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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052632

RESUMO

The corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of the cornea, acts as a dynamic barrier preventing access to harmful agents into the intraocular space. It is subjected daily to different insults, and ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation represents one of the main causes of injury. In our previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) against UV-B radiation damage in the human corneal endothelium. Some of its effects are mediated through the activation of the intracellular factor, known as the activity-dependent protein (ADNP). In the present paper, we have investigated the role of ADNP and the small peptide derived from ADNP, known as NAP, in the corneal epithelium. Here, we have demonstrated, for the first time, ADNP expression in human and rabbit corneal epithelium as well as its protective effect by treating the corneal epithelial cells exposed to UV-B radiations with NAP. Our results showed that NAP treatment prevents ROS formation by reducing UV-B-irradiation-induced apoptotic cell death and JNK signalling pathway activation. Further investigations are needed to deeply investigate the possible therapeutic use of NAP to counteract corneal UV-B damage.

2.
Heliyon ; 7(11): e08281, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765794

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injury is a complex condition with a variety of signs and symptoms depending on the severity and nerves involved. Peripheral nerve damage may lead to sensory and motor functions deficits and even lifelong disability, causing important socioeconomic costs worldwide. Despite the increase in knowledge of the mechanisms of injury and regeneration, a full functional recovery is still unsatisfying in the majority of patients. It is well known that exercise promotes physical and psychological well-being, by ameliorating general health. In the last years, there has been a growing interest in evaluating the effects of exercise on the peripheral nervous system. Experimental works with rodent models showed the potential utility of exercise following peripheral nerve injuries, as evinced by increasing axon regeneration, muscle reinnervation, better recovery of strength, muscle mass and higher expression of neurotrophic factors. Moreover, clinical evidence showed positive trends in favour of physical therapy following peripheral nerve damage based on the improvement of range of motion (ROM), muscle power grade and pain. After a brief overview of peripheral nerve anatomy and the different types of nerve injury, the present review aims to summarize the impact of exercise on peripheral nerve regeneration. Some clinical evidence regarding the effect of exercise after peripheral nerve injury will also be discussed.

3.
Peptides ; 146: 170672, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627957

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma is the most frequent form of non-small cell lung cancer. Inside the tumor mass, uncontrolled cell proliferation generates hypoxic areas leading to activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) responsible for neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two neuropeptides widely distributed in respiratory organs. Previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides interfere with hypoxic pathways in various diseases, including tumors. However, their modulatory role in HIFs expression in lung adenocarcinomas has not yet been evaluated. In the present paper, we detected the expression profile of PACAP, VIP and related receptors in healthy and adenocarcinoma human lung tissue. To characterize peptides' modulatory effects on HIFs expression, we also exposed A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to microenvironmental hypoxia by treating them with deferoxamine (DFX). The results showed that PACAP and VIP significantly reduced HIF-1α and HIF-2α levels in both cell lines following hypoxic stress. The HIF-3α expression profile was related to cellular phenotype as it was lower in BEAS-2B and higher in A549 cells under low oxygen tension. In lung adenocarcinoma cells, peptide treatment restored HIF-3 α expression to control levels. These results suggest that endogenous PACAP and VIP exert controversial roles in cellular hypoxic microenvironments depending on the pathophysiological conditions of the lung tissue.

4.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356871

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy, resulting from states of hypokinesis or immobilization, leads to morphological, metabolic, and functional changes within the muscle tissue, a large variety of which are supported by the stromal cells populating the interstitium. Telocytes represent a recently discovered population of stromal cells, which has been increasingly identified in several human organs and appears to participate in sustaining cross-talk, promoting regenerative mechanisms and supporting differentiation of local stem cell niche. The aim of this morphologic study was to investigate the presence of Telocytes in the tibialis anterior muscle of healthy rats undergoing an endurance training protocol for either 4 weeks or 16 weeks compared to sedentary rats. Histomorphometric analysis of muscle fibers diameter revealed muscle atrophy in sedentary rats. Telocytes were identified by double-positive immunofluorescence staining for CD34/CD117 and CD34/vimentin. The results showed that Telocytes were significantly reduced in sedentary rats at 16 weeks, while rats subjected to regular exercise maintained a stable Telocytes population after 16 weeks. Understanding of the relationship between Telocytes and exercise offers new chances in the field of regenerative medicine, suggesting possible triggers for Telocytes in sarcopenia and other musculoskeletal disorders, promoting adapted physical activity and rehabilitation programmes in clinical practice.

5.
World J Orthop ; 12(7): 467-484, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354935

RESUMO

Technological development of motion and posture analyses is rapidly progressing, especially in rehabilitation settings and sport biomechanics. Consequently, clear discrimination among different measurement systems is required to diversify their use as needed. This review aims to resume the currently used motion and posture analysis systems, clarify and suggest the appropriate approaches suitable for specific cases or contexts. The currently gold standard systems of motion analysis, widely used in clinical settings, present several limitations related to marker placement or long procedure time. Fully automated and markerless systems are overcoming these drawbacks for conducting biomechanical studies, especially outside laboratories. Similarly, new posture analysis techniques are emerging, often driven by the need for fast and non-invasive methods to obtain high-precision results. These new technologies have also become effective for children or adolescents with non-specific back pain and postural insufficiencies. The evolutions of these methods aim to standardize measurements and provide manageable tools in clinical practice for the early diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathologies and to monitor daily improvements of each patient. Herein, these devices and their uses are described, providing researchers, clinicians, orthopedics, physical therapists, and sports coaches an effective guide to use new technologies in their practice as instruments of diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435361

RESUMO

Adult stem cells are fundamental to maintain tissue homeostasis, growth, and regeneration. They reside in specialized environments called niches. Following activating signals, they proliferate and differentiate into functional cells that are able to preserve tissue physiology, either to guarantee normal turnover or to counteract tissue damage caused by injury or disease. Multiple interactions occur within the niche between stem cell-intrinsic factors, supporting cells, the extracellular matrix, and signaling pathways. Altogether, these interactions govern cell fate, preserving the stem cell pool, and regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on their response to body needs, tissues can be largely classified into three main categories: tissues that even in normal conditions are characterized by an impressive turnover to replace rapidly exhausting cells (blood, epidermis, or intestinal epithelium); tissues that normally require only a basal cell replacement, though able to efficiently respond to increased tissue needs, injury, or disease (skeletal muscle); tissues that are equipped with less powerful stem cell niches, whose repairing ability is not able to overcome severe damage (heart or nervous tissue). The purpose of this review is to describe the main characteristics of stem cell niches in these different tissues, highlighting the various components influencing stem cell activity. Although much has been done, more work is needed to further increase our knowledge of niche interactions. This would be important not only to shed light on this fundamental chapter of human physiology but also to help the development of cell-based strategies for clinical therapeutic applications, especially when other approaches fail.

7.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439613

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest form of brain tumors. To date, the GBM therapeutical approach consists of surgery, radiation-therapy and chemotherapy combined with molecules improving cancer responsiveness to treatments. In this review, we will present a brief overview of the GBM classification and pathogenesis, as well as the therapeutic approach currently used. Then, we will focus on the modulatory role exerted by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, known as PACAP, on GBM malignancy. Specifically, we will describe PACAP ability to interfere with GBM cell proliferation, as well as the tumoral microenvironment. Considering its anti-oncogenic role in GBM, synthesis of PACAP agonist molecules may open new perspectives for combined therapy to existing gold standard treatment.

8.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440169

RESUMO

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts different effects in various human cancer. In glioblastoma (GBM), PACAP has been shown to interfere with the hypoxic micro-environment through the modulation of hypoxia-inducible factors via PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways inhibition. Considering that hypoxic tumor micro-environment is strictly linked to angiogenesis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT), in the present study, we have investigated the ability of PACAP to regulate these events. Results have demonstrated that PACAP and its related receptor, PAC1R, are expressed in hypoxic area of human GBM colocalizing either in epithelial or mesenchymal cells. By using an in vitro model of GBM cells, we have observed that PACAP interferes with hypoxic/angiogenic pathway by reducing vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release and inhibiting formation of vessel-like structures in H5V endothelial cells cultured with GBM-conditioned medium. Moreover, PACAP treatment decreased the expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as well as CD44 in GBM cells by affecting their invasiveness. In conclusion, our study provides new insights regarding the multimodal role of PACAP in GBM malignancy.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444427

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak forced Italian students to reduce their daily activities, inducing a seden-tary attitude that was worsened by distanced learning. This study aimed to survey the physical activity levels that were maintained before and during the social restrictions following the pan-demic, their correlation to musculoskeletal pain, as well as analyzing the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on pain and fatigue that affects daily life activities. A total of 2044 students completed the online questionnaire, of which the results of 1654 participants were eligible. Before the pandemic, the levels of physical activity were distributed as: 19.9% no activity, 30.1% light ac-tivity, 21.5% moderate activity, and 28.5% high activity. After one year of the pandemic, 30.6% of the participants were inactive, 48.1%, 10.9%, and 10.5% stated as maintaining, respectively, light, moderate and high levels of physical activity. Furthermore, 43.5% reported neck pain and 33.5% stated to experience low back pain. Physical activity levels lower than 150 min/week may have predisposed students to suffer from neck pain (1.95 OR at 95% CI, 1.44-2.64) and low back pain (1.79 OR at 95% CI, 1.29-2.49). A positive correlation between physical activity levels, Verbal Descriptive Scale (VDS), and pain frequency have been observed for neck and low back pain (p-value < 0.05). Finally, low physical activity levels were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and pain worsening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dor Musculoesquelética , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes , Universidades
10.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207393

RESUMO

The multifold benefits of regular physical exercise have been largely demonstrated in human and animal models. Several studies have reported the beneficial effects of physical activity, both in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system (CNS). Regular exercise improves cognition, brain plasticity, neurogenesis and reduces the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, making timeless the principle of "mens sana in corpore sano" (i.e., a healthy mind in a healthy body). Physical exercise promotes morphological and functional changes in the brain, acting not only in neurons but also in astrocytes, which represent the most numerous glial cells in the brain. The multiple effects of exercise on astrocytes comprise the increased number of new astrocytes, the maintenance of basal levels of catecholamine, the increase in glutamate uptake, the major release of trophic factors and better astrocytic coverage of cerebral blood vessels. The purpose of this review is to highlight the effects of exercise on brain function, emphasize the role of astrocytes in the healthy CNS, and provide an update for a better understanding of the effects of physical exercise in the modulation of astrocyte function.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 684680, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025440

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the high glucose damage on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the role of p38 MAPK signaling pathway and how dimethyl fumarate can regulate that. We carried out in vitro studies on ARPE-19 cells exposed to physiological and high glucose (HG) conditions, to evaluate the effects of DMF on cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers such as COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß, and VEGF. Our data have demonstrated that DMF treatment attenuated HG-induced apoptosis, as confirmed by reduction of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, in RPE cells exposed to HG we observed a significant increase of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1ß expression, that was reverted by DMF treatment. Moreover, DMF reduced the VEGF levels elicited by HG, inhibiting p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The present study demonstrated that DMF provides a remarkable protection against high glucose-induced damage in RPE cells through p38 MAPK inhibition and the subsequent down-regulation of VEGF levels, suggesting that DMF is a small molecule that represents a good candidate for diabetic retinopathy treatment and warrants further in vivo and clinical evaluation.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820516

RESUMO

Physical exercise (PE), notoriously, promotes a state of general well-being, throughout the entire human lifespan. Moreover, maintaining an adequate and regular PE habit results to be a powerful preventive factor towards many diseases and may also help in managing existing pathological conditions. PE induces structural and functional changes in various districts of the body, determining biological and psychological benefits. Additionally, in elderly, PE might represent a remarkable tool reducing cognitive impairments related to the normal aging processes and it has also been found to have an impact in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The present review aims to provide an overview about PE effects on hippocampus, since it is one of the brain regions most susceptible to aging and, therefore, involved in diseases characterized by cognitive impairment.

13.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924468

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, devastating, and irreversible brain disorder that, day by day, destroys memory skills and social behavior. Despite this, the number of known genes suitable for discriminating between AD patients is insufficient. Among the genes potentially involved in the development of AD, there are the chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) CHI3L1, CHI3L2, and CHID1. The genes of the first two have been extensively investigated while, on the contrary, little information is available on CHID1. In this manuscript, we conducted transcriptome meta-analysis on an extensive sample of brains of healthy control subjects (n = 1849) (NDHC) and brains of AD patients (n = 1170) in order to demonstrate CHID1 involvement. Our analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the brain CHID1 expression levels and the age of NDHC subjects. Significant differences were highlighted comparing CHID1 expression of NDHC subjects and AD patients. Exclusive in AD patients, the CHID1 expression levels were correlated positively to calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) levels. Furthermore, both in NDHC and in AD patient's brains, the CHID1 expression levels were directly correlated with calbindin 1 (CALB1) and neurogranin (NRGN). According to brain regions, correlation differences were shown between the expression levels of CHID1 in prefrontal, frontal, occipital, cerebellum, temporal, and limbic system. Sex-related differences were only highlighted in NDHC. CHID1 represents a new chitinase potentially involved in the principal processes underlying Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Calbindina 1/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Neurogranina/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Calbindina 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurogranina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and distribution of serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) in a series of 102 cases of both diffuse and circumscribed adult gliomas to establish the potential diagnostic role of this protein in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors. METHODS: This retrospective immunohistochemical study included 42 glioblastoma cases, 21 oligodendrogliomas, 15 ependymomas, 15 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and 4 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas. RESULTS: Most glioblastoma (81%), oligodendroglioma (71%), sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma (80%) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (75%) cases showed strong SRSF1 immunoexpression, while no detectable staining was found in the majority of ependymomas (87% of cases) and pilocytic astrocytomas (67% of cases). CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical expression of SRSF1 may be a promising diagnostic marker of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and its increased expression might allow for excluding entities that often enter into differential diagnosis, such as ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922399

RESUMO

Eye drop formulations allowing topical treatment of retinal pathologies have long been sought as alternatives to intravitreal administration. This study aimed to assess whether a novel nanostructured microemulsions system (NaMESys) could be usefully employed to deliver sorafenib to the retina following topical instillation. NaMESys carrying 0.3% sorafenib (NaMESys-SOR) proved to be cytocompatible in vitro on rabbit corneal cells, and well-tolerated following b.i.d. ocular administration to rabbits during a 3-month study. In rats subject to retinal ischemia-reperfusion, NaMESys-SOR significantly inhibited retinal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, 20.7%) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos, 87.3%) mRNAs in comparison to controls. Similarly, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, NaMESys-SOR inhibited retinal expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), TNFα, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and 2 (VEGFR2) mRNAs by three-fold on average compared to controls. Furthermore, a reduction in TNFα, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 protein expression was observed by western blot. Moreover, in mice subject to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, NaMESys-SOR significantly inhibited neovascular lesions by 54%. In conclusion, NaMESys-SOR was shown to be a well-tolerated ophthalmic formulation able to deliver effective amounts of sorafenib to the retina, reducing proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic mediators in reliable models of proliferative retinopathies. These findings warrant further investigations on the full therapeutic potential of NaMESys-SOR eye drops, aiming to address unmet needs in the pharmacotherapy of retinal neovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanoestruturas/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem
16.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572883

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first of which were released in December 2020. Effective vaccines for COVID-19 are needed to protect the population, especially healthcare professionals and fragile individuals, such as older people or chronic-disease-affected patients. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits and assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Moreover, physical activity improves mental health by reducing anxiety, depression, and negative mood and improving self-esteem. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a detailed view of the literature, presenting updated evidence on the beneficial effects of adapted physical activity, based on personalized and tailor-made exercise, in preventing, treating, and counteracting the consequences of COVID-19.

17.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 113: 101934, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582252

RESUMO

Recent findings demonstrated that physical exercise has a powerful role in improving cognitive function and delaying age-associated neurological decline. However, to date, there is a lack of information regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on brain cells architecture. In this paper, we hypothesized that PA could play a role in the transcriptional changes of genes that enrich the main cells of central nervous system (CNS). From NCBI, we selected a microarray dataset composed of the human hippocampi (GSE110298) from 23 cognitively intact clinical cases (NDHSs) (aged 87.4 ±â€¯6.3 years) selected to from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). The significantly expressed genes, obtained comparing hippocampi from subjects who underwent Low Physical Activity (LPA) vs those who performed High Physical Activity (HPA), were overlapped with the main genes enriching the CNS cells, obtained from the public human brain single-cell RNA-sequencing dataset (GSE67835), in order to determine the respective weighted percentages of significantly expression genes modulation (WPSEG). In NDHSs underwent HPA, the WPSEG was higher for Neurons, Dendritic Development, Synaptic transmission genes and Axon Development. In addition, in NDHSs underwent LPA we observed high expression of genes enriching Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Endothelial cells. Furthermore, neurogenesis and the decreasing of the T cell-mediated inflammatory process were the two main molecular mechanisms activated in the brains of NDHSs underwent HPA. From our results, it is possible to conclude that, in elderly subjects, the transcriptional profile of CNS cells changes as a function of the PA conducted during life. Performing PA periodically supports the maintenance of the physiological balance of neuronal cells and, consequently, improves the quality of life of the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Mol Neurosci ; 71(8): 1525-1535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403597

RESUMO

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a peptide involved in physio-pathological processes of the eye. It exerts multiple effects directly through activation of its related receptors and indirectly through increases in the synthesis of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP). To study the role of ADNP and protect against ADNP deficiencies, a small peptide called NAP was synthetized. It includes an eight amino acid active site sequence of ADNP. In this review, we summarize the knowledge regarding the neuroprotective function played by PACAP and NAP in retinal tissue and provide an overview of the correlation between PACAP and ADNP in the context of diabetic retinopathy.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291577

RESUMO

The present review aims to examine the effects of high blood lactate levels in healthy adult humans, for instance, after a period of exhaustive exercise, on the functioning of the cerebral cortex. In some of the examined studies, high blood lactate levels were obtained not only through exhaustive exercise but also with an intravenous infusion of lactate while the subject was immobile. This allowed us to exclude the possibility that the observed post-exercise effects were nonspecific (e.g., cortical changes in temperature, acidity, etc.). We observed that, in both experimental conditions, high levels of blood lactate are associated with a worsening of important cognitive domains such as attention or working memory or stress, without gender differences. Moreover, in both experimental conditions, high levels of blood lactate are associated with an improvement of the primary motor area (M1) excitability. Outside the frontal lobe, the use of visual evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials allowed us to observe, in the occipital and parietal lobe respectively, that high levels of blood lactate are associated with an amplitude's increase and a latency's reduction of the early components of the evoked responses. In conclusion, significant increases of blood lactate levels could exercise a double-action in the central nervous system (CNS), with a protecting role on primary cortical areas (such as M1, primary visual area, or primary somatosensory cortex), while reducing the efficiency of adjacent regions, such as the supplementary motor area (SMA) or prefrontal cortex. These observations are compatible with the possibility that lactate works in the brain not only as an energy substrate or an angiogenetic factor but also as a true neuromodulator, which can protect from stress. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of lactic acid products produced during an anaerobic exercise lactate, focusing on their action at the level of the central nervous system with particular attention to the primary motor, the somatosensory evoked potentials, and the occipital and parietal lobe.


Assuntos
Cognição , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Córtex Motor , Adulto , Encéfalo , Exercício Físico , Humanos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153152

RESUMO

Schwann cells, the most abundant glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, represent the key players able to supply extracellular microenvironment for axonal regrowth and restoration of myelin sheaths on regenerating axons. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells respond adaptively to damage by acquiring a new phenotype. In particular, some of them localize in the distal stump to form the Bungner band, a regeneration track in the distal site of the injured nerve, whereas others produce cytokines involved in recruitment of macrophages infiltrating into the nerve damaged area for axonal and myelin debris clearance. Several neurotrophic factors, including pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), promote survival and axonal elongation of injured neurons. The present review summarizes the evidence existing in the literature demonstrating the autocrine and/or paracrine action exerted by PACAP to promote remyelination and ameliorate the peripheral nerve inflammatory response following nerve injury.


Assuntos
Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/farmacologia , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Axônios/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Bainha de Mielina/efeitos dos fármacos , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/uso terapêutico , Células de Schwann/fisiologia , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia
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