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1.
Menopause ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Longer menstrual cycles have been associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease, supporting a contribution of abnormal ovarian function. We aimed to characterize trajectories of menstrual cycle length over the menopause transition (MT) and test whether these trajectories are associated with postmenopausal markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study were included if they had an observed date of the final menstrual period (FMP), recorded cycle lengths from ≥2 annual menstrual cycles (mean±SD: 4.22 ± 1.91 cycles), and had measurements of postmenopausal carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and/or brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Trajectories of cycle length over the MT were identified using group-based trajectory modeling and linked with cIMT and baPWV using linear regression. RESULTS: We studied 428 women who had 1,808 cycles over the MT (45.1 ± 2.3 y old at baseline visit), and of whom 263 had cIMT, and 213 had baPWV measured postmenopausally (after 13.88 ±â€Š0.42 and 15.25 ±â€Š0.70 y since baseline visit, respectively). Three distinct trajectories of cycle length were identified: stable (no changes in cycle length over the MT among 62.1% of women), late increase (a late increase 2 y before the FMP among 21.8%), and early-increase (an early increase 5 y before the FMP among 16.2%). Women with the late-increase pattern had significantly lower postmenopausal cIMT (0.72 mm) and baPWV (1392 cm/s) levels than the stable group (0.77 mm and 1508 cm/s, respectively) adjusting for race, concurrent age, socioeconomic status, physical activity level, and premenopausal cardiovascular risk profile. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of cycle length over the MT seem to be a marker of future vascular health that may help identify groups at greater or lesser risk of atherosclerosis after menopause.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021362, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482713

RESUMO

Background Younger age at final menstrual period (FMP) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease events. This paper evaluated whether older age at FMP is associated with more favorable patterns of lipid changes during the menopause transition and whether these changes are associated with less subclinical carotid disease in the postmenopausal years. Methods and Results Lipids and lipoproteins were measured repeatedly among 1554 premenopausal women who had a natural menopause during follow-up years (median=18.8 years); a subset of 890 women also had measures of carotid intima media thickness, adventitial diameter, and plaque. Women who had an older FMP age had less adverse changes in cholesterol from 1 to 3 years after FMP, and in triglycerides from FMP to 3 years after FMP, but they had more adverse changes in ApoB and Apo A1 from 3 years before to 1 year after the FMP. Increasing cholesterol and ApoB from 1 to 3 years after FMP were associated with greater intima media thickness and adventitial diameter, and the greater likelihood of a plaque score >2 the older the age at FMP. Conclusions Despite the epidemiological literature showing early age at FMP is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease events, older age at FMP had inconsistent associations with less adverse lipid changes in midlife, which did not translate into less risk for subclinical carotid disease and in some cases more risk. These findings are restricted to women who experience FMP in the normative age range for the menopausal transition.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390340

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Novel metrics of HDL (subclasses, lipid content and function) may better characterize the anti-atherogenic features of HDL. In midlife women, changes in these metrics vary by time relative to the final menstrual period (FMP), supporting a contribution of menopause hormones estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). OBJECTIVE: To test associations of endogenous E2 and FSH with novel HDL metrics and to assess whether these associations vary by time relative to FMP. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) HDL study. SETTING: Community-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 463 women, baseline mean age 50.2 (2.7) years. EXPOSURES: E2 and FSH. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC), HDL phospholipids (HDL-PL), HDL triglycerides (HDL-Tg), HDL-particles (HDL-P), HDL size, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, E2 was positively associated with HDL size, large HDL-P, HDL-CEC and HDL-Tg, but negatively with medium HDL-P, p-values<0.05. The positive association between E2 and HDL-Tg was stronger 2 years post FMP than before, interaction p-value=0.031. FSH was positively related to total and medium HDL-P, but negatively to HDL size, large HDL-P, and HDL-CEC per particle, p-values<0.05. Associations of higher FSH with greater total HDL-P and smaller HDL size were only evident at/after menopause, interaction p-values<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the associations linking E2 and FSH with novel HDL metrics were vulnerable to time relative to menopause onset. Whether a late initiation of hormone therapy relative to menopause could have a detrimental effect on lipid content of HDL particles should be tested in the future.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study examined whether the early-onset depression phenotype among young adults (probands) is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, and if MetS characterizes unaffected but high-risk siblings of probands. METHODS: We studied three groups of young adults (Mage = 25 years, s.d. = 3.84 years): probands with histories of childhood onset depression - i.e. early-onset phenotype - (n = 293), their unaffected siblings (high-risk siblings, n = 273), and healthy controls (n = 171). Participants completed a full psychiatric interview, physical and laboratory assessments, and self-rating scales. MetS was defined using the criteria of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001). RESULTS: Early-onset depression phenotype and being a high-risk sibling were associated with higher MetS composite scores relative to that of controls, but did not differ from one another. With regard to MetS components: Probands and siblings had similarly larger waist circumference and lower HDL than did controls, while siblings and controls had lower triglyceride levels than did probands but did not differ from one another. Groups did not differ on glucose levels and SBP. CONCLUSIONS: Our study extends the literature on the association between MetS and depression and underscores the importance of depression phenotypes: failure to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression may partly underlie the inconsistent findings regarding its relation to MetS. The results also suggest that, in depression-prone populations, MetS may predate and possibly function as a risk factor for eventual depression.

6.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100098, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303684

RESUMO

The cardioprotective association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may vary by menopause stage or estradiol level. We tested whether associations of comprehensive HDL metrics (HDL subclasses, phospholipid and triglyceride content, and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and density vary by menopause stage or estradiol level in women transitioning through menopause. Participants (N = 294; mean age [SD]: 51.3 [2.9]) had data on HDL metrics and CAC measures at one or two time points during the menopause transition. Generalized estimating equations were used for analyses. Effect modifications by menopause stage or estradiol level were tested in multivariable models. In adjusted models, menopause stage modified the associations of specific HDL metrics with CAC measures. Higher small HDL particles (HDL-P) concentrations (p-interaction = 0.008) and smaller HDL size (p-interaction = 0.02) were associated with greater odds of CAC presence in late perimenopause than in pre/early perimenopause stage. Women in the highest estradiol tertile, but not the lower tertiles, showed a protective association of small HDL-P with CAC presence (p-interaction = 0.007). Lower large HDL-P concentrations (p-interaction = 0.03) and smaller HDL size (p-interaction = 0.03) were associated with lower CAC density in late perimenopause than in postmenopause stage. Associations of HDL phospholipid and triglyceride content and HDL-CEC with CAC measures did not vary by menopause stage or estradiol level. We concluded that HDL subclasses may impact the likelihood of CAC presence and the stability of coronary plaque differently over the menopause transition. Endogenous estradiol levels may contribute to this observation.

8.
Ann Behav Med ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals engage in a range of behaviors to maintain close relationships. One behavior is self-silencing or inhibiting self-expression to avoid relationship conflict or loss. Self-silencing is related to poor mental health and self-reported physical health in women but has not been examined in relation to cardiovascular health, particularly using direct measures of the vasculature. PURPOSE: To test associations between self-silencing and carotid atherosclerosis in midlife women; secondary analyses examined moderation by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Women (N = 290, ages 40-60) reported on self-silencing in intimate relationships and underwent physical measurements, blood draw, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. Associations between self-silencing and mean IMT and plaque index (0, 1, ≥2) were tested in linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models, respectively, followed by interaction terms between self-silencing and race, adjusted for demographic factors, CVD risk factors, partner status, depression, physical activity, and diet. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of women demonstrated carotid plaque. Greater self-silencing was related to increased odds of plaque index ≥2 (e.g., for each additional point, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.03-1.31], p = .012), relative to no plaque). Moderation analyses indicated that self-silencing was related to odds of plaque index ≥2 in non-white women (1.15 [1.05-1.26], p = .004), but there was no significant relationship in white women (1.01 [0.97-1.06], p = .550). No associations emerged for IMT. CONCLUSIONS: Among midlife women, self-silencing was associated with carotid plaque, independent of CVD risk factors, depression, and health behaviors. Emotional expression in relationships may be important for women's cardiovascular health.

9.
Sleep ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081126

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how change in menopausal status related to spectral analysis and polysomnographic measures of sleep characteristics. METHODS: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Ancillary Sleep Study evaluated sleep characteristics of 159 women who were initially pre- or early perimenopausal and repeated the assessment about 3 ½ years later when 38 were pre- or early perimenopausal, 31 late perimenopausal, and 90 postmenopausal. Participants underwent in-home ambulatory polysomnography for 2 to 3 nights. Average EEG power in the delta and beta frequency bands was calculated during NREM and REM sleep, and sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) were based on visually-scored sleep. RESULTS: The women who transitioned to postmenopause had increased beta NREM EEG power at the second assessment, compared to women who remained pre-or early premenopausal; no other sleep measures varied by change in menopausal status. In multivariate models the associations remained; statistical controls for self-reported hot flashes did not explain findings. In secondary analysis, NREM beta power at the second assessment was greater among women who transitioned into the postmenopause after adjustments for initial NREM beta power. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep duration and WASO did not vary by menopause transition group across assessments. Consistent with prior cross-sectional analysis, elevated beta EEG power in NREM sleep was apparent among women who transitioned to postmenopause, suggesting that independent of self-reported hot flashes, the menopausal transition is associated with physiological hyperarousal during sleep.

10.
J Psychosom Res ; 148: 110551, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The literature on childhood-onset depression and future compromised vascular function is suggestive but limited. The objective of this study was to determine if arterial stiffness, a predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD), measured in young adulthood, is associated with childhood-onset depression. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk factors and pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, were cross-sectionally assessed in young adults with a history of childhood-onset depression (clinical diagnosis of major depressive episode or dysthymic disorder; N = 294 probands; initially recruited via child mental health facilities across Hungary; mean age of first depressive episode = 10.4 years), their never-depressed full biological siblings (N = 269), and never-depressed controls (N = 169). The mean ages of probands, siblings, and controls at the PWV visit were 25.6, 25.0, and 21.7 years, respectively, and 8.8% of the probands were in a current depressive episode. RESULTS: Controlling for age, sex, age*sex, education, and family clusters, PWV (m/s) did not statistically differ across the groups (probands = 7.01; siblings = 6.98; controls = 6.81). However, after adjusting for key covariates, there were several across-group differences in CVD risk factors: compared to controls, probands and siblings had higher diastolic blood pressure and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, probands had higher triglycerides, and siblings had higher body mass index (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found limited evidence of an association between a history of childhood-onset depression and young adulthood arterial stiffness. However, our findings of elevated cardiovascular risk factors in those with childhood-onset depression suggest that pediatric depression may predispose to increased CVD risk later in life and warrants further investigation.

11.
Sleep Health ; 7(4): 436-444, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the roles of parenting and adolescent characteristics during ages 13 to 16 in connecting family socioeconomic status (SES) during adolescence with adult sleep in Black and White men. DESIGN: Longitudinal school-based community study beginning in 1987-1988 when participants were enrolled in the first or seventh grade. SETTING: Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS: 291 men (54.4% Black, mean age = 33, SD = 2.5) participated in 2012-2014 in a week-long study of sleep measured by actigraphy and diary. MEASURES: In adolescence (ages 13-16), measures of family SES based on occupation, education, income and public assistance; parenting based on monitoring, positive expectations for future, warm parent-child relationship, and communication; and adolescent characteristics based on anxiety, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and peer rejection.  In adulthood, participant SES, minutes awake after sleep onset (WASO), duration, and diary-assessed sleep quality. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling confirmed significant indirect pathways: (1) low family SES in adolescence to negative parenting to low adult SES to greater WASO; (2) low family SES in adolescence to adolescent characteristics to low adult SES to greater WASO; (3) Black race to low family SES in adolescence to negative parenting to low adult SES to greater WASO; and (4) Black race to low family SES in adolescence to adolescent characteristics to adult SES to greater WASO. Similar models for duration and quality were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting and adolescent characteristics may have an indirect association with adult sleep continuity. Parenting and mental health interventions in adolescence may improve adult sleep.

13.
J Res Adolesc ; 31(2): 417-434, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792995

RESUMO

This longitudinal study examines whether early experiences with caregivers between the ages of 10 and 12 are associated with later adolescent personality at age 16 using both parent and child reports. Lower positive parenting was prospectively associated with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness for both parent and self-reports of personality, as well as lower openness and agreeableness by parent report. Substantiated maltreatment was prospectively associated with greater neuroticism and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness assessed by parent report. Prospective associations were similar across Black and White participants. Positive parenting and, to a lesser extent, a lack of maltreatment were associated with adaptive personality profiles in adolescents, and associations were stronger for parent reports of personality.

14.
Psychosom Med ; 83(3): 228-238, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social pain and physical pain are related bidirectionally, but how these variables cluster in the population is unknown. METHODS: This study included 2833 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a community-based cohort of middle-aged women, and 3972 women from the Pathways Study, a population-based cohort of women diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV breast cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2013. Women provided data on measures related to social pain (social network size, social support, loneliness, social well-being) and physical pain (sensitivity to pain, bodily pain) at study baseline. Analyzing each cohort separately, we used latent class analysis to evaluate social-physical pain clusters, logistic regression to evaluate predictors of categorization into clusters, and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate associations of clusters with all-cause mortality. We also performed a meta-analysis to combine cohort mortality associations. RESULTS: Each cluster analysis produced a "low social-physical pain" cluster (SWAN, 48.6%; Pathways, 35.2%) characterized by low social and pain symptoms, a "high social-physical pain" cluster (SWAN, 17.9%; Pathways, 17.9%) characterized by high symptoms, and a "low social/high physical pain" cluster of women with high pain and compromised social functioning but otherwise low social symptoms (SWAN, 33.5%; Pathways, 46.9%). In meta-analysis, categorization into the high social-physical pain cluster was associated with elevated mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.71, Q statistic = 0.782), compared with those in the low social-physical pain cluster. CONCLUSIONS: In two cohorts of women, latent class analysis produced similar sets of social-physical pain clusters, with the same proportion having both high social and pain symptoms; women in this cluster had elevated mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(8): 1342-1352, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular risk factors in midlife have been linked to late life risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). The relation of vascular risk factors on cognitive decline within midlife has been less studied. METHODS: Using data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, we examined associations of midlife hypertension, elevated lipid levels, diabetes, fasting glucose, central adiposity, and Framingham heart age with rates of cognitive decline in women who completed multiple cognitive assessments of processing speed, and working and verbal memory during midlife. RESULTS: Diabetes, elevated fasting glucose, central obesity, and heart age greater than chronological age were associated with rate of decline in processing speed during midlife. Vascular risk factors were not related to rate of decline in working or verbal memory. DISCUSSION: Midlife may be a critical period for intervening on cardiovascular risk factors to prevent or delay later life cognitive impairment and ADRD.

16.
Sleep ; 44(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705558

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between trajectories of self-reported insomnia symptoms and sleep duration over 13 years with objective physical function. METHODS: We utilized data from 1,627 Study of Women's Health Across the Nation participants, aged 61.9 ± 2.7 years at the end of the 13-year follow-up. Latent class growth models identified trajectories of insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, frequent night-time awakenings, and/or early morning awakening) and sleep duration over 13 years. Physical function tests were performed at the end of the 13-year period: 40-ft walk, 4-m walk, repeated chair stand, grip strength, and balance. Multivariable regression analyses examined each physical function measure according to the insomnia symptom or sleep duration trajectory group. RESULTS: Five insomnia symptom trajectories and two sleep duration trajectories were identified. Women with a consistently high likelihood of insomnia symptoms and women with a decreased likelihood of insomnia symptoms (i.e. improving) had slower gait speed (3.5% slower 40-ft walk [consistently high], 3.7% slower 4-m walk [improving]; each p ≤ .05) than those with a consistently low likelihood of insomnia symptoms. In contrast, women with a steep increase in the likelihood of insomnia symptoms over time and women with persistent insufficient sleep duration had lower odds of having a balance problem (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 and OR = 0.61, respectively; each p < .02) compared to those with a consistently low likelihood of insomnia symptoms and those with persistent sufficient sleep duration, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that women's sleep during midlife has important implications for maintaining physical function during the transition into older adulthood.

17.
Neurology ; 96(17): e2212-e2219, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline, but little is known about how early adult CVRFs and those across the life course might influence late-life cognition. To test the hypothesis that CVRFs across the adult life course are associated with late-life cognitive changes, we pooled data from 4 prospective cohorts (n = 15,001, ages 18-95). METHODS: We imputed trajectories of body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose (FG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and total cholesterol (TC) for older adults. We used linear mixed models to determine the association of early adult, midlife, and late-life CVRFs with late-life decline on global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS]) and processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), adjusting for demographics, education, and cohort. RESULTS: Elevated BMI, FG, and SBP (but not TC) at each time period were associated with greater late-life decline. Early life CVRFs were associated with the greatest change, an approximate doubling of mean 10-year decline (an additional 3-4 points for 3MS or DSST). Late-life CVRFs were associated with declines in early late life (<80 years) but with gains in very late life (≥80 years). After adjusting for CVRF exposures at all time periods, the associations for early adult and late-life CVRFs persisted. CONCLUSIONS: We found that imputed CVRFs across the life course, especially in early adulthood, were associated with greater late-life cognitive decline. Our results suggest that CVRF treatment in early adulthood could benefit late-life cognition, but that treatment in very late life may not be as helpful for these outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Hipertensão/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Menopause ; 28(6): 634-641, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia may disrupt the female reproductive system's normal function, leading to delayed menarche and premature ovarian aging. We thus compared the length of the reproductive period of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to women without diabetes. METHODS: Women with childhood-onset T1D (diagnosed in 1950-80) from the prospective Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study and nondiabetic women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were studied. Exclusion criteria comprised not having reached natural menopause, hysterectomy/oophorectomy before menopause, and sex hormone therapy during the menopausal transition. Reproductive history was self-reported. The historical and Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation hormonal algorithms were also used to assess menopause status. RESULTS: Women in the T1D cohort (n = 105) were younger, more likely to be White, never smokers, with lower BMI and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all P values < 0.05) compared with women without diabetes (n = 178). After covariate adjustment, T1D women were also older at menarche (0.5-y delay, P = 0.002) but younger at natural menopause (-2.0 y, P < 0.0001). Women with T1D thus experienced 2.5 fewer reproductive years compared to those without diabetes (P < 0.0001). These findings were restricted to the subgroup of women who were diagnosed with T1D before reaching menarche (n = 80). CONCLUSION: Women with T1D onset before menarche have a shorter reproductive period compared with nondiabetic women, exhibiting delayed menarche and earlier natural menopause. Factors that may be related to a shorter reproductive period in T1D should be investigated.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodução , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Menopause ; 28(6): 626-633, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) trajectory relative to the final menstrual period (FMP), and to test whether menopause-related VAT accumulation is associated with greater average, common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and/or internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (ICA-IMT). METHODS: Participants were 362 women (at baseline: age was (mean ±â€ŠSD) 51.1 ±â€Š2.8 y; 61% White, 39% Black) with no cardiovascular disease from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Heart study. Women had up to two measurements of VAT and cIMT over time. Splines revealed a nonlinear trajectory of VAT with two inflection points demarcating three time segments: segment 1: >2 years before FMP; segment 2: 2 years before FMP to FMP; and segment 3: after FMP. Piecewise-linear random-effects models estimated changes in VAT. Random-effects models tested associations of menopause-related VAT with each cIMT measure separately. Estimates were adjusted for age at FMP, body mass index, and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. RESULTS: VAT increased significantly by 8.2% (95% CI: 4.1%-12.5%) and 5.8% (3.7%-7.9%) per year in segments 2 and 3, respectively, with no significant change in VAT within segment 1. VAT predicted greater ICA-IMT in segment 2, such that a 20% greater VAT was associated with a 2.0% (0.8%-3.1%) greater ICA-IMT. VAT was not an independent predictor of ICA-IMT in the other segments or of the other cIMT measures after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Women experience an accelerated increase in VAT starting 2 years before menopause. This menopause-related increase in VAT is associated with greater risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in the internal carotid artery.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Gordura Abdominal , Artérias Carótidas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
20.
Menopause ; 28(3): 255-262, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether blood pressure (BP) accelerates more rapidly during the menopause transition for women with a history of preterm or term small for gestational age (SGA) delivery compared to women with all term and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) births. METHODS: A longitudinal analysis was conducted with 1,008 parous women who had BP data at ≥2 study visits. We used generalized linear modeling to examine BP before the final menstrual period, at the final mentrual period, and up to 10 years after the final menstrual period, according to pregnancy group. We assessed maternal changes in BP over time in relation to years near the final menstrual period using a piece-wise linear model, consistent with menopause-induced changes. Models were adjusted for socio-demographics, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, medications, parity, age at first birth, gestational diabetes, and gestational hypertension/preeclampsia. RESULTS: At baseline, women were on average 46 years old, 101 (10%) reported a prior preterm birth, and 102 (10.1%) reported a term SGA birth. Compared to women with all term AGA births, women with a term SGA birth had higher BP before the final menstrual period, at the final menstrual period, and up to 10 years after the final menstrual period; women with a preterm birth had higher BP in the postmenopausal years. Annual rate of change in BP during the menopause transition did not differ between pregnancy groups. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history preterm and term SGA delivery have higher BP than women with all term AGA births during the menopause transition, but rate of change in BP does not differ in these groups relative to final menstrual period.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Menopausa/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
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