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1.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372590

RESUMO

Bacteriophages vB_YpeM_fEV-1 (fEV-1) and vB_YpeM_fD1 (fD1) were isolated from incoming sewage water samples in Turku, Finland, using Yersinia pestis strains EV76 and KIM D27 as enrichment hosts, respectively. Genomic analysis and transmission electron microscopy established that fEV-1 is a novel type of dwarf myovirus, while fD1 is a T4-like myovirus. The genome sizes are 38 and 167 kb, respectively. To date, the morphology and genome sequences of some dwarf myoviruses have been described; however, a proteome characterization such as the one presented here, has currently been lacking for this group of viruses. Notably, fEV-1 is the first dwarf myovirus described for Y. pestis. The host range of fEV-1 was restricted strictly to Y. pestis strains, while that of fD1 also included other members of Enterobacterales such as Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we present the life cycles, genomes, and proteomes of two Yersinia myoviruses, fEV-1 and fD1.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Genoma Viral , Proteoma , Yersinia pestis/virologia , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Finlândia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Esgotos , Yersinia pestis/classificação
2.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636826

RESUMO

We report here the complete genome sequence and characterization of Yersinia bacteriophage vB_YenP_ϕ80-18. ϕ80-18 was isolated in 1991 using a Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 strain 8081 as a host from a sewage sample in Turku, Finland, and based on its morphological and genomic features is classified as a podovirus. The genome is 42 kb in size and has 325 bp direct terminal repeats characteristic for podoviruses. The genome contains 57 predicted genes, all encoded in the forward strand, of which 29 showed no similarity to any known genes. Phage particle proteome analysis identified altogether 24 phage particle-associated proteins (PPAPs) including those identified as structural proteins such as major capsid, scaffolding and tail component proteins. In addition, also the DNA helicase, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, 5'-exonuclease, and the lytic glycosylase proteins were identified as PPAPs, suggesting that they might be injected together with the phage genome into the host cell to facilitate the take-over of the host metabolism. The phage-encoded RNA-polymerase and DNA-primase were not among the PPAPs. Promoter search predicted the presence of four phage and eleven host RNA polymerase -specific promoters in the genome, suggesting that early transcription of the phage is host RNA-polymerase dependent and that the phage RNA polymerase takes over later. The phage tolerates pH values between 2 and 12, and is stable at 50°C but is inactivated at 60°C. It grows slowly with a 50 min latent period and has apparently a low burst size. Electron microscopy revealed that the phage has a head diameter of about 60 nm, and a short tail of 20 nm. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis confirmed that ϕ80-18 belongs to the Autographivirinae subfamily of the Podoviridae family, that it is 93.2% identical to Yersinia phage fHe-Yen3-01. Host range analysis showed that ϕ80-18 can infect in addition to Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 strains also strains of serotypes O:4, O:4,32, O:20 and O:21, the latter ones representing similar to Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8, the American pathogenic biotype 1B strains. In conclusion, the phage ϕ80-18 is a promising candidate for the biocontrol of the American biotype 1B Y. enterocolitica.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(17): 5340-53, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342557

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Bacteriophages present huge potential both as a resource for developing novel tools for bacterial diagnostics and for use in phage therapy. This potential is also valid for bacteriophages specific for Yersinia enterocolitica To increase our knowledge of Y. enterocolitica-specific phages, we characterized two novel yersiniophages. The genomes of the bacteriophages vB_YenM_TG1 (TG1) and vB_YenM_ϕR1-RT (ϕR1-RT), isolated from pig manure in Canada and from sewage in Finland, consist of linear double-stranded DNA of 162,101 and 168,809 bp, respectively. Their genomes comprise 262 putative coding sequences and 4 tRNA genes and share 91% overall nucleotide identity. Based on phylogenetic analyses of their whole-genome sequences and large terminase subunit protein sequences, a genus named Tg1virus within the family Myoviridae is proposed, with TG1 and ϕR1-RT (R1RT in the ICTV database) as member species. These bacteriophages exhibit a host range restricted to Y. enterocolitica and display lytic activity against the epidemiologically significant serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 at and below 25°C. Adsorption analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and OmpF mutants demonstrate that these phages use both the LPS inner core heptosyl residues and the outer membrane protein OmpF as phage receptors. Based on RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics, we also demonstrate that temperature-dependent infection is due to strong repression of OmpF at 37°C. In addition, ϕR1-RT was shown to be able to enter into a pseudolysogenic state. Together, this work provides further insight into phage-host cell interactions by highlighting the importance of understanding underlying factors which may affect the abundance of phage host receptors on the cell surface. IMPORTANCE: Only a small number of bacteriophages infecting Y. enterocolitica, the predominant causative agent of yersiniosis, have been previously described. Here, two newly isolated Y. enterocolitica phages were studied in detail, with the aim of elucidating the host cell receptors required for infection. Our research further expands the repertoire of phages available for consideration as potential antimicrobial agents or as diagnostic tools for this important bacterial pathogen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Porinas/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Yersinia enterocolitica/virologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Porinas/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Temperatura , Replicação Viral , Yersiniose/microbiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética , Yersinia enterocolitica/metabolismo
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 100(16): 7203-22, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27183995

RESUMO

The genomes of hybrid organisms, such as lager yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus), contain orthologous genes, the functionality and effect of which may differ depending on their origin and copy number. How the parental subgenomes in lager yeast contribute to important phenotypic traits such as fermentation performance, aroma production, and stress tolerance remains poorly understood. Here, three de novo lager yeast hybrids with different ploidy levels (allodiploid, allotriploid, and allotetraploid) were generated through hybridization techniques without genetic modification. The hybrids were characterized in fermentations of both high gravity wort (15 °P) and very high gravity wort (25 °P), which were monitored for aroma compound and sugar concentrations. The hybrid strains with higher DNA content performed better during fermentation and produced higher concentrations of flavor-active esters in both worts. The hybrid strains also outperformed both the parent strains. Genome sequencing revealed that several genes related to the formation of flavor-active esters (ATF1, ATF2¸ EHT1, EEB1, and BAT1) were present in higher copy numbers in the higher ploidy hybrid strains. A direct relationship between gene copy number and transcript level was also observed. The measured ester concentrations and transcript levels also suggest that the functionality of the S. cerevisiae- and S. eubayanus-derived gene products differs. The results contribute to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms that determine phenotypes in lager yeast hybrids and are expected to facilitate targeted strain development through interspecific hybridization.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Quimera/genética , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Quimera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Fúngico/genética , Ésteres/análise , Hibridização Genética , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Ploidias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética
5.
Environ Microbiol ; 17(11): 4306-21, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25712141

RESUMO

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat - CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) system is used by bacteria and archaea against invading conjugative plasmids or bacteriophages. Central to this immunity system are genomic CRISPR loci that contain fragments of invading DNA. These are maintained as spacers in the CRISPR loci between direct repeats and the spacer composition in any bacterium reflects its evolutionary history. We analysed the CRISPR locus sequences of 335 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex strains. Altogether 1902 different spacer sequences were identified and these were used to generate a database for the spacer sequences. Only ∼10% of the spacer sequences found matching sequences. In addition, surprisingly few spacers were shared by Yersinia pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. Interestingly, 32 different protospacers were present in the conjugative plasmid pYptb32953. The corresponding spacers were identified from 35 different Y. pseudotuberculosis strains indicating that these strains had encountered pYptb32953 earlier. In conjugation experiments, pYptb32953-specific spacers generally prevented conjugation with spacer-positive and spacer-free strains. However, some strains with one to four spacers were invaded by pYptb32953 and some spacer-free strains were fully resistant. Also some spacer-positive strains were intermediate resistant to conjugation. This suggests that one or more other defence systems are determining conjugation efficiency independent of the CRISPR-Cas system.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/imunologia , Conjugação Genética/imunologia , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Plasmídeos/imunologia , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/genética , Bacteriófagos/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Genômica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Plasmídeos/genética , Yersinia pestis/genética , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/classificação
6.
Yeast ; 32(1): 301-16, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24965182

RESUMO

A screen of 14 S. pastorianus lager-brewing strains showed as much as a nine-fold difference in wort total diacetyl concentration at equivalent stages of fermentation of 15°Plato brewer's wort. Two strains (A153 and W34), with relatively low and high diacetyl production, respectively, but which did not otherwise differ in fermentation performance, growth or flavour production, were selected for further investigation. Transcriptional analysis of key genes involved in valine biosynthesis showed differences between the two strains that were consistent with the differences in wort diacetyl concentration. In particular, the ILV6 gene, encoding a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase, showed early transcription (only 6 h after inoculation) and up to five-fold greater expression in W34 compared to A153. This earlier transcription was observed for both orthologues of ILV6 in the S. pastorianus hybrid (S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus), although the S. cerevisiae form of ILV6 in W34 also showed a consistently higher transcript level throughout fermentation relative to the same gene in A153. Overexpression of either form of ILV6 (by placing it under the control of the PGK1 promoter) resulted in an identical two-fold increase in wort total diacetyl concentration relative to a control. The results confirm the role of the Ilv6 subunit in controlling α-acetolactate/diacetyl concentration and indicate no functional divergence between the two forms of Ilv6. The greater contribution of the S. cerevisiae ILV6 to acetolactate production in natural brewing yeast hybrids appears rather to be due to higher levels of transcription relative to the S. eubayanus form.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lactatos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/genética , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Hibridização Genética , Saccharomyces/classificação , Saccharomyces/enzimologia
7.
Innate Immun ; 21(1): 3-16, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24361587

RESUMO

The O-polysaccharide (OPS, O-Ag) cap of LPS is a major virulence factor of Yersinia species and also serves as a receptor for the binding of lytic bacteriophage φR1-37. Currently, the OPS-based serotyping scheme for the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis complex includes 21 known O-serotypes that follow three distinct lineages: Y. pseudotuberculosis sensu stricto, Y. similis and the Korean group of strains. Elucidation of the Y. pseudotuberculosis complex OPS structures and characterization of the OPS genetics (altogether 18 O-serotypes studied thus far) allows a better understanding of the relationships among the various O serotypes and will facilitate the analysis of the evolutionary processes giving rise to new serotypes. Here we present the characterization of the OPS structure and gene cluster of Y. similis O:9. Bacteriophage φR1-37, which uses the Y. similis O:9 OPS as a receptor, also infects a number of Y. enterocolitica serotypes, including O:3, O:5,27, O:9 and O:50. The Y. similis O:9 OPS structure resembled none of the receptor structures of the Y. enterocolitica strains, suggesting that φR1-37 can recognize several surface receptors, thus promoting broad host specificity.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos/genética , Yersinia/genética , Yersinia/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Família Multigênica , Polissacarídeos/química , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Yersinia/química , Yersinia enterocolitica/genética
8.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 14(4): 601-13, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25035870

RESUMO

Zero-trans rates of maltose transport by brewer's yeasts exert strong control over fermentation rates and are strongly temperature-dependent over the temperature range (20­0 °C) of brewery fermentations. Three α-glucoside transporters, ScAgt1(A60) (a Saccharomyces cerevisiae version of Agt1 from an ale strain), ScAgt1-A548V (a variant of ScAgt1(A60) with a single amino acid change in a transmembrane domain), and SbAgt1 (a Saccharomyces (eu)bayanus version from a lager strain), were compared. When expressed in the same laboratory yeast, grown at 24 °C and assayed at 0, 10, and 20 °C, SbAgt1 had the lowest absolute maltose uptake activity at 20 °C but smallest temperature dependence, ScAgt1-A548V had the highest activity but greatest temperature dependence, and ScAgt1(A60) had intermediate properties. ScAgt1(A60) exhibited higher absolute rates and smaller temperature dependencies when expressed in laboratory rather than brewer's strains. Absolute rates closely reflected the amounts of GFP-tagged ScAgt1(A60) transporter in each host's plasma membrane. Growth at 15 °C instead of 24 °C decreased the absolute activities of strains expressing ScAgt1(A60) by two- to threefold. Evidently, the kinetic characteristics of at least ScAgt1(A60) depended on the nature of the host plasma membrane. However, no consistent correlation was observed between transport activities and fatty acid or ergosterol compositions.


Assuntos
Maltose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/enzimologia , Saccharomyces/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Saccharomyces/genética , Saccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
9.
Drug Metab Lett ; 8(2): 77-87, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24910238

RESUMO

Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is commonly analyzed in cultured human primary hepatocytes (HPHs) by measuring CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/3A5 activities after exposure to test and reference compounds. Because chemicals can both inhibit and induce CYP enzymes, this traditional approach fails to distinguish such simultaneous effects. Regulatory authorities have therefore suggested that measurement of CYP expression levels should complement activity measurements. We aimed to compare a hybridization and bead-based assay termed transcript analysis with the aid of affinity capture (TRAC) with the routinely used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and to study its suitability for CYP induction studies on mRNA level. HPHs from three donors were treated with vehicle, reference substances omeprazole, phenobarbital and rifampicin and six test compounds on 48-well plates. The mRNA expression of ten CYP isoforms important for drug metabolism was determined by TRAC and qRT-PCR methods in order to validate the novel TRAC method. The fold-increases of CYP mRNA levels showed a good correlation between the assays. With TRAC, the marker CYP mRNAs for induction could be easily detected from about 10 000 hepatocytes per sample, with a coefficient of variation below 10% between triplicates. Time spent for TRAC analysis was significantly shorter. Thus, TRAC is a sensitive and reproducible high-throughput assay, which enables accurate and direct detection of multiple mRNA targets simultaneously from large number of samples without enzymatic reactions inherent to qRT-PCR. It is a valuable method to study CYP induction and expandable to other genes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Indução Enzimática , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 160(Pt 1): 179-186, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24173527

RESUMO

While flagellum-driven motility is hypothesized to play a role in the virulence of Pectobacterium species, there is no direct evidence that genes involved in flagellum assembly regulate the synthesis of virulence factors. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that affect the production or secretion of necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) in the strain SCC3193. Transposon mutagenesis of an RpoS strain overexpressing NipP.w was performed, and a mutant associated with decreased necrosis of tobacco leaves was detected. The mutant contained a transposon in the regulatory region upstream of the flagellar genes flgK and flgL. Additional mutants were generated related to the flagellar genes fliC and fliA. The mutation in flgKL, but not those in fliC and fliA, inhibited nipP.w transcription. Moreover, the regulatory effect of the flgKL mutation on nipP.w transcription was partially dependent on the Rcs phosphorelay. Secretion of NipP.w was also dependent on a type II secretion mechanism. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the flgKL mutation is responsible for reduced motility and lower levels of nipP.w expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Pectobacterium/genética , Pectobacterium/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Mutagênese Insercional , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e73718, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24040039

RESUMO

In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. We detected genes for a novel two-component system adjacent to the flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium, and mutant analysis demonstrated that this system has a positive effect on the transcription of selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes, suggesting that this response regulator regulate the flp/tad gene cluster. Mutagenesis of either the predicted regulator gene or selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes had a significant impact on the maceration ability of the bacterial strains in potato tubers, indicating that the Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster represents a novel virulence determinant in Pectobacterium. Soft-rot enterobacteria in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya are of great agricultural importance, and an investigation of the virulence of these pathogens could facilitate improvements in agricultural practices, thus benefiting farmers, the potato industry and consumers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Família Multigênica , Pectobacterium/genética , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genética , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/patogenicidade , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Pectobacterium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tubérculos/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética
12.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 13(3): 335-49, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23414064

RESUMO

An adaptive evolution method to obtain stable Saccharomyces pastorianus brewing yeast variants with improved fermentation capacity is described. The procedure involved selection for rapid growth resumption at high osmotic strength. It was applied to a lager strain and to a previously isolated ethanol-tolerant strain. Fermentation performance of strains was compared at 15 °P wort strength. A selected osmotolerant variant of the ethanol-tolerant strain showed significantly shorter fermentation time than the parent strain, producing 6.45% alcohol by volume beer in 4-5 days with mostly similar organoleptic properties to the original strain. Diacetyl and pentanedione contents were 50-75% and 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate 50% higher than with the original strain, leading to a small flavour change. The variant contained significantly less intracellular trehalose and glycogen than the parent. Transcriptional analysis of selected genes at 24 h revealed reduced transcription of hexose transport genes and increased transcription of the MALx1 and MALx2 genes, responsible for α-glucoside uptake and metabolism. It is suggested that an attenuated stress response contributes to the improved fermentation performance. Results show that sequential selection for both ethanol tolerance and rapid growth at high osmotic strength can provide strains with enhanced fermentation speed with acceptable product quality.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Saccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces/genética , Acetatos/análise , Adaptação Biológica , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pentanos/análise , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética
13.
J Virol ; 86(23): 12625-42, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22973030

RESUMO

The bacteriophage vB_YecM-ϕR1-37 (ϕR1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that can propagate naturally in different Yersinia species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. This large-tailed phage has deoxyuridine (dU) instead of thymidine in its DNA. In this study, we determined the genomic sequence of phage ϕR1-37, mapped parts of the phage transcriptome, characterized the phage particle proteome, and characterized the virion structure by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction. The 262,391-bp genome of ϕR1-37 is one of the largest sequenced phage genomes, and it contains 367 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and 5 tRNA genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified 69 phage particle structural proteins with the genes scattered throughout the genome. A total of 269 of the ORFs (73%) lack homologues in sequence databases. Based on terminator and promoter sequences identified from the intergenic regions, the phage genome was predicted to consist of 40 to 60 transcriptional units. Image reconstruction revealed that the ϕR1-37 capsid consists of hexameric capsomers arranged on a T=27 lattice similar to the bacteriophage ϕKZ. The tail of ϕR1-37 has a contractile sheath. We conclude that phage ϕR1-37 is a representative of a novel phage type that carries the dU-containing genome in a ϕKZ-like head.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/química , Bacteriófagos/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteoma/genética , Vírion/química , Yersinia enterocolitica/virologia , Sequência de Bases , Northern Blotting , Southern Blotting , Biologia Computacional , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Primers do DNA/genética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Espectrometria de Massas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
J Bacteriol ; 194(18): 4810-22, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22753062

RESUMO

When analyzing the secretome of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, we identified hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) as one of the secreted proteins. Hcp is assumed to be an extracellular component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS). Two copies of hcp genes are present in the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genome, hcp1 (PSPTO_2539) and hcp2 (PSPTO_5435). We studied the expression patterns of the hcp genes and tested the fitness of hcp knockout mutants in host plant colonization and in intermicrobial competition. We found that the hcp2 gene is expressed most actively at the stationary growth phase and that the Hcp2 protein is secreted via the T6SS and appears in the culture medium as covalently linked dimers. Expression of hcp2 is not induced in planta and does not contribute to virulence in or colonization of tomato or Arabidopsis plants. Instead, hcp2 is required for survival in competition with enterobacteria and yeasts, and its function is associated with the suppression of the growth of these competitors. This is the first report on bacterial T6SS-associated genes functioning in competition with yeast. Our results suggest that the T6SS of P. syringae may play an important role in bacterial fitness, allowing this plant pathogen to survive under conditions where it has to compete with other microorganisms for resources.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Meios de Cultura/química , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Multimerização Proteica , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 22(7): 809-19, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19522563

RESUMO

Molecular biological studies on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato, have gained greater feasibility due to the recent availability of whole genomic sequences and genetic tools for related taxa. Here, we describe the first report of construction and characterization of a transposon (Tn) mutant library of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus sp. strain R10. Since virulence of R10 in potato has been shown previously to be associated with elicitation of a nonhost hypersensitive response (HR), the mutant library was screened initially for loss of HR in tobacco. The screen identified two HR-negative mutants containing Tn insertions within the same gene, CMS2989 (chp-7), although at distinct locations. chp-7 is one of 11 pat-1 homologs in C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. HR-negative mutants of R10 multiplied to the same extent as wild type in planta but were less virulent in potato. Complementation with chp-7 restored virulence as well as the HR phenotype. Together, these findings demonstrate a role for chp-7 in C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Actinomycetales/enzimologia , Actinomycetales/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Southern Blotting , Biblioteca Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Mensageiro/química , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 106(25): 10359-64, 2009 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19520828

RESUMO

Many plant pathogens secrete toxins that enhance microbial virulence by killing host cells. Usually, these toxins are produced by particular microbial taxa, such as bacteria or fungi. In contrast, many bacterial, fungal and oomycete species produce necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) that trigger leaf necrosis and immunity-associated responses in various plants. We have determined the crystal structure of an NLP from the phytopathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum to 1.35A resolution. The protein fold exhibits structural similarities to cytolytic toxins produced by marine organisms (actinoporins). Computational modeling of the 3-dimensional structure of NLPs from another oomycete, Phytophthora parasitica, and from the phytopathogenic bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, revealed a high extent of fold conservation. Expression of the 2 oomycete NLPs in an nlp-deficient P. carotovorum strain restored bacterial virulence, suggesting that NLPs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins are orthologous proteins. NLP mutant protein analyses revealed that identical structural properties were required to cause plasma membrane permeabilization and cytolysis in plant cells, as well as to restore bacterial virulence. In sum, NLPs are conserved virulence factors whose taxonomic distribution is exceptional for microbial phytotoxins, and that contribute to host infection by plasma membrane destruction and cytolysis. We further show that NLP-mediated phytotoxicity and plant defense gene expression share identical fold requirements, suggesting that toxin-mediated interference with host integrity triggers plant immunity-associated responses. Phytotoxin-induced cellular damage-associated activation of plant defenses is reminiscent of microbial toxin-induced inflammasome activation in vertebrates and may thus constitute another conserved element in animal and plant innate immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Pythium/patogenicidade , Toxinas Biológicas/química , Proteínas de Algas/genética , Simulação por Computador , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Químicos , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/imunologia , Conformação Proteica , Dobramento de Proteína , Toxinas Biológicas/genética , Virulência
17.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 154(Pt 8): 2387-2396, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18667571

RESUMO

Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium that rots potato stems and tubers. Microarray analysis was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed when host extracts were added to the growth medium. Potato extracts downregulated the expression of ribosomal genes and genes related to uptake and metabolism of nutrients, and upregulated genes needed for nitrate or phosphonate use. Some of the observed changes in gene expression in host-extract-induced cultures are similar to those during attachment of the bacterium to host tissues. Other responses indicated defence against toxic metabolites in the extract. Tuber extract induced a large gene cluster having homology to type VI secretion genes shown to be virulence determinants in many, but not all, animal and human pathogens. Two of the genes in the type VI cluster were found to be expressed during infection in potato tubers and stems, and mutants with knockouts of the corresponding genes had increased virulence on potato. One of the type VI secretion mutants was further characterized and found to grow to higher cell density in culture in the presence of host extract and to produce slightly more extracellular tissue-macerating enzymes than the wild-type strain. Analysis of secreted proteins showed that this type VI mutant was affected in the production of haemolysin-coregulated proteins (Hcps), which have been suggested to be secreted by the type VI pathway in other bacteria. The results suggest that the type VI secretion system of P. atrosepticum is needed for secretion of Hcps but not for virulence on its host plant, potato.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Família Multigênica , Pectobacterium carotovorum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Pectobacterium carotovorum/metabolismo , Fenótipo
18.
Proteomics ; 7(19): 3527-37, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17726675

RESUMO

Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacterium that causes rotting in potato stems and tubers. The secreted proteins of this pathogen were analyzed with proteomics from culture supernatant of cells grown in minimal medium supplemented with host extracts. More than 40 proteins were identified, among them known virulence determinants, such as pectic enzymes, metalloprotease, and virulence protein Svx, along with flagella proteins, GroEL and cyclophilin-type chaperones and several hypothetical proteins or proteins with unknown function. Some of the identified proteins may be involved in utilization of nutrients or transport of minerals. Northern and real-time RT-PCR analyses suggested that most of the proteins upregulated by plant extract were transcriptionally regulated. Among the identified proteins were VgrG and four homologs of hemolysin-coregulated proteins (Hcps). A mutant strain lacking one of the hcp genes was not affected in virulence, while a bacterial strain overexpressing the same gene was shown to have increased virulence, which suggests that these proteins may be new virulence determinants of P. atrosepticum. Comparison of the secretomes of wild type cells and hrcC mutant defective in Type III secretion suggested that the production of the identified proteins was independent of functional Type III secretion system.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Pectobacterium/química , Proteoma/análise , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Meios de Cultura/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pectobacterium/genética , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 17(12): 1366-75, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15597742

RESUMO

Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora is a gram-negative bacterium that causes soft rot disease of many cultivated crops. When a collection of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora isolates was analyzed on a Southern blot using the harpin-encoding gene hrpN as probe, several harpinless isolates were found. Regulation of virulence determinants in one of these, strain SCC3193, has been characterized extensively. It is fully virulent on potato and in Arabidopsis thaliana. An RpoS (SigmaS) mutant of SCC3193, producing elevated levels of secreted proteins, was found to cause lesions resembling the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco leaf tissue. This phenotype was evident only when bacterial cells had been cultivated on solid minimal medium at low pH and temperature. The protein causing'the cell death was purified and sequenced, and the corresponding gene was cloned. The deduced sequence of the necrosis-inducing protein (Nip) showed homology to necrosis- and ethylene-inducing elicitors of fungi and oomycetes. A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Pectobacterium carotovorum/química , Fatores de Virulência/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pectobacterium carotovorum/genética , Pectobacterium carotovorum/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
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