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Foods ; 10(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441617


The conditions of convective drying induce a negative effect on the quality of the dried products, and thus, innovative solutions, such as the utilization of ultrasound and dehumidified air are gaining importance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ultrasound pretreatment and variable air temperature on the kinetics of convective drying with dehumidified air and the quality of dried apples. Apples were dried with dehumidified and non-dehumidified air at 55, 70 and 85 °C. Preliminary ultrasound treatment was conducted by immersion for 60 min. The effect of both ultrasound and dehumidified air utilization was more prominent in the terms of drying time reduction, when lower drying temperatures were used. Drying of apples with dehumidified air, preceded by ultrasound pretreatment, resulted in a greater rehydration capacity of the products, and limited the browning process. Dehumidified air increased the lightness of the dried products, while sonication darkened them. The use of ultrasound before drying coupled with a drying with dehumidified medium at a temperature of 70 °C reduced the exposure of the product to a high temperature and oxygen. Products treated before dehumidified air drying with ultrasounds were characterized by high total phenolic content and the greatest antioxidant activity. This was because such technological treatment reduced exposure of the product to a high temperature and oxygen.

Foods ; 10(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441719


The aim of this work was to compare selected physicochemical properties of air dried 'Golden Delicious' apples, pretreated either by high-pressure processing (HPP), ultrasound (US) or pulsed electric field (PEF). Following parameters of pretreatment were used: HPP-400 MPa for 15 min, US-21 kHz, 180 W for 45 min, PEF-1 kV/cm, 3.5 kJ/kg. The quality of materials was evaluated by their rehydration properties, hygroscopicity, color and total phenolic content. To compare the effectiveness of the utilized methods, determined properties were expressed as relative comparison values against the reference sample obtained without any pretreatment in the same conditions. The performed research demonstrated that properties can be shaped by the application of proper pretreatment methods. For instance, PEF was shown to be the best method for improving water uptake during rehydration, whereas HPP was the most effective in decreasing hygroscopic properties in comparison with untreated dried apples. Among the investigated methods, HPP resulted in the deepest browning and thus total color difference, while the effects of US and PEF were comparable. For all pretreated dried apples, the total phenolic content was lower when compared with reference material, though the smallest drop was found in sonicated samples.