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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is often found comorbid with other neurodevelopmental disorders across the impulsivity-compulsivity spectrum, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as most prevalent. This points to the possibility of a common etiological thread along an impulsivity-compulsivity continuum. METHODS: Investigating the shared genetic basis across TS, ADHD, ASD, and OCD, we undertook an evaluation of cross-disorder genetic architecture and systematic meta-analysis, integrating summary statistics from the latest genome-wide association studies (93,294 individuals, 6,788,510 markers). RESULTS: As previously identified, a common unifying factor connects TS, ADHD, and ASD, while TS and OCD show the highest genetic correlation in pairwise testing among these disorders. Thanks to a more homogeneous set of disorders and a targeted approach that is guided by genetic correlations, we were able to identify multiple novel hits and regions that seem to play a pleiotropic role for the specific disorders analyzed here and could not be identified through previous studies. In the TS-ADHD-ASD genome-wide association study single nucleotide polymorphism-based and gene-based meta-analysis, we uncovered 13 genome-wide significant regions that host single nucleotide polymorphisms with a high posterior probability for association with all three studied disorders (m-value > 0.9), 11 of which were not identified in previous cross-disorder analysis. In contrast, we also identified two additional pleiotropic regions in the TS-OCD meta-analysis. Through conditional analysis, we highlighted genes and genetic regions that play a specific role in a TS-ADHD-ASD genetic factor versus TS-OCD. Cross-disorder tissue specificity analysis implicated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis in TS-ADHD-ASD. CONCLUSIONS: Our work underlines the value of redefining the framework for research across traditional diagnostic categories.

2.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 2698811211003477, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization limits the treatment with many psychotropic drugs. Recently, the contribution of polygenic variation to the individual duration of the QT interval was identified. AIMS: To explore the interaction between antipsychotic drugs and the individual polygenic influence on the QT interval. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical and genotype data of 804 psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. The individual polygenic influence on the QT interval was calculated according to the method of Arking et al. RESULTS: Linear regression modelling showed a significant association of the individual polygenic QT interval score (ßstd = 0.176, p < 0.001) and age (ßstd = 0.139, p < 0.001) with the QTc interval corrected according to Fridericia's formula. Sex showed a nominal trend towards significance (ßstd = 0.064, p = 0.064). No association was observed for the number of QT prolonging drugs according to AZCERT taken. Subsample analysis (n = 588) showed a significant association of potassium serum concentrations with the QTc interval (ßstd = -0.104, p = 0.010). Haloperidol serum concentrations were associated with the QTc interval only in single medication analysis (n = 26, ßstd = 0.101, p = 0.004), but not in multivariate regression analysis. No association was observed for aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine and perazine, while olanzapine and the sum of risperidone and its metabolite showed a negative association. CONCLUSIONS: Individual genetic factors and age are main determinants of the QT interval. Antipsychotic drug serum concentrations within the therapeutic range contribute to QTc prolongation on an individual level.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1155, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441847

RESUMO

Predicting lithium response prior to treatment could both expedite therapy and avoid exposure to side effects. Since lithium responsiveness may be heritable, its predictability based on genomic data is of interest. We thus evaluate the degree to which lithium response can be predicted with a machine learning (ML) approach using genomic data. Using the largest existing genomic dataset in the lithium response literature (n = 2210 across 14 international sites; 29% responders), we evaluated the degree to which lithium response could be predicted based on 47,465 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms using a supervised ML approach. Under appropriate cross-validation procedures, lithium response could be predicted to above-chance levels in two constituent sites (Halifax, Cohen's kappa 0.15, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.07, 0.24]; and Würzburg, kappa 0.2 [0.1, 0.3]). Variants with shared importance in these models showed over-representation of postsynaptic membrane related genes. Lithium response was not predictable in the pooled dataset (kappa 0.02 [- 0.01, 0.04]), although non-trivial performance was achieved within a restricted dataset including only those patients followed prospectively (kappa 0.09 [0.04, 0.14]). Genomic classification of lithium response remains a promising but difficult task. Classification performance could potentially be improved by further harmonization of data collection procedures.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 36, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431852

RESUMO

Predicting lithium response (LiR) in bipolar disorder (BD) may inform treatment planning, but phenotypic heterogeneity complicates discovery of genomic markers. We hypothesized that patients with "exemplary phenotypes"-those whose clinical features are reliably associated with LiR and non-response (LiNR)-are more genetically separable than those with less exemplary phenotypes. Using clinical data collected from people with BD (n = 1266 across 7 centers; 34.7% responders), we computed a "clinical exemplar score," which measures the degree to which a subject's clinical phenotype is reliably predictive of LiR/LiNR. For patients whose genotypes were available (n = 321), we evaluated whether a subgroup of responders/non-responders with the top 25% of clinical exemplar scores (the "best clinical exemplars") were more accurately classified based on genetic data, compared to a subgroup with the lowest 25% of clinical exemplar scores (the "poor clinical exemplars"). On average, the best clinical exemplars of LiR had a later illness onset, completely episodic clinical course, absence of rapid cycling and psychosis, and few psychiatric comorbidities. The best clinical exemplars of LiR and LiNR were genetically separable with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 (IQR [0.83, 0.98]), compared to 0.66 [0.61, 0.80] (p = 0.0032) among poor clinical exemplars. Variants in the Alzheimer's amyloid-secretase pathway, along with G-protein-coupled receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine, and histamine H1R signaling pathways were informative predictors. This study must be replicated on larger samples and extended to predict response to other mood stabilizers.

5.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581855

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder with immense personal and societal costs; identifying individuals at risk is therefore of utmost importance. Genomic risk profile scores (GRPS) have been shown to significantly predict cases-control status. Making use of a large-population based sample from Sweden, we replicate a previous finding demonstrating that the GRPS is strongly associated with admission frequency and chronicity of SCZ. Furthermore, we were able to show a substantial gap in prediction accuracy between males and females. In sum, our results indicate that prediction accuracy by GRPS depends on clinical and demographic characteristics.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(7): 809-818, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451486

RESUMO

Problematic alcohol use (PAU) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although genome-wide association studies have identified PAU risk genes, the genetic architecture of this trait is not fully understood. We conducted a proxy-phenotype meta-analysis of PAU, combining alcohol use disorder and problematic drinking, in 435,563 European-ancestry individuals. We identified 29 independent risk variants, 19 of them novel. PAU was genetically correlated with 138 phenotypes, including substance use and psychiatric traits. Phenome-wide polygenic risk score analysis in an independent biobank sample (BioVU, n = 67,589) confirmed the genetic correlations between PAU and substance use and psychiatric disorders. Genetic heritability of PAU was enriched in brain and in conserved and regulatory genomic regions. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects on liability to PAU of substance use, psychiatric status, risk-taking behavior and cognitive performance. In summary, this large PAU meta-analysis identified novel risk loci and revealed genetic relationships with numerous other traits.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(12): 3292-3303, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748690

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are common, complex psychiatric disorders with twin heritabilities of 30-60%. We conducted a genome-wide association study of Lifetime Anxiety Disorder (ncase = 25 453, ncontrol = 58 113) and an additional analysis of Current Anxiety Symptoms (ncase = 19 012, ncontrol = 58 113). The liability scale common variant heritability estimate for Lifetime Anxiety Disorder was 26%, and for Current Anxiety Symptoms was 31%. Five novel genome-wide significant loci were identified including an intergenic region on chromosome 9 that has previously been associated with neuroticism, and a locus overlapping the BDNF receptor gene, NTRK2. Anxiety showed significant positive genetic correlations with depression and insomnia as well as coronary artery disease, mirroring findings from epidemiological studies. We conclude that common genetic variation accounts for a substantive proportion of the genetic architecture underlying anxiety.

9.
Psychiatr Genet ; 30(1): 34-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568069

RESUMO

Studying the relationship between mental illnesses and their environmental and genetic risk factors in low-income countries holds excellent promises. These studies will improve our understanding of how risk factors identified predominantly in high-income countries also apply to other settings and will identify new, sometimes population-specific risk factors. Here we report the successful completion of two intertwined pilot studies on khat abuse, trauma, and psychosis at the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center in Ethiopia. We found that the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center offers a unique opportunity to collect well-characterized samples for mental health research and to perform genetic studies that, at this scale, have not been undertaken in Ethiopia yet. We also supported service development, education, and research for strengthening the professional profile of psychiatry at the site.


Assuntos
Catha/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicóticos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(9): 2036-2046, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087453

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and likely to share genetic risk factors. Hence, we examine their shared genetic background using a cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis of 3495 AN cases, 2688 OCD cases, and 18,013 controls. We confirmed a high genetic correlation between AN and OCD (rg = 0.49 ± 0.13, p = 9.07 × 10-7) and a sizable SNP heritability (SNP h2 = 0.21 ± 0.02) for the cross-disorder phenotype. Although no individual loci reached genome-wide significance, the cross-disorder phenotype showed strong positive genetic correlations with other psychiatric phenotypes (e.g., rg = 0.36 with bipolar disorder and 0.34 with neuroticism) and negative genetic correlations with metabolic phenotypes (e.g., rg = -0.25 with body mass index and -0.20 with triglycerides). Follow-up analyses revealed that although AN and OCD overlap heavily in their shared risk with other psychiatric phenotypes, the relationship with metabolic and anthropometric traits is markedly stronger for AN than for OCD. We further tested whether shared genetic risk for AN/OCD was associated with particular tissue or cell-type gene expression patterns and found that the basal ganglia and medium spiny neurons were most enriched for AN-OCD risk, consistent with neurobiological findings for both disorders. Our results confirm and extend genetic epidemiological findings of shared risk between AN and OCD and suggest that larger GWASs are warranted.

11.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(1): 38-50, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424634

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder, yet its etiology is unknown and treatment outcomes could be improved if biological targets could be identified. Unfortunately, genetic findings for OCD are lagging behind other psychiatric disorders. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand the causal mechanisms implicated in OCD in order to improve clinical outcomes and to reduce morbidity and societal costs. Specifically, there is a need for a large-scale, etiologically informative genetic study integrating genetic and environmental factors that presumably interact to cause the condition. The Nordic countries provide fertile ground for such a study, given their detailed population registers, national healthcare systems and active specialist clinics for OCD. We thus formed the Nordic OCD and Related Disorders Consortium (NORDiC, www.crowleylab.org/nordic), and with the support of NIMH and the Swedish Research Council, have begun to collect a large, richly phenotyped and genotyped sample of OCD cases. Our specific aims are geared toward answering a number of key questions regarding the biology, etiology, and treatment of OCD. This article describes and discusses the rationale, design, and methodology of NORDiC, including details on clinical measures and planned genomic analyses.

12.
Bioinformatics ; 36(3): 930-933, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393554

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses, at sufficient sample sizes and power, have successfully revealed biological insights for several complex traits. RICOPILI, an open-sourced Perl-based pipeline was developed to address the challenges of rapidly processing large-scale multi-cohort GWAS studies including quality control (QC), imputation and downstream analyses. The pipeline is computationally efficient with portability to a wide range of high-performance computing environments. RICOPILI was created as the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium pipeline for GWAS and adopted by other users. The pipeline features (i) technical and genomic QC in case-control and trio cohorts, (ii) genome-wide phasing and imputation, (iv) association analysis, (v) meta-analysis, (vi) polygenic risk scoring and (vii) replication analysis. Notably, a major differentiator from other GWAS pipelines, RICOPILI leverages on automated parallelization and cluster job management approaches for rapid production of imputed genome-wide data. A comprehensive meta-analysis of simulated GWAS data has been incorporated demonstrating each step of the pipeline. This includes all the associated visualization plots, to allow ease of data interpretation and manuscript preparation. Simulated GWAS datasets are also packaged with the pipeline for user training tutorials and developer work. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: RICOPILI has a flexible architecture to allow for ongoing development and incorporation of newer available algorithms and is adaptable to various HPC environments (QSUB, BSUB, SLURM and others). Specific links for genomic resources are either directly provided in this paper or via tutorials and external links. The central location hosting scripts and tutorials is found at this URL: https://sites.google.com/a/broadinstitute.org/RICOPILI/home. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Software , Algoritmos , Genoma , Genômica
13.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(2): 329-341, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225943, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790498

RESUMO

Hypotrichosis simplex (HS) with and without woolly hair (WH) comprises a group of rare, monogenic disorders of hair loss. Patients present with a diffuse loss of scalp and/or body hair, which usually begins in early childhood and progresses into adulthood. Some of the patients also show hair that is tightly curled. Approximately 10 genes for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms of HS have been identified in the last decade, among them five genes for the dominant form. We collected blood and buccal samples from 17 individuals of a large British family with HS and WH. After having sequenced all known dominant genes for HS in this family without the identification of any disease causing mutation, we performed a genome-wide scan, using the HumanLinkage-24 BeadChip, followed by a classical linkage analysis; and whole exome-sequencing (WES). Evidence for linkage was found for a region on chromosome 4q35.1-q35.2 with a maximum LOD score of 3.61. WES led to the identification of a mutation in the gene SORBS2, encoding sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2. Unfortunately, we could not find an additional mutation in any other patient/family with HS; and in cell culture, we could not observe any difference between cloned wildtype and mutant SORBS2 using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Therefore, at present, SORBS2 cannot be considered a definite disease gene for this phenotype. However, the locus on chromosome 4q is a robust and novel finding for hypotrichosis with woolly hair. Further fine mapping and sequencing efforts are therefore warranted in order to confirm SORBS2 as a plausible HS disease gene.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Genes Dominantes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipotricose/diagnóstico , Hipotricose/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Reino Unido , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 281, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712549

RESUMO

Schizophrenia has been associated with a range of genetic and environmental risk factors. Here we explored a link between two risk factors that converge on a shared neurobiological pathway. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk variants in genes that code for L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), while epidemiological studies have found an increased risk of schizophrenia in those with neonatal vitamin D deficiency. The active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is a secosteroid that rapidly modulates L-VGCCs via non-genomic mechanisms in a range of peripheral tissues, though its non-genomic effects within the brain remain largely unexplored. Here we used calcium imaging, electrophysiology and molecular biology to determine whether 1,25(OH)2D non-genomically modulated L-VGCCs in the developing prefrontal cortex, a region widely implicated in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Wide-field Ca2+ imaging revealed that physiological concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D rapidly enhanced activity-dependent somatic Ca2+ levels in a small subset of neurons in the developing PFC, termed vitamin D-responsive neurons (VDRNs). Somatic nucleated patch recordings revealed a rapid, 1,25(OH)2D-evoked increase in high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents. Enhanced activity-dependent Ca2+ levels were mediated by L-VGCC but not associated with any changes to Cacna1c (L-VGCC pore-forming subunit) mRNA expression. Since L-VGCC activity is critical to healthy neurodevelopment, these data suggest that suboptimal concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D could alter brain maturation through modulation of L-VGCC signalling and as such may provide a parsimonious link between epidemiologic and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Vitamina D/fisiologia
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712720

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10-4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10-7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492941

RESUMO

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.

18.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
19.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(9): 924-932, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116379

RESUMO

Importance: Anxiety and stress-related disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Although family and twin studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role underlying their etiology, the genetic underpinnings of anxiety and stress-related disorders are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of anxiety and stress-related disorders; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to evaluate the association of psychiatric comorbidities with genetic findings. Design, Setting, Participants: This genome-wide association study included individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and controls derived from the population-based Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) study. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and stress-related disorders were obtained through the national Danish registers. Genes of interest were further evaluated in mice exposed to chronic social defeat. The study was conducted between June 2016 and November 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of a relatively broad diagnostic spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Results: The study sample included 12 655 individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and 19 225 controls. Overall, 17 740 study participants (55.6%) were women. A total of 7308 participants (22.9%) were born between 1981-1985, 8840 (27.7%) between 1986-1990, 8157 (25.6%) between 1991-1995, 5918 (18.6%) between 1996-2000, and 1657 (5.2%) between 2001-2005. Standard association analysis revealed variants in PDE4B to be associated with anxiety and stress-related disorder (rs7528604; P = 5.39 × 10-11; odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92). A framework of sensitivity analyses adjusting for mental comorbidity supported this result showing consistent association of PDE4B variants with anxiety and stress-related disorder across analytical scenarios. In mouse models, alterations in Pde4b expression were observed in those mice displaying anxiety-like behavior after exposure to chronic stress in the prefrontal cortex (P = .002; t = -3.33) and the hippocampus (P = .001; t = -3.72). We also found a single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of 28% (standard error = 0.027) and that the genetic signature of anxiety and stress-related overlapped with psychiatric traits, educational outcomes, obesity-related phenotypes, smoking, and reproductive success. Conclusions and Relevance: This study highlights anxiety and stress-related disorders as complex heritable phenotypes with intriguing genetic correlations not only with psychiatric traits, but also with educational outcomes and multiple obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the candidate gene PDE4B as a robust risk locus pointing to the potential of PDE4B inhibitors in treatment of these disorders.

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