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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with SSc, peripheral vasculopathy can promote critical ischaemia and gangrene. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for gangrene in the EUSTAR cohort. METHODS: We included patients from the EUSTAR database fulfilling the ACR 1980 or the ACR/EULAR 2013 classification criteria for SSc, with at least one visit recording data on gangrene. Centres were asked for supplementary data on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We analysed the cross-sectional relationship between gangrene and its potential risk factors by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Longitudinal data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: 1757 patients were analysed (age 55.9 [14.5] years, disease duration 7.9 [10.3] years, male sex 16.7%, 24.6% diffuse cutaneous subset [dcSSc]). At inclusion, 8.9% of patients had current or previous digital gangrene, 16.1% had current digital ulcers (DUs) and 42.7% had ever had DUs (current or previous). Older age, DUs ever and dcSSc were statistically significant risk factors for gangrene in the cross-sectional multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 13.1 months, 16/771 (0.9%) patients developed gangrene. All 16 patients who developed gangrene had previously had DUs and gangrene. Further risk factors for incident gangrene were the dcSSc subset and longer disease duration. CONCLUSION: In unselected SSc patients, gangrene occurs in about 9% of SSc patients. DUs ever and, to a lesser extent, the dcSSc subset are strongly and independently associated with gangrene, while traditional cardiovascular risk factors could not be identified as risk factors.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic inflammatory myositis-associated interstitial lung disease (IIM-ILD) significantly increases morbidity and mortality. Lung ultrasound B-lines and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) are identified as new sonographic and serum markers of ILD, respectively. The aim of our work was to assess the role of B-lines and KL-6 as markers of the severity of IIM-ILD. For this purpose, the correlation among B-lines score, serum KL-6 levels, high-resolution CT (HRCT) score, and pulmonary function tests were investigated in IIM-ILD patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with IIM-ILD underwent chest HRCT scans, lung ultrasound and pulmonary function tests (independently performed within 1 week) examination. To assess severity and extent of ILD at HRCT, the Warrick score was used. The B-lines score denoting the extension of ILD was calculated by summing the number of B-lines on a total of 50 scanning sites. Serum KL-6 levels (U/ml) was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between the B-lines score and serum KL-6 levels (r = 0.43, P < 0.01), and between the Warrick score and serum KL-6 levels (r = 0.45, P < 0.01). A positive correlation between B-lines score and the Warrick score (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001) was also confirmed. Both B-lines score and KL-6 levels inversely correlated to diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (r = -0.77, P < 0.0001 and r = -0.42, P < 0.05, respectively) and total lung capacity (r = -0.73, P < 0.0001 and r = -0.36, P < 0.05, respectively). Moreover, B-lines correlated inversely with forced vital capacity (r = -0.73, P < 0.0001), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.69, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: B-lines score and serum KL-6 levels correlate with HRCT findings and pulmonary function tests, supporting their use as measures of IIM-ILD severity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac rhythm disturbances constitute the most frequent cardiovascular cause of death in SSc. However, electrocardiographic findings are not a part of risk stratification in SSc. We aimed to translate 24 h Holter findings into a tangible risk prediction score using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. METHODS: The Scleroderma Arrhythmia Clinical Utility Study (SAnCtUS) was a prospective multicentre study including 150 consecutive SSc patients from eight European centres, assessed with 24 h Holter and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including ventricular function, oedema (T2 ratio) and late gadolinium enhancement (%LGE). Laboratory/clinical parameters were included in multivariable corrections. A combined endpoint of sustained ventricular tachycardia requiring hospitalization and sudden cardiac death at a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 1 (1.0-1.4) year was generated. RESULTS: Only T2 ratio and %LGE were significant predictors of ventricular rhythm disturbances, but not of supraventricular rhythm disturbances, after multivariable correction and adjustment for multiple comparisons. Using decision-tree analysis, we created the SAnCtUS score, a four-category scoring system based on T2 ratio and %LGE, for identifying SSc patients at high risk of experiencing ventricular rhythm disturbance at baseline. Increasing SAnCtUS scores were associated with a greater disease and arrhythmic burden. All cases of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (n = 7) occurred in patients with the highest SAnCtUS score (=4). Having a score of 4 conveyed a higher risk of reaching the combined endpoint in multivariable Cox regression compared with scores 1/2/3 [hazard ratio (95% CI): 3.86 (1.14, 13.04), P = 0.029] independently of left ventricular ejection fraction and baseline ventricular tachycardia occurrence. CONCLUSION: T2 ratio and %LGE had the greatest utility as independent predictors of rhythm disturbances in SSc patients.

4.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102421, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733368

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that, if untreated, can lead to disability and reduce the life expectancy of affected patients. Over the last two decades the improvement of knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the development of the disease has profoundly changed the treatment strategies of RA through the development of biotechnological drugs (bDMARDs) directed towards specific pro-inflammatory targets involved in the RA network. To date, the therapeutic armamentarium for RA includes ten bDMARDs able to produce the depletion B-cells, the blockade of three different pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1), or the inhibition of T-cell co-stimulation. The introduction of these new compounds has dramatically improved outcomes in the short and long term, although still a significant proportion of patients are unable to reach or maintain the treatment target over time. The identification of the fundamental role of Janus kinases in the process of transduction of the inflammatory signal within the immune cells has recently provided the opportunity to use the new pharmacological class of small molecules for the therapy of RA, further increasing the number of treatment options. In this review the PROS and CONS of these two drug classes will be discussed, trying to provide the evidence currently available to make the right choice based on the analysis of the efficacy and safety profile of the different drugs on the market and close to marketing.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Racial factors play a significant role in SSc. We evaluated differences in SSc presentations between white patients (WP), Asian patients (AP) and black patients (BP) and analysed the effects of geographical locations. METHODS: SSc characteristics of patients from the EUSTAR cohort were cross-sectionally compared across racial groups using survival and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The study included 9162 WP, 341 AP and 181 BP. AP developed the first non-RP feature faster than WP but slower than BP. AP were less frequently anti-centromere (ACA; odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, P < 0.001) and more frequently anti-topoisomerase-I autoantibodies (ATA) positive (OR = 1.2, P = 0.068), while BP were less likely to be ACA and ATA positive than were WP [OR(ACA) = 0.3, P < 0.001; OR(ATA) = 0.5, P = 0.020]. AP had less often (OR = 0.7, P = 0.06) and BP more often (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) diffuse skin involvement than had WP. AP and BP were more likely to have pulmonary hypertension [OR(AP) = 2.6, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.7, P = 0.03 vs WP] and a reduced forced vital capacity [OR(AP) = 2.5, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.4, P < 0.004] than were WP. AP more often had an impaired diffusing capacity of the lung than had BP and WP [OR(AP vs BP) = 1.9, P = 0.038; OR(AP vs WP) = 2.4, P < 0.001]. After RP onset, AP and BP had a higher hazard to die than had WP [hazard ratio (HR) (AP) = 1.6, P = 0.011; HR(BP) = 2.1, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Compared with WP, and mostly independent of geographical location, AP have a faster and earlier disease onset with high prevalences of ATA, pulmonary hypertension and forced vital capacity impairment and higher mortality. BP had the fastest disease onset, a high prevalence of diffuse skin involvement and nominally the highest mortality.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High frequency ultrasound allows visualization of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, precise measurement of skin thickness, as well as assessment of skin oedema, fibrosis and atrophy. The aim of this pilot cross-sectional observational study was to assess the performance and multiobserver variability of ultra-high-frequency (UHF) (50 MHz) ultrasound (US) in measuring skin thickness as well as the capacity of UHF-derived skin features to differentiate SSc patients from healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-one SSc patients (16 limited and five diffuse SSc) and six healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects underwent US evaluation by three experts at three anatomical sites (forearm, hand and finger). Dermal thickness was measured and two rectangular regions of interest, one in dermis and one in hypodermis, were established for texture feature analysis. RESULTS: UHF-US allowed a precise identification and measurement of the thickness of the dermis. The dermal thickness in the finger was significantly higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.05), while in the forearm it was significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Interobserver variability for dermal thickness was good to excellent [forearm intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.754; finger ICC = 0.699; hand ICC = 0.602]. Texture computed analysis of dermis and hypodermis was able to discriminate between SSc and healthy subjects (area under the curve >0.7). CONCLUSION: These preliminary data show that skin UHF-US allows a very detailed imaging of skin layers, a reliable measurement of dermal thickness, and a discriminative capacity between dermis and hypodermis texture features in SSc and healthy subjects.

7.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(12): 102403, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639515

RESUMO

In systemic sclerosis (SSc), the use of corticosteroids (CS) is controversial due to their association with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). However, patients with very early and early disease, characterised by main inflammatory component, may benefit from CS therapy. The aim of this review is to discuss pros and cons of CS treatment in SSc, providing current evidence about the use of CS in SSc. Moreover, we discuss also the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms that may be the background for the potential harms and efficacy of CS in SSc.

9.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Through a systemic literature research (SLR) and meta-analysis, to determine maternal and foetal outcomes in SSc pregnancies, to analyse the effect of pregnancy on disease activity and to explore predictors of foetal and maternal outcomes. METHODS: A SLR was performed for articles on SSc and pregnancy published between 1950 and 1st February 2018. Reviewers double extracted articles to obtain agreement on>95% of pre-defined critical outcomes. RESULTS: 461 publications were identified, 16 were included in the meta-analysis. The metanalysis showed that SSc pregnancies were at higher risk of miscarriages (OR 1.6,CI95% 1.22-2.22), foetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (OR 3.2,CI95% 2.21-4.53), preterm births (OR 2.4,CI95% 1.14-4.86) and newborns with low birth weight (OR 3.8,CI95% 2.16-6.56). SSc patients had 2.8 times higher chance of developing gestational hypertension (OR 2.8,CI95% 2.28-3.39) and 2.3 times higher chance of having Caesarean delivery compared to controls (OR 2.3,CI95% 1.37-3.8). The definitions of disease worsening/new visceral organ involvement were too inexact to have any confidence in the results although there were said to be worsening or new disease manifestations during pregnancy in 44/307(14.3%) cases and during the 6-months post-partum in 32/306(10.5%) cases. The data did not permit definition of predictors of disease progression and of maternal and foetal outcomes. CONCLUSION: SSc pregnancies have increased frequency of miscarriages, IUGR, pre-term deliveries and newborns with low birth weight compared to healthy controls. SSc women were more prone to develop gestational hypertension and to undergo Caesarean section. Disease manifestations seem to remain stable or improve in most patients.

10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal Resistive Index (RRI), reflects changes in both renal vascular and tubular-interstitial compartments and in systemic vascular compliance related to age and comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: a) To investigate determinants of RRI in SSc population, b) its association with SSc-related features and c) to test its prognostic impact on organ specific worsening or death. METHODS: 380 SSc patients ≥18 years were enrolled after giving informed consent. Baseline data on RRI, laboratory, instrumental and therapeutic features were retrospectively collected. Age-SSc adjusted cut-offs were created by dividing the population in age quartiles and considering RRI values >75th percentile as pathologic. Clinical follow-up was performed until last available visit or the development/worsening of specific internal organ involvement or death. RESULTS: RRI was independently predicted by age and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure on Echo. Therefore, we created Age-SSc adjusted pathologic RRI cut-offs, which were significantly associated with various disease related skin and lung fibrotic manifestations, as well as vasculopathic complications. After a mean follow-up of 3.6 ±â€¯2.6 years, RRI was one of the independent predictors (together with modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, presence of dyspnoea and late nailfold-videocapillaroscopy pattern) for mortality, with 0.68 as best cut-off (sensitivity 88.5%, specificity 50.9%). CONCLUSION: If corroborated, Renal Resistive Index cut-offs might be used to evaluate renal and extrarenal involvement in SSc and could serve as predictors of mortality.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SSc is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the skin and multiple internal organs. Articular involvement is one of the main features of SSc, and typical hallmarks of SpA have been found in SSc patients. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of entheseal and synovio-entheseal complex (SEC) alterations in a cohort of SSc patients. METHODS: One hundred SSc patients and 25 healthy subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. The enthesis sites of lateral epicondylar common extensor tendons (CET) and the enthesis of the Glasgow Ultrasound Enthesis Scoring System were evaluated. SEC involvement was evaluated only at CET enthesis. RESULTS: In SSc, the Glasgow Ultrasound Enthesis Scoring System score was significantly higher (median 4.0, interquartile range 2.0-7.0) than in controls (median 1.0, interquartile range 0.0-3.0) (P < 0.0001). CET enthesis of SSc patients showed more frequent US B-mode alterations than that of controls (χ2 = 11.47, P = 0.0007 for size; χ2 = 13.79, P = 0.0002 for cortical irregularity, χ2 = 5.24, P = 0.022 for calcification/enthesophytes). Power Doppler US signal at CET enthesis was significantly more frequent in SSc patients than in healthy controls (χ2 = 9.11, P = 0.0025), as was the concomitant SEC involvement (χ2 = 8.52, P = 0.0035). CONCLUSION: These data show that SSc patients frequently present US features of enthesopathy. Moreover, CET enthesopathy was correlated with SEC inflammation, suggesting that entheseal inflammation in SSc may share the same micro-anatomical targets as found in SpA.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of vasodilator drugs on the occurrence of features depending on myocardial ischaemia/fibrosis (ventricular arrhythmias, Q waves, cardiac blocks, pacemaker implantation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%, and/or congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: 601 patients with SSc were enrolled from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2015 and had a second visit 0.5-4 years apart. 153 received no vasodilators; 448 received vasodilator therapy (ie, calcium channel blockers and/or ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or combinations of them), 89 of them being also treated with either endothelin receptor antagonists or PDE5 inhibitors or prostanoids. Associations between the occurrence of myocardial disease manifestations and any demographic, disease and therapeutic aspect were investigated by Cox regression analysis. A Cox frailty survival model with centre of enrolment as random effect was performed. RESULTS: During 914 follow-up patient-years, 12 ventricular arrhythmias, 5 Q waves, 40 cardiac blocks, 6 pacemaker implantations and 19 reduced LVEF and/or congestive heart failure (CHF) occurred. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, vasodilator therapy was associated with a lower incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (p=0.03); low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with a lower incidence of cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.02); active disease with a higher incidence of LVEF <55% and/or CHF and cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study might suggest a preventative effect on the occurrence of distinct myocardial manifestations by vasodilator therapy and low-dose ASA.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of early systemic sclerosis. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). METHODS: A 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with participants randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either abatacept 125 mg subcutaneous or matching placebo, stratified by duration of dcSSc. Escape therapy was allowed at six months for worsening disease. The co-primary end points were change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and safety over 12 months. Treatment differences in longitudinal outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with outcomes censored after initiation of escape therapy. Baseline skin tissue was classified into intrinsic gene expression subsets. RESULTS: Among 88 participants, the adjusted mean change in mRSS at 12 months was -6.24 units in the abatacept and -4.49 units in the placebo, with adjusted mean treatment difference of -1.75 units (p=0.28). Two secondary outcome measures (HAQ-DI and a composite measure) were clinically and statistically significant favoring abatacept. A larger proportion of placebo subjects required escape therapy relative to abatacept (36% vs. 16%). Decline in mRSS over 12 months was clinically and significantly higher in abatacept vs. placebo for the Inflammatory (p<0.001) and Normal-like skin gene expression subsets (p=0.03). 35 participants in the abatacept versus 40 in the placebo had adverse events (AEs), including two and one deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this Phase 2 trial, abatacept was well tolerated, but change in mRSS was not statistically significant. Secondary outcome measures, including gene expression subsets, showed some evidence in favor of abatacept. These data should be confirmed in a Phase 3 trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1242-1248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality and worsening of organ function are desirable endpoints for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to identify factors that allow enrichment of patients with these endpoints, in a population of patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group database. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of diffuse SSc and follow-up over 12±3 months. Disease worsening/organ progression was fulfilled if any of the following events occurred: new renal crisis; decrease of lung or heart function; new echocardiography-suspected pulmonary hypertension or death. In total, 42 clinical parameters were chosen as predictors for the analysis by using (1) imputation of missing data on the basis of multivariate imputation and (2) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. RESULTS: Of 1451 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 706 had complete data on outcome parameters and were included in the analysis. Of the 42 outcome predictors, eight remained in the final regression model. There was substantial evidence for a strong association between disease progression and age, active digital ulcer (DU), lung fibrosis, muscle weakness and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Active DU, CRP elevation, lung fibrosis and muscle weakness were also associated with a significantly shorter time to disease progression. A bootstrap validation step with 10 000 repetitions successfully validated the model. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the predictive factors presented here could enable cohort enrichment with patients at risk for overall disease worsening in SSc clinical trials.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1260-1268, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the expression of the CCL24 chemokine in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to evaluate the possible pathogenic implications of the CCL24/CCR3 axis using both in vitro and in vivo models. We further investigated the efficacy of an anti-CCL24 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CM-101, in inhibiting cell activation as well as dermal and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in experimental animal models. METHODS: We used ELISA and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to determine CCL24 levels in serum and CCL24/CCR3 expression in skin biopsies of SSc patients. Skin fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with CCL24 or SSc serum with or without CM-101 were used to follow cell activation and differentiation. Prevention and treatment in vivo bleomycin (BLM)-induced models were used to evaluate experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis progression following treatment with the CM-101 mAb. RESULTS: CCL24 circulating levels were significantly elevated in SSc patients. CCL24/CCR3 expression was strongly increased in SSc skin. Blockade of CCL24 with CM-101 significantly reduced the activation of dermal fibroblasts and their transition to myofibroblasts induced by SSc serum. CM-101 was also able to significantly inhibit endothelial cell activation induced by CCL24. In BLM-induced experimental animal models, CM-101 profoundly inhibited both dermal and pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: CCL24 plays an important role in pathological processes of skin and lung inflammation and fibrosis. Inhibition of CCL24 by CM-101 mAb can be potentially beneficial for therapeutic use in SSc patients.

16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 130, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sandoz etanercept (SDZ ETN; GP2015) is an etanercept biosimilar with equivalent efficacy and comparable safety and immunogenicity to reference etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque-type psoriasis. METHODS: EQUIRA was a phase III, double-blind study conducted in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Eligible patients were randomized 1:1 to receive subcutaneous 50 mg SDZ ETN or ETN, once-weekly, for 24 weeks. At week 24, patients with at least moderate EULAR response in the SDZ ETN group continued SDZ ETN treatment, and those in the ETN group were switched to receive 50 mg SDZ ETN, for up to 48 weeks. Patients received concomitant methotrexate at a stable dose (10-25 mg/week) and folic acid (≥ 5 mg/week). Equivalence between SDZ ETN and ETN for change from baseline in disease activity score including 28 joint count C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) at week 24 (primary endpoint) and comparable safety and immunogenicity profile of SDZ ETN and ETN have previously been demonstrated at week 24. Herein, we present the 48-week results of the study after a single switch from ETN to its biosimilar at week 24. RESULTS: The least squares mean (standard error) change in DAS28-CRP from baseline up to week 48 was comparable between "continued SDZ ETN" (- 2.90 [0.12], n = 148) and "switched to SDZ ETN" (- 2.78 [0.13], n = 131) groups. The proportion of patients achieving EULAR good/moderate responses based on DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ACR20/50/70 response rates were comparable between the two groups. The proportion of patients with at least one treatment-emergent adverse event was 42.9% in the "continued SDZ ETN" and 38.0% in the "switched to SDZ ETN" groups. Serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients in each of the two groups. After week 24, none of the patients in the switched group developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), while 4 patients in the continued SDZ ETN group had single-event, very low titer, non-neutralizing ADAs detected. CONCLUSIONS: The 48-week results from the EQUIRA study demonstrate that switch from ETN to SDZ ETN in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis does not impact the efficacy, safety, or immunogenicity of etanercept. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2012-002009-23 , Registered 19 April 2012-prospectively registered.

17.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement of the updated European League Against Rheumatism and European Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR) recommendations for treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc) among international experts. In addition, to determine factors that might influence agreement. METHODS: Level of agreement (10-point scale: 0 = not at all, 10 = completely agree) and local drug availability (yes/no) were assessed using an online survey. The Web link to the survey was shared with 481 unique e-mail addresses and SSc networks (Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium, Australian Scleroderma Interest Group, International Systemic Sclerosis Inception Cohort). Level of agreement was compared between subgroups stratified for participant characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 263 experts participated, of whom n = 209 (79%) completed each single item. The majority were rheumatologists (n = 200, 76%) working in Europe (n = 185; 71%); 59% (n = 156) were EUSTAR members; and 57% (n = 151) had > 10 years of clinical experience. Overall level of agreement was high (mean 8.0, SD 2.5). The 3 highest mean agreements included (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for scleroderma renal crisis (9.2, SD 2.1); (2) blood pressure control in SSc-patients treated with corticosteroids (9.0, SD 2.2); (3) proton pump inhibitors to prevent reflux complications (9.0, SD 2.2). The 3 lowest mean agreements included (1) fluoxetine for Raynaud phenomenon (RP; 4.6, SD 2.8); (2) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe SSc (7.1, SD 2.9); (3) phosphodiesterase inhibitors 5 for RP (7.3, SD 2.7). Agreement differed between Europe and non-Europe for the use of iloprost, bosentan, methotrexate, HSCT, and cyclophosphamide. Treatment availability could partially explain differential agreement for iloprost, bosentan, and HSCT. CONCLUSION: In general, worldwide expert agreement on updated recommendations for treatment of SSc is high, supporting their value. Differences in agreement are partially explained by geographical area and treatment availability.

18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 119(4): 133-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025932

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterised by immune dysregulation, endothelial cell dysfunction followed by defective vascular repair and neovascularization and progressive tissue fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, whose pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated. Perturbed neuroendothelial control mechanisms comprising either endothelial cell or peripheral nerve fiber impairment are supposed to play an important role in the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon and development of microvascular abnormalities which are the earliest events and key features of SSc. Such pathogenic neuroendothelial mechanisms may trigger both the early endothelial cell damage and the subsequent loss of peripheral microvascular integrity characterised by the lack of compensatory angiogenesis. Of note, the vascular and nervous systems have several anatomical similarities that extend to molecular level, and the molecular mechanisms of nerve regulation are shared by the vascular system. In this context, increasing evidence demonstrated that endothelial cells express receptors for axon guidance molecules, including Ephrin family receptor tyrosine kinases, Neuropilins, Plexins, Robos, and UNC5B that are able to respond to their soluble neuroendothelial trophic ligands, such as Semaphorins and Slits, to guide the sprouting of endothelial tip cells. Here, we first provide a historical view of neuroendothelial control mechanism alterations in the pathogenesis of SSc, and then discuss the emerging role of a class of molecules sharing neurogenic and angiogenic properties, such as members of Semaphorin/Plexin/Neuropilin and Slit/Roundabout families, in SSc-related peripheral microvasculopathy.


Assuntos
Neovascularização Patológica , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/fisiopatologia , Doença de Raynaud , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 979-987, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of rituximab in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a prospective study including patients with SSc from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) network treated with rituximab and matched with untreated patients with SSc. The main outcomes measures were adverse events, skin fibrosis improvement, lung fibrosis worsening and steroids use among propensity score-matched patients treated or not with rituximab. RESULTS: 254 patients were treated with rituximab, in 58% for lung and in 32% for skin involvement. After a median follow-up of 2 years, about 70% of the patients had no side effect. Comparison of treated patients with 9575 propensity-score matched patients showed that patients treated with rituximab were more likely to have skin fibrosis improvement (22.7 vs 14.03 events per 100 person-years; OR: 2.79 [1.47-5.32]; p=0.002). Treated patients did not have significantly different rates of decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC)>10% (OR: 1.03 [0.55-1.94]; p=0.93) nor in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) decrease. Patients having received rituximab were more prone to stop or decrease steroids (OR: 2.34 [1.56-3.53], p<0.0001). Patients treated concomitantly with mycophenolate mofetil had a trend for better outcomes as compared with patients receiving rituximab alone (delta FVC: 5.22 [0.83-9.62]; p=0.019 as compared with controls vs 3 [0.66-5.35]; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Rituximab use was associated with a good safety profile in this large SSc-cohort. Significant change was observed on skin fibrosis, but not on lung. However, the limitation is the observational design. The potential stabilisation of lung fibrosis by rituximab has to be addressed by a randomised trial.

20.
Clin Exp Med ; 19(3): 357-366, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989453

RESUMO

Vasculopathy is a crucial feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and digital ulcers (DU) have a deep impact on the quality of patients' life. The management of vascular disease can be challenging for the clinician because of the suboptimal tolerability of the treatments and lack of consensus on the best therapeutic approach. Intravenous iloprost, a synthetic analogue of prostacyclin, is broadly used for the treatment of RP and ischemic ulcers secondary to SSc. However, no standardized protocol on iloprost use is currently available and, consequently, the management of this treatment is largely based on the experience of each single center. The PROSIT project is an observational, multicenter study aiming to investigate the current treatments for SSc vasculopathy, the use of prostanoids, with special regard to iloprost, and the perception of the treatment from a patient's perspective. The study was conducted on a cohort of 346 patients from eight Italian centers and included a structured survey addressed to physicians, data collected from patient's medical records and two patient-administered questionnaires assessing the level of satisfaction, tolerability and perception of the efficacy of Iloprost. PROSIT data confirmed that in the contest of SSc iloprost represents the first-line choice for the management of severe RP and DU. Moreover, it is a well-tolerated treatment as reported by patients' experience. Although a standard protocol for the treatment of SSc-related vasculopathy is lacking, PROSIT study identified different therapeutic approaches largely supported by tertiary Italian centers. Further studies are needed in order to optimize the best treatment for SSc vascular diseases, in particular to improve the best iloprost schedule management.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Iloprosta/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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