Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 170
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133967, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505339

RESUMO

Foraging wild-growing edible plants (WEPs) is a re-emerging practice with increasing popularity worldwide, including in urban areas. However, in cities, this practice raises questions about the safety of foraging these plants for human consumption, due to the potential exposure of plants to higher levels of pollutants. In this study, the concentration of 12 elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Rb, Cd, Ba and Pb) in three different WEPs (Amaranthus spp., Plantago tomentosa and Taraxacum officinale) were determined according to different traffic categories in the municipality of São Paulo. Additionally, plants were sampled within the inner areas of three municipal parks in the same study region. Different gradients of elemental concentrations were obtained according to the traffic categories. Freeways presented higher concentrations of several elements than local roads or parks. For the WEPs collected along freeways and some plants along arterial roads, the concentrations of Pb exceeded safety levels for human consumption. Our data suggest that foraging in large urban centres should be performed preferentially in low-traffic areas.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 667-679, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330358

RESUMO

Many cities fail to meet air quality standards, which results in increased risk for pulmonary disorders, including asthma. Human and experimental studies have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) particles are associated with worsening of allergic asthma. Biodiesel (BD), a cleaner fuel from renewable sources, was introduced in the eighties. Because of the reduction in particulate matter (PM) emissions, BD was expected to cause fewer adverse pulmonary effects. However, only limited data on the effect of BD emissions in asthma are available. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether BD exhaust exposure in allergic sensitized mice leads to different effects on inflammatory and functional responses compared to DE exposure. METHODS: Balb/C mice were orotracheally sensitized with House Dust Mite (HDM) or a saline solution with 3 weekly instillations. From day 9 until day 17 after sensitization, they were exposed daily to filtered air (FA), DE and BD exhaust (concentration: 600 µg/m3 PM2.5). Lung function, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts, cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, TNF-α, TSLP) in the BALF, peribronchiolar eosinophils and parenchymal macrophages were measured. RESULTS: HDM-sensitized animals presented increased lung elastance (p = 0.046), IgG1 serum levels (p = 0.029), peribronchiolar eosinophils (p = 0.028), BALF levels of total cells (p = 0.020), eosinophils (p = 0.028), IL-5 levels (p = 0.002) and TSLP levels (p = 0.046) in BALF. DE exposure alone increased lung elastance (p = 0.000) and BALF IL-4 levels (p = 0.045), whereas BD exposure alone increased BALF TSLP levels (p = 0.004). BD exposure did not influence any parameters after HDM challenge, while DE exposed animals presented increased BALF levels of total cells (p = 0.019), lymphocytes (p = 0.000), neutrophils (p = 0.040), macrophages (p = 0.034), BALF IL-4 levels (p = 0.028), and macrophagic inflammation in the lung tissue (p = 0.037), as well as decreased IgG1 (p = 0.046) and IgG2 (p = 0.043) levels when compared to the HDM group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate more adverse pulmonary effects of DE compared to BD exposure in allergic sensitized animals.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Alérgenos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Biocombustíveis/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-17 , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neutrófilos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Testes de Toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007625, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New strategies for collecting post-mortem tissue are necessary, particularly in areas with emerging infections. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional autopsy (CA), with promising results. Previous studies using MIA addressed the cause of death in adults and children in developing countries. However, none of these studies was conducted in areas with an undergoing infectious disease epidemic. We have recently experienced an epidemic of yellow fever (YF) in Brazil. Aiming to provide new information on low-cost post-mortem techniques that could be applied in regions at risk for infectious outbreaks, we tested the efficacy of ultrasound-guided MIA (MIA-US) in the diagnosis of patients who died during the epidemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this observational study, we performed MIA-US in 20 patients with suspected or confirmed YF and compared the results with those obtained in subsequent CAs. Ultrasound-guided biopsies were used for tissue sampling of liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, and heart. Liver samples from MIA-US and CA were submitted for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for detection of YF virus antigen. Of the 20 patients, 17 had YF diagnosis confirmed after autopsy by histopathological and molecular analysis. There was 100% agreement between MIA-US and CA in determining the cause of death (panlobular hepatitis with hepatic failure) and main disease (yellow fever). Further, MIA-US obtained samples with good quality for molecular studies and for the assessment of the systemic involvement of the disease. Main extrahepatic findings were pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonia, acute tubular necrosis, and glomerulonephritis. One patient was a 24-year-old, 27-week pregnant woman; MIA-US assessed the placenta and provided adequate placental tissue for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: MIA-US is a reliable tool for rapid post-mortem diagnosis of yellow fever and can be used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in regions at risk for hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with limited resources to perform complete diagnostic autopsy.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8693, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213628

RESUMO

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is underdiagnosed in Brazil. We enrolled patients from an adult service of Bronchiectasis over a two-year period in a cross-sectional study. The inclusion criteria were laterality disorders (LD), cough with recurrent infections and the exclusion of other causes of bronchiectasis. Patients underwent at least two of the following tests: nasal nitric oxide, ciliary movement and analysis of ciliary immunofluorescence, and genetic tests (31 PCD genes + CFTR gene). The clinical characterization included the PICADAR and bronchiectasis scores, pulmonary function, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (cPA) colonization, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and mucus rheology (MR). Forty-nine of the 500 patients were diagnosed with definite (42/49), probable (5/49), and clinical (2/49) PCD. Twenty-four patients (24/47) presented bi-allelic pathogenic variants in a total of 31 screened PCD genes. A PICADAR score > 5 was found in 37/49 patients, consanguinity in 27/49, LD in 28/49, and eight PCD sibling groups. FACED diagnosed 23/49 patients with moderate or severe bronchiectasis; FEV1 ≤ 50% in 25/49 patients, eight patients had undergone lung transplantation, four had been lobectomized and cPA+ was determined in 20/49. The EBC and MR were altered in all patients. This adult PCD population was characterized by consanguinity, severe lung impairment, genetic variability, altered EBC and MR.

5.
Pulm Med ; 2019: 4781528, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984425

RESUMO

Background. The epidemiologic association between pulmonary exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and acute lung damage is well known. However, the mechanism involved in the effects of repeated exposures of PM in the lung injury is poorly documented. This study tested the hypotheses that chronic nasal instillation of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) induced not only distal lung and airway inflammation but also remodeling. In addition, we evaluated the effects of inducible nitric oxide inhibition in these responses. For this purpose, airway and lung parenchyma were evaluated by quantitative analysis of collagen and elastic fibers, immunohistochemistry for macrophages, neutrophils, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and alveolar septa 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF-2α) detection. Anesthetized in vivo (airway resistance, elastance, H, G, and Raw) respiratory mechanics were also analyzed. C57BL6 mice received daily 60ul of ROFA (intranasal) for five (ROFA-5d) or fifteen days (ROFA-15d). Controls have received saline (SAL). Part of the animals has received 1400W (SAL+1400W and ROFA-15d+1400W), an iNOS inhibitor, for four days before the end of the protocol. A marked neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and an increase in the iNOS, nNOS, and 8-iso-PGF2 α expression was observed in peribronchiolar and alveolar wall both in ROFA-5d and in ROFA-15d groups. There was an increment of the collagen and elastic fibers in alveolar and airway walls in ROFA-15d group. The iNOS inhibition reduced all alterations induced by ROFA, except for the 8-iso-PGF2 α expression. In conclusion, repeated particulate matter exposures induce extracellular matrix remodeling of airway and alveolar walls, which could contribute to the pulmonary mechanical changes observed. The mechanism involved is, at least, dependent on the inducible nitric oxide activation.

6.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 276(5): 1431-1438, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the damaging effect of different diode laser settings on vocal folds 7 days after injury in a rabbit model. METHODS: Twenty-one male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into three groups with seven animals per group. A 980-nm diode laser was used to create a single spot injury in each vocal fold. Different modulation frequencies (10 Hz versus 1000 Hz) in pulsed mode, different powers (3 W versus 5 W), and distinct wave modes of radiation (pulsed versus continuous) were compared. RESULTS: The extent of the inflammatory infiltrate and ablation crater were greater when using 5-W optical power compared with 3 W. The extent and depth of the inflammatory infiltrate, and the width and depth of the ablation crater were greater with continuous wave mode compared with pulsed mode. The density of collagen fibers only increased when using the laser in continuous wave mode. CONCLUSION: The use of the 980-nm diode laser with an output power of 5 W produced an increased extent of thermal injury compared to an output power of 3 W and, more importantly, using continuous rather than pulsed wave mode significantly increased the extent and depth of thermal injury in rabbit vocal folds.


Assuntos
Doenças da Laringe/cirurgia , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Prega Vocal/cirurgia , Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Prega Vocal/lesões , Prega Vocal/patologia , Cicatrização
8.
Br J Haematol ; 185(2): 317-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739309

RESUMO

Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but few studies have described lung pathology in SCD. We studied the lung tissue of 30 deceased SCD patients (1994-2012). Demographics, genotype, clinical characteristics, cause of death and associated conditions are presented. We quantified the presence of pulmonary arterial changes, thrombosis and venous thickening. Alveolar capillary abnormalities were demonstrated using CD34 expression and confocal microscopy. Autopsy and echocardiography reports were reviewed to classify heart abnormalities. Tissue expression of markers of endothelial activation (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor) was quantified in pulmonary vessels. Median age was 33 years; genotype was SS in 19, SC in 7 and Sß in 4, and there were 18 males. Hypertensive arterial changes were present in 76% of the patients, recent thrombosis in 80% and old thrombosis in 43%. Venous thickening was present in 23% and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis foci in 87%. Ten percent of the patients presented right ventricular hypertrophy. There was no increased expression of endothelial activation markers when compared to controls. SCD affects the whole pulmonary vascular tree and reflects the multiple burden on lung vasculature imposed by the disease upon time.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1921, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760822

RESUMO

We proposed an experimental model to verify the Th17/Treg cytokine imbalance in COPD exacerbation. Forty C57BL/6 mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke (CS) (12 ± 1 cigarettes, twice a day, 30 min/exposure and 5 days/week) and received saline (50 µl) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg/kg in 50 µl of saline) intratracheal instillations. We analyzed the mean linear intercept, epithelial thickness and inflammatory profiles of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs. We evaluated macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Treg cells, and IL-10+ and IL-17+ cells, as well as STAT-3, STAT-5, phospho-STAT3 and phospho-STAT5 levels using immunohistochemistry and IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, CXCL1 and CXCL2 levels using ELISA. The study showed that CS exposure and LPS challenge increased the numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Simultaneous exposure to CS/LPS intensified this response and lung parenchymal damage. The densities of Tregs and IL-17+ cells and levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were increased in both LPS groups, while IL-10 level was only increased in the Control/LPS group. The increased numbers of STAT-3, phospho-STAT3, STAT-5 and phospho-STAT5+ cells corroborated the increased numbers of IL-17+ and Treg cells. These findings point to simultaneous challenge with CS and LPS exacerbated the inflammatory response and induced diffuse structural changes in the alveolar parenchyma characterized by an increase in Th17 cytokine release. Although the Treg cell differentiation was observed, the lack of IL-10 expression and the decrease in the density of IL-10+ cells observed in the CS/LPS group suggest that a failure to release this cytokine plays a pivotal role in the exacerbated inflammatory response in this proposed model.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses plays a pivotal role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) development and progression. To clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease, we performed a temporal analysis of immune response-mediated inflammatory progression in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mouse model with a focus on the balance between Th17 and Treg responses. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 1, 3 or 6 months to induce COPD, and the control groups were maintained under filtered air conditions for the same time intervals. We then performed functional (respiratory mechanics) and structural (alveolar enlargement) analyses. We also quantified the NF-κB, TNF-α, CD4, CD8, CD20, IL-17, IL-6, FOXP3, IL-10, or TGF-ß positive cells in peribronchovascular areas and assessed FOXP3 and IL-10 expression through double-label immunofluorescence. Additionally, we evaluated the gene expression of NF-κB and TNF in bronchiolar epithelial cells. RESULTS: Our CS-induced COPD model exhibited an increased proinflammatory immune response (increased expression of the NF-κB, TNF-α, CD4, CD8, CD20, IL-17, and IL-6 markers) with a concomitantly decreased anti-inflammatory immune response (FOXP3, IL-10, and TGF-ß markers) compared with the control mice. These changes in the immune responses were associated with increased alveolar enlargement and impaired lung function starting on the first month and third month of CS exposure, respectively, compared with the control mice. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the microenvironmental stimuli produced by the release of cytokines during COPD progression lead to a Th17/Treg imbalance.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Células Th17/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 170: 314-323, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530184

RESUMO

Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Lung aging is a process marked by changes in multiple morphological, physiological and age-related biomarkers (e.g., sirtuins) and is influenced by external factors, such as air pollution. Hence, the elderly are considered more vulnerable to the air pollution hazards. We hypothesized that diesel exhaust (DE) exposure intensifies changes in lung inflammatory and structural parameters in aging subjects. Two- and fifteen-month-old mice were exposed to DE for 30 days. Lung function was measured using the forced oscillation method. The inflammatory profile was evaluated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood, and lung volumes were estimated by stereology. Antioxidant enzyme activity was evaluated by spectrophotometry, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) and sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and levels of the sirtuin proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in lung tissues. Older mice presented decreased pulmonary resistance and elastance, increased macrophage infiltration and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels in the BALF, reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and increased activity glutathione S-transferase (GST); increased lung volumes with decreased elastic fiber and increased airway collagen content. SIRT1 gene expression was decreased in older animals, but protein levels were increased. DE exposure increased macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress in the lungs of animals of both ages. SIRT6 gene expression was decreased by DE exposure, with increased protein levels. In older animals, DE affected lung structure and collagen content. Lung aging features, such as decreased antioxidant reserves, lower IL-10 expression, and decreased SIRT1 levels may predispose subjects to exacerbated responses after DE exposure. Our data support the hypothesis that strategies designed to reduce ambient air pollution are an important step towards healthy aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sirtuínas/genética , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(4)2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480000

RESUMO

Viral infections predispose to the development of childhood asthma, a disease associated with increased lung mast cells (MCs). This study investigated whether viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can already evoke a MC response during childhood. Lung tissue from young children who died following LRTIs were processed for immunohistochemical identification of MCs. Children who died from nonrespiratory causes served as controls. MCs were examined in relation to sensitisation in infant mice exposed to allergen during influenza A infection. Increased numbers of MCs were observed in the alveolar parenchyma of children infected with LRTIs (median (range) 12.5 (0-78) MCs per mm2) compared to controls (0.63 (0-4) MCs per mm2, p=0.0005). The alveolar MC expansion was associated with a higher proportion of CD34+ tryptase+ progenitors (controls: 0% (0-1%); LRTIs: 0.9% (0-3%) CD34+ MCs (p=0.01)) and an increased expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 (controls: 0.2 (0.07-0.3); LRTIs: 0.3 (0.02-2) VCAM-1 per mm2 (p=0.04)). Similarly, infant mice infected with H1N1 alone or together with house dust mite (HDM) developed an increase in alveolar MCs (saline: 0.4 (0.3-0.5); HDM: 0.6 (0.4-0.9); H1N1: 1.4 (0.4-2.0); HDM+H1N1: 2.2 (1.2-4.4) MCs per mm2 (p<0.0001)). Alveolar MCs continued to increase and remained significantly higher into adulthood when exposed to H1N1+HDM (day 36: 2.2 (1.2-4.4); day 57: 4.6 (1.6-15) MCs per mm2 (p=0.01)) but not when infected with H1N1 alone. Our data demonstrate that distal viral infections in young children evoke a rapid accumulation of alveolar MCs. Apart from revealing a novel immune response to distal infections, our data may have important implications for the link between viral infections during early childhood and subsequent asthma development.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 1223-1233, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045544

RESUMO

Biodiesel is a renewable energy source that reduces particle emission, but few studies have assessed its effects. To assess the effects of acute inhalation of two doses (600 and 1200 µg/m3) of diesel (DE) and biodiesel (BD) fuels on the inflammatory pulmonary and systemic profile of mice. Animals were exposed for 2 h in an inhalation chamber inside the Container Laboratory for Fuels. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure were determined 30 min after exposure. After 24 h, we analyzed the lung inflammation using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); neutrophil and macrophage quantification in the lung parenchyma was performed, and blood and bone marrow biomarkers as well as receptor of endothelin-A (ET-Ar), receptor of endothelin-B (ET-Br), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) and isoprostane (ISO) levels in the pulmonary vessels and bronchial epithelium were evaluated. HRV increased for BD600, D600 and D1200 compared to filtered air (FA). Both fuels (DE and BD) produced alterations in red blood cells independent of the dose. BALF from the BD600 and BD1200 groups showed an increase in neutrophils compared to those of the FA group. Numeric density of the polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells was elevated with BD600 compared to FA. In the peribronchiolar vessels, there was an increase in ET-Ar and ET-Br expression following BD600 compared to FA; and there was a reduction in the iNOs expression for BD1200 and the VCAM-1 for D1200 compared to FA. In the bronchial epithelium, there was an increase in ETAr at BD600, ET-Br at two doses (600 and 1200 µg/m3) of DE and BD, iNOs at D600 and VCAM-1 at BD1200 and D600; all groups were compared to the FA group. Acute exposure to DE and BD derived from sewage methyl esters triggered pulmonary and cardiovascular inflammatory alterations in mice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biocombustíveis/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Camundongos
14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(4): 1090-1096, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024335

RESUMO

In asthma, it is unclear if the airway smooth muscle cells proliferate more or are increased at the onset of asthma and remain stable. This study aimed to compare smooth muscle cell proliferation in individuals with and without asthma and correlate proliferation rates with cell size and number and with granulocytic airway inflammation. Postmortem airway sections were labeled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and percent positive muscle cells calculated. On the same sections, smooth muscle cell size and number and the number of eosinophils and neutrophils were estimated and compared in cases of nonfatal ( n = 15) and fatal ( n = 15) asthma and control subjects ( n = 15). The %PCNA+ muscle cells was not significantly different in fatal (29.4 ± 7.7%, mean ± SD), nonfatal asthma (28.6 ± 8.3%), or control subjects (24.6 ± 6.7%) and not related to mean muscle cell size ( r = 0.09), number ( r = 0.36), thickness of the muscle layer ( r = 0.05), or eosinophil numbers ( r = 0.04) in the asthma cases. These data support the hypothesis that in asthma the increased thickness of the smooth muscle layer may be present before or at the onset of asthma and independent of concurrent granulocytic inflammation or exacerbation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There is debate regarding the origins of the increased airway smooth muscle in asthma. It may be independent of inflammation or arise as a proliferative response to inflammation. The present study found no increase in the proportion of proliferating smooth muscle cells in asthma and no relation of proliferation to numbers of airway smooth muscle cells or inflammation. These results support a stable increase in smooth muscle in asthma that is independent of airway inflammation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890615

RESUMO

Pesticide exposure is a growing public health concern. Although Brazil is the world’s largest consumer of pesticides, only a few studies have addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. Family farmers (82) were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions analysis were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant associations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.

16.
Respirology ; 23(12): 1138-1145, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The pathology of asthma is characterized by airway inflammation (granulocytic (GA) or paucigranulocytic (PGA)) and remodelling of airway structures. However, the relationship between inflammatory phenotypes and remodelling is unclear. We hypothesized that some features of airway remodelling are dependent on granulocytic airway inflammation while others are not. METHODS: Post-mortem airway sections from control subjects (n = 48) and cases of asthma with (n = 51) or without (n = 29) granulocytic inflammation in the inner airway wall were studied. The thickness of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer, basement membrane and inner and outer airway walls, the size and number of ASM cells, the volume fraction of extracellular matrix within the ASM layer, ASM shortening and luminal mucus were estimated. Airway dimensions were compared between the three subject groups. RESULTS: In cases of PGA, only the thickness of the ASM layer and basement membrane was increased compared with control subjects. In cases of GA, not only the ASM and basement membrane were increased in thickness, but there was also increased inner and outer airway wall thickness and increased narrowing of the airway lumen due to ASM shortening and mucus obstruction, compared with control subjects. Granulocytic inflammation was observed more often in cases of fatal asthma. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that inner and outer wall thickening coexists with inflammation, whereas thickening of the ASM layer and basement membrane may be present even in the absence of inflammation. Remodelling of the ASM layer and basement membrane may therefore be less susceptible to anti-inflammatory therapy.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 241: 511-520, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883952

RESUMO

Gestational exposure to air pollution is associated with negative outcomes in newborns and children. In a previous study, we demonstrated a synergistic negative effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to PM2.5 on lung development in mice. However, the means by which air pollution affects development of the lung have not yet been identified. In this study, we exposed pregnant BALB/c mice and their offspring to concentrated urban PM2.5 (from São Paulo, Brazil; target dose 600 µg/m3 for 1 h daily). Exposure was started on embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5, time of placental implantation). Lung tissue of fetuses and offspring was submitted to stereological and transcriptomic analyses at E14.5 (pseudoglandular stage of lung development), E18.5 (saccular stage) and P40 (postnatal day 40, alveolarized lung). Additionally, lung function and cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in offspring animals at P40. Compared to control animals that were exposed to filtered air throughout gestation and postnatal life, PM-exposed mice exhibited higher lung elastance and a lower alveolar number at P40 whilst the total lung volume and cellularity of BAL fluid were not affected. Glandular and saccular structures of fetal lungs were not altered upon gestational exposure; transcriptomic signatures, however, showed changes related to DNA damage and its regulation, inflammation and regulation of cell proliferation. A differential expression was validated at E14.5 for the candidates Sox8, Angptl4 and Gas1. Our data substantiate the in utero biomolecular effect of gestational exposure to air pollution and provide first-time stereological evidence that pre- and early life-postnatal exposure compromise lung development, leading to a reduced number of alveoli and an impairment of lung function in the adult mouse.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/biossíntese , Animais , Brasil , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/biossíntese , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/biossíntese , Fatores de Tempo
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 50, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality related to asthma has decreased worldwide since the introduction of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in the past decades. However, there are still some asthma fatalities identified mainly in populations with less access to regular treatment. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema due to alveolar rupture has been rarely described as a complication of an acute severe asthma attack, and its identification in pathological analysis can be difficult. Previous studies reported the association of pulmonary interstitial emphysema and bronchial ductal gland ectasia in asthma. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 42-year- old man that died due to a fatal asthma attack. Postmortem computed tomography revealed the unusual finding of acute Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, confirmed by pathological analysis. We reviewed 28 cases of fatal asthma tissue and identified the presence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 10% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Postmortem computed tomography is a useful complimentary diagnostic tool for autopsies. Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema in acute exacerbations of asthma seems to be more frequent than reported. Alveolar hyperdistension and bronchial duct gland ectasia causing tissue rupture are possible mechanisms involved in the formation of Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema. The clinical impact of Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema in asthma is unknown.

19.
Int J Sports Med ; 39(2): 133-140, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161746

RESUMO

Air pollution is a growing problem worldwide, inducing and exacerbating several diseases. Among the several components of air pollutants, particulate matter (PM), especially thick (10-2.5 µm; PM 10) and thin (≤2.5 µm; PM 2.5), are breathable particles that easily can be deposited within the lungs, resulting in pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Although physical activity is strongly recommended, its effects when practiced in polluted environments are questionable. Therefore, the present study evaluated the pulmonary and systemic response of concomitant treadmill training with PM 2.5 and PM 10 exposure. Treadmill training inhibited PM 2.5- and PM 10-induced accumulation of total leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p<0.001), macrophages (p<0.001) and lymphocytes (p<0.001) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), as well as the BAL levels of IL-1beta (p<0.001), CXCL1/KC (p<0.001) and TNF-alpha (p<0.001), whereas it increased IL-10 levels (p<0.05). Similar effects were observed on accumulation of polymorphonuclear (p<0.01) and mononuclear (p<0.01) cells in the lung parenchyma and in the peribronchial space. Treadmill training also inhibited PM 2.5- and PM 10-induced systemic inflammation, as observed in the number of total leukocytes (p<0.001) and in the plasma levels of IL-1beta (p<0.001), CXCL1/KC (p<0.001) and TNF-alpha (p<0.001), whereas it increased IL-10 levels (p<0.001). Treadmill training inhibits lung and systemic inflammation induced by particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/imunologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12570, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974738

RESUMO

The enzyme tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, two isoforms 5a and 5b) is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages, but its function there is unclear and potent selective inhibitors of TRAP are required to assess functional aspects of the protein. We found higher TRAP activity/expression in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma compared to controls and more TRAP activity in lungs of mice with experimental COPD or asthma. Stimuli related to asthma and/or COPD were tested for their capacity to induce TRAP. Receptor activator of NF-κb ligand (RANKL) and Xanthine/Xanthine Oxidase induced TRAP mRNA expression in mouse macrophages, but only RANKL also induced TRAP activity in mouse lung slices. Several Au(III) coordination compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit TRAP activity and [Au(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)Cl2][PF6] (AubipyOMe) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of TRAP5a and 5b activity reported to date (IC50 1.3 and 1.8 µM respectively). AubipyOMe also inhibited TRAP activity in murine macrophage and human lung tissue extracts. In a functional assay with physiological TRAP substrate osteopontin, AubipyOMe inhibited mouse macrophage migration over osteopontin-coated membranes. In conclusion, higher TRAP expression/activity are associated with COPD and asthma and TRAP is involved in regulating macrophage migration.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA