, such as low disease activity or vessel damage without active disease. In this Review, we outline current evidence on the monitoring and long-term management of patients with GCA and PMR, including the tapering of treatment.

15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1369-1378, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and outcomes among incident cases of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Medical records of patients with SSc diagnosed in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2016, were reviewed to identify 78 incident SSc cases. The comparators were 156 sex- and age-matched individuals from the same population. Data for SSc characteristics, traditional CV risk factors, and CV events were collected. Cumulative incidence was adjusted for the competing risk for death. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.8 (SSc) and 9.2 years (non-SSc), 21 patients with SSc and 17 patients without SSc developed CV events, corresponding to 10-year cumulative incidence of 24.4% and 15.2%, respectively. The risk for incident CV disease was increased by 2-fold (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.28-4.43) in patients with SSc vs comparators, predominately due to coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.17-4.71). Mean body mass index and prevalence of diabetes mellitus were lower in SSc vs non-SSc. There was no significant difference in smoking, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Observed CV events were increased compared with CV events predicted by the Framingham Risk Score and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association score with standardized incident ratios of 4.16 (95% CI, 2.16-7.99) and 5.69 (95% CI, 2.71-11.94), respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with SSc are at >2-fold increased risk for experiencing a CV event compared with persons without SSc. Framingham Risk Score and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association score dramatically underestimate CV risk in SSc.

16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1404-1419, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety profiles of different dosing regimens of tofacitinib, baricitinib, and upadacitinib, novel selective oral Janus activated kinase inhibitors, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of tofacitinib (5 and 10 mg twice daily) baricitinib (2 and 4 mg daily), and upadacitinib (15 and 30 mg daily) in RA were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through December 11, 2019. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled mean differences and relative risks (RRs). American College of Rheumatology 20%, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, adverse events, risk for infection, venous thromboembolic events, and malignancy were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty trials with an overall low risk of bias involving 8982 patients were identified. Tofacitinib, baricitinib, and upadacitinib improved RA control as determined by American College of Rheumatology 20% (RR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.87 to 2.20) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index scores (mean differences, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.28) compared with placebo. Adverse events were more frequent with upadacitinib, 30 mg, daily (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.30); upadacitinib, 15 mg, daily (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27); and baricitinib, 4 mg, daily (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.24). The risk for infection was highest with tofacitinib, 10 mg, twice daily (RR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 4.41), followed by upadacitinib, 15 mg, daily (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.60) and baricitinib, 4 mg, daily (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.45). Data for venous thromboembolic events were not available for tofacitinib or baricitinib, but there was no increase in risk with upadacitinib (15 mg daily: RR, 2.34; 95% CI, 0.34 to 15.92). CONCLUSION: Tofacitinib, baricitinib, and upadacitinib significantly improve RA control. Head-to-head Janus activated kinase inhibitor clinical trials are needed to further inform decision making.

18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3229-3236, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate metabolic features that may predispose to GCA in a nested case-control study. METHODS: Individuals who developed GCA after inclusion in a population-based health survey (the Malmö Preventive Medicine Project; N = 33 346) were identified and validated through a structured review of medical records. Four controls for every validated case were selected from the database. RESULTS: A total of 76 cases with a confirmed incident diagnosis of GCA (61% female, 65% biopsy positive, mean age at diagnosis 70 years) were identified. The median time from screening to diagnosis was 20.7 years (range 3.0-32.1). Cases had significantly lower fasting blood glucose (FBG) at baseline screening compared with controls [mean 4.7 vs 5.1 mmol/l (S.d. overall 1.5), odds ratio (OR) 0.35 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.17, 0.71)] and the association remained significant when adjusted for smoking [OR 0.33 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.16, 0.68)]. Current smokers had a reduced risk of GCA [OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.18, 0.70)]. Both cholesterol [mean 5.6 vs 6.0 mmol/l (S.d. overall 1.0)] and triglyceride levels [median 1.0 vs 1.2 mmol/l (S.d. overall 0.8)] were lower among the cases at baseline screening, with significant negative associations with subsequent GCA in crude and smoking-adjusted models [OR 0.62 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.43, 0.90) for cholesterol; 0.46 per mmol/l (95% CI 0.27, 0.81) for triglycerides]. CONCLUSION: Development of GCA was associated with lower FBG and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline, all adjusted for current smoking, suggesting that metabolic features predispose to GCA.

19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 124(2): 79-83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of two population-based cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) from Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA (Olmsted cohort) and the Reggio Emilia area, Northern Italy (Reggio cohort). METHODS: All patients residing in Olmsted County and the Reggio Emilia area with a new diagnosis of biopsy-proven GCA in 1986-2007 were retrospectively identified. Patients were followed from GCA diagnosis to death, migration or September 2011. RESULTS: The study included 110 patients in the Olmsted and 144 in the Reggio cohort. Compared with the Olmsted cohort, patients from the Reggio cohort had longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis (median 1.4 months vs. 0.7, p<0.001) and were younger (mean 74.6 years vs. 77.8, p=0.002), more likely to have cranial symptoms (93% vs. 86%, p=0.048), permanent vision loss (21% vs. 6%, p=0.001) and systemic symptoms (67% vs. 46%, p=0.001). ESR and CRP were higher (mean 88 mm/h vs. 73, and 89.0 mg/L vs. 35.2, both p<0.001) in the Reggio cohort. Patients from the Olmsted cohort received a higher initial prednisone dose (mean 53.6 mg/day vs. 49.5, p=0.001). There were no differences in relapse rates, cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dosages at 1, 2 and 5 years, and time to first GC discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical, genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the different clinical features at onset of GCA observed in this study.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/fisiopatologia , Biópsia , Humanos , Itália , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(4): 440-444, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from 2005 to 2014 overall and by serological status as compared with 1995-2004 and 1985-1994. METHODS: We evaluated RA incidence trends in a population-based inception cohort of individuals aged ≥18 years who first fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2014. Incidence rates were estimated and were age-adjusted and sex-adjusted to the white population in the USA in 2010. Trends in incidence were examined using Poisson regression methods. RESULTS: The 2005-2014 incidence cohort comprised 427 patients: mean age 55.4 years, 68% female, 51% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive and 50% anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positive. The overall age-adjusted and sex-adjusted annual RA incidence in 2005-2014 was 41/100 000 population (age-adjusted incidence: 53/100 000 in women and 29/100 000 in men). While these estimates were similar to the 1995-2004 decade, there was a decline in the incidence of RF-positive RA in 2005-2014 compared with the previous two decades (p=0.004), with a corresponding increase in RF-negative cases (p<0.001). Smoking rates declined and obesity rates increased from earlier decades to more recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Significant increase in incidence of RF-negative RA and decrease in RF-positive RA in 2005-2014 compared with previous decades was found using 1987 ACR criteria. The incidence of RA overall during this period remained similar to the previous decade. The changing prevalence of environmental factors, such as smoking, obesity and others, may have contributed to these trends. Whether these trends represent a changing serological profile of RA requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Crescimento Demográfico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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