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1.
Nat Chem ; 12(8): 672-682, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632185

RESUMO

The strength of electrostatic interactions within semiconductors strongly affects their performance in optoelectronic devices. An important target is the tuning of a material's exciton binding energy-the energy binding an electron-hole pair through the electrostatic Coulomb force-independent of its electronic band gap. Here, we report on the doping of a family of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, in which inorganic lead halide sheets alternate with naphthalene-based organic layers, with tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (TCBQ). For four out of seven n = 1 perovskites, the incorporation of the electron-accepting TCBQ dopant into the organic sublattice containing the electron-donating naphthalene species enabled the tuning of the materials' 1s exciton binding energy. The naphthalene-TCBQ electron donor-acceptor interactions increased the electrostatic screening of the exciton, in turn lowering its binding energy relative to the undoped perovskite-by almost 50% in one system. Structural and optical characterization showed that the inorganic lattice is not significantly perturbed even though the layer-to-layer spacing increases upon molecular dopant incorporation.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(29): 9184-9192, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949371

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) is a spin-allowed process that involves absorption of a photon by two electronically interacting chromophores to produce a singlet exciton state, 1(S1S0), followed by rapid formation of two triplet excitons if the singlet exciton energy is about twice that of the triplet exciton. The initial formation of the multiexciton correlated triplet pair state, 1(T1T1), is thought to involve the agency of charge transfer (CT) states. The dynamics of these electronic states were studied in a covalent slip-stacked terrylene-3,4:11,12-bis(dicarboximide) (TDI) dimer in which the conformation of two TDI molecules is determined by a xanthene spacer (XanTDI2). Femtosecond mid-infrared (fsIR) spectroscopy shows that the multiexciton 1(T1T1) state has absorptions characteristic of the T1 state in the carbonyl stretch region of the IR spectrum, in addition to IR absorptions specific to the CT state in the C═C stretch region. The simultaneous presence of CT and triplet state features in both high dielectric constant CH2Cl2 and low dielectric constant 1,4-dioxane throughout the multiexciton state lifetime suggests that this state has both CT and triplet character.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(40): 14265-14276, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880547

RESUMO

Facile exciton transport within ordered assemblies of π-stacked chromophores is essential for developing molecular photonic and electronic materials. Excimer states having variable charge transfer (CT) character are frequently implicated as promoting or inhibiting exciton mobility in such systems. However, determining the degree of CT character in excimers as a function of their structure has proven challenging. Herein, we report on a series of cyclophanes in which the interplanar distance between two phenyl-extended viologen (ExV2+) chromophores is varied systematically using a pair of o-, m-, or p-xylylene (o-, m-, or p-Xy) covalent linkers to produce o-ExBox4+ (3.5 Å), m-ExBox4+ (5.6 Å), and p-ExBox4+ (7.0 Å), respectively. The cyclophane structures are characterized using NMR spectroscopy in solution and single-crystal X-ray diffraction in the solid state. Femtosecond transient mid-IR and stimulated Raman spectroscopies show that the CT contribution to the excimer states formed in o-ExBox4+ and m-ExBox4+ depends on the distance between the chromophores within the cyclophanes, while in the weak interaction limit, as represented by p-ExBox4+ (7.0 Å), the lowest excited singlet state of ExV2+ exclusively photo-oxidizes the p-Xy spacer to give the p-Xy+•-ExV+• ion pair. Moreover, the vibrational spectra of the excimer state show that it assumes a geometry that is intermediate between that of the locally excited and CT states, approximately reflecting the degree of CT character.

4.
Chem Sci ; 8(5): 3821-3831, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28580115

RESUMO

A major goal of artificial photosynthesis research is photosensitizing highly reducing metal centers using as much as possible of the solar spectrum reaching Earth's surface. The radical anions and dianions of rylenediimide (RDI) dyes, which absorb at wavelengths as long as 950 nm, are powerful photoreductants with excited state oxidation potentials that rival or exceed those of organometallic chromophores. These dyes have been previously incorporated into all-organic donor-acceptor systems, but have not yet been shown to reduce organometallic centers. This study describes a set of dyads in which perylenediimide (PDI) or naphthalenediimide (NDI) chromophores are attached to Re(bpy)(CO)3 through either the bipyridine ligand or more directly to the Re center via a pyridine ligand. The chromophores are reduced with a mild reducing agent, after which excitation with long-wavelength red or near-infrared light leads to reduction of the Re complex. The kinetics of electron transfer from the photoexcited anions to the Re complex are monitored using transient visible/near-IR and mid-IR spectroscopy, complemented by theoretical spectroscopic assignments. The photo-driven charge shift from the reduced PDI or NDI to the complex occurs in picoseconds regardless of whether PDI or NDI is attached to the bipyridine or to the Re center, but back electron transfer is found to be three orders of magnitude slower with the chromophore attached to the Re center. These results will inform the design of future catalytic systems that incorporate RDI anions as chromophores.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(23): 4455-4463, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28531356

RESUMO

Photoexcitation of electron donor-acceptor molecules frequently produces radical ion pairs with well-defined initial spin-polarized states that have attracted significant interest for spintronics. Transfer of this initial spin polarization to a stable radical is predicted to depend on the rates of the radical ion pair recombination reactions, but this prediction has not been tested experimentally. In this study, a stable radical/electron donor/chromophore/electron acceptor molecule, BDPA•-mPD-ANI-NDI, where BDPA• is α,γ-bisdiphenylene-ß-phenylallyl, mPD is m-phenylenediamine, ANI is 4-aminonaphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide, and NDI is naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide), was synthesized. Photoexcitation of ANI produces the triradical BDPA•-mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• in which the mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• radical ion pair is spin coupled to the BDPA• stable radical. BDPA•-mPD+•-ANI-NDI-• and its counterpart lacking the stable radical are found to exhibit spin-selective charge recombination in which the triplet radical ion pair 3(mPD+•-ANI-NDI-•) is in equilibrium with the 3*NDI charge recombination product. Time-resolved EPR measurements show that this process is associated with an inversion of the sign of the polarization transferred to BDPA• over time. The polarization transfer rates are found to be strongly solvent dependent, as shifts in this equilibrium affect the spin dynamics. These results demonstrate that even small changes in electron transfer dynamics can have a large effect on the spin dynamics of photogenerated multispin systems.

6.
Faraday Discuss ; 198: 235-249, 2017 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280812

RESUMO

The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 V vs. SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 V vs. SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3 carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 µs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙-DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(4): 784-792, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045527

RESUMO

Excimer formation plays a significant role in trapping excitons within organic molecular solids. Covalent dimers of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) are useful model systems for studying these processes as their intermolecular geometries can be precisely tuned. Using femtosecond visible-pump infrared-probe (fsIR) spectroscopy in the shortwave- and mid-infrared regions, we characterize two PDI dimers with a cofacial and a slip-stacked geometry that are coupled through a triptycene bridge. In the mid-infrared region, fsIR spectra for the strongly coupled dimers are highly blue-shifted compared to spectra for monomeric 1*PDI. The perylene core stretching modes provide a directly observable probe of excimer relaxation, as they are particularly sensitive to this process, which is associated with a small blue shift of these modes in both dimers. The broad Frenkel-to-CT state electronic transition of the excimer, the edge of which has previously been detected in the NIR region, is now fully resolved to be much broader and to extend well into the shortwave infrared region for both dimers and is likely a generic feature of π-extended aromatic excimers.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(2): 749-756, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28026177

RESUMO

Photodriven electron transfer from a donor excited state to an assembly of electronically coupled acceptors has been proposed to enhance charge transfer efficiency in functional organic electronic materials. However, the circumstances under which this may occur are difficult to investigate in a controlled manner in disordered donor-acceptor materials. Here we investigate the effects of anion delocalization on electron transfer using zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) as a donor and a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) dimer as the acceptor (PDI2). The PDI units of the dimer are positioned in a cofacial orientation relative to one another by attachment of the imide group of each PDI to the 4- and 5-positions of a xanthene spacer. Furthermore, the distal imide group of one PDI is linked to the para-position of one ZnTPP phenyl group to yield ZnTPP-PDI2. The data for the dimer are compared to two different ZnTPP-PDI monomer reference systems designed to probe electron transfer to each of the individual PDI molecules comprising PDI2. The electron transfer rate from the ZnTPP lowest excited singlet state to PDI2 is increased by 50% relative to that in ZnTPP-PDI, when the data are corrected for the statistics of having two electron acceptors. Femtosecond transient IR absorption spectroscopy provides evidence that the observed enhancement in charge separation results from electron transfer producing a delocalized PDI2 anion.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(36): 11749-61, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27547986

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline thin films of four 3,6-bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP) chromophores with methyl (Me), n-hexyl (C6), triethylene glycol (TEG), and 2-ethylhexyl (EH) substituents at the 2,5-positions is found to involve an intermediate excimer-like state. The four different substituents yield four distinct intermolecular packing geometries, resulting in variable intermolecular charge transfer (CT) interactions in the solid. SF from the excimer state of Me, C6, TEG, and EH takes place in τSF = 22, 336, 195, and 1200 ps, respectively, to give triplet yields of 200%, 110%, 110%, and 70%, respectively. The transient spectra of the excimer-like state and its energetic proximity to the lowest excited singlet state in these derivatives suggests that this state may be the multiexciton (1)(T1T1) state that precedes formation of the uncorrelated triplet excitons. The excimer decay rates correlate well with the SF efficiencies and the degree of intermolecular donor-acceptor interactions resulting from π-stacking of the thiophene donor of one molecule with the DPP core acceptor in another molecule as observed in the crystal structures. Such interactions are found to also increase with the SF coupling energies, as calculated for each derivative. These structural and spectroscopic studies afford a better understanding of the electronic interactions that enhance SF in chromophores having strong intra- and intermolecular CT character.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(7): 1357-66, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820909

RESUMO

Singlet exciton fission (SF) is a promising strategy for increasing photovoltaic efficiency, but in order for SF to be useful in solar cells, it should take place in a chromophore that is air-stable, highly absorptive, solution processable, and inexpensive. Unlike many SF chromophores, diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) conforms to these criteria, and here we investigate SF in DPP for the first time. SF yields in thin films of DPP derivatives, which are widely used in organic electronics and photovoltaics, are shown to depend critically on crystal morphology. Time-resolved spectroscopy of three DPP derivatives with phenyl (3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhDPP), thienyl (3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, TDPP), and phenylthienyl (3,6-di(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhTDPP) aromatic substituents in 100-200 nm thin films reveals that efficient SF occurs only in TDPP and PhTDPP (τSF = 220 ± 20 ps), despite the fact that SF is most exoergic in PhDPP. This result correlates well with the greater degree of π-overlap and closer π-stacking in TDPP (3.50 Å) and PhTDPP (3.59 Å) relative to PhDPP (3.90 Å) and demonstrates that SF in DPP is highly sensitive to the electronic coupling between adjacent chromophores. The triplet yield in PhTDPP films is determined to be 210 ± 35% by the singlet depletion method and 165 ± 30% by the energy transfer method, showing that SF is nearly quantitative in these films and that DPP derivatives are a promising class of SF chromophores for enhancing photovoltaic performance.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(22): 5587-96, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961130

RESUMO

A covalent dyad was synthesized in which perylene-3,4,:9:10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) is linked to ß-apocarotene (Car) using a biphenyl spacer. The dyad is monomeric in toluene and forms a solution aggregate in methylcyclohexane (MCH). Using femtosecond transient absorption (fsTA) spectroscopy, the monomeric dyad and its aggregates were studied both in solution and in thin films. In toluene, photoexcitation at 530 nm preferentially excites PDI, and the dyad undergoes charge separation in τ = 1.7 ps and recombination in τ = 1.6 ns. In MCH and in thin solid films, 530 nm excitation of the PDI-Car aggregate also results in charge transfer that competes with energy transfer from (1)*PDI to Car and with an additional process, rapid Car triplet formation in <50 ps. Car triplet formation is only observed in the aggregated PDI-Car dyad and is attributed to singlet exciton fission (SF) within the aggregated PDI, followed by rapid triplet energy transfer from (3)*PDI to the carotenoid. SF from ß-apocarotene aggregation is ruled out by direct excitation of Car films at 414 nm, where no triplet formation is observed. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on aggregated PDI-Car show the formation of (3)*Car with a spin-polarization pattern that rules out radical-pair intersystem crossing as the mechanism of triplet formation as well.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 49(22): 10736-43, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20961144

RESUMO

Reactions of carboxylic acids with lead play an important role in the atmospheric corrosion of lead and lead-tin alloys. This is of particular concern for the preservation of lead-based cultural objects, including historic lead-tin alloy organ pipes. Two initial corrosion products, Pb(3)O(2)(CH(3)COO)(2)·0.5H(2)O (1) and Pb(2)O(HCOO)(2) (2), had been identified through powder diffraction fingerprints in the Powder Diffraction File, but their structures had never been determined. We have crystallized both compounds using hydrothermal solution conditions, and structures were determined using laboratory and synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound 1 crystallizes in P1, and 2 in Cccm. These compounds may be viewed as inorganic-organic networks containing single and double chains of edge-sharing Pb(4)O tetrahedra and have structural similarities to inorganic basic lead compounds. Bond valence sum analysis has been applied to the hemidirected lead coordination environments in each compound. Atmospheric exposure experiments contribute to understanding of the potential for conversion of these short-term corrosion products to hydrocerussite, Pb(3)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(2), previously identified as a long-term corrosion product on lead-rich objects. Each compound was also characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), and Raman spectroscopy.

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