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1.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(S 02): S77-S82, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Premature infants have the highest risk of being hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Palivizumab is the only licensed agent for RSVhospitalization (RSVH) prophylaxis in infants born at < 35 weeks of gestational age (wGA). In 2016, the Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco [AIFA]) has restricted the eligibility for reimbursement to infants at high risk of RSVH, ruling out palivizumab administration for infants born at > 29 wGA. The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of RSVH in two consecutive epidemic seasons (2015-2016 vs. 2016-2017), that is, before and after the new AIFA recommendations on palivizumab eligibility. STUDY DESIGN: This was a noninterventional retrospective cohort study conducted at three neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in northern Italy. Infants born at 29 and 35 wGA between March 15, 2015 and March 14, 2017 were enrolled for this study. Electronic medical charts were reviewed and parents were interviewed by telephone. Data were collected on neonatal course during NICU stay, palivizumab administration, and hospitalizations related to respiratory infections during the 1st year of life, comparing the infants born in season 1 with season 2. RESULTS: Of 632 eligible infants, data were available for 536 (262 in season 1 and 274 in season 2). Overall, RSVH occurred 1.9 and 5.1% in infants in seasons 1 and 2, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-7.8, p = 0.045). When the analysis was limited to patients not exposed to palivizumab, RSVHs were recorded for 1.8 and 5.9% infants in seasons 1 and 2, respectively (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 0.96-12.20, p = 0.045). It is noteworthy that the incidence of hospital admissions for respiratory viruses other than RSV did not differ between the two seasons. CONCLUSION: Restricting eligibility for palivizumab reimbursement led to a significant increase in RSVH but had no impact on hospitalizations for other respiratory viruses. Future decisions on palivizumab prescription and coverage rules should be driven by a careful assessment of the cost-benefit ratio.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 754-766, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690825

RESUMO

AIMS: Although acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a common cause of dyspnoea, its diagnosis still represents a challenge. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an emerging point-of-care diagnostic tool, but its diagnostic performance for ADHF has not been evaluated in randomized studies. We evaluated, in patients with acute dyspnoea, accuracy and clinical usefulness of combining LUS with clinical assessment compared to the use of chest radiography (CXR) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in conjunction with clinical evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a randomized trial conducted in two emergency departments. After initial clinical evaluation, patients with acute dyspnoea were classified by the treating physician according to presumptive aetiology (ADHF or non-ADHF). Patients were subsequently randomized to continue with either LUS or CXR/NT-proBNP. A new diagnosis, integrating the results of both initial assessment and the newly obtained findings, was then recorded. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness of LUS and CXR/NT-proBNP approaches were calculated. A total of 518 patients were randomized. Addition of LUS had higher accuracy [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.95] than clinical evaluation alone (AUC 0.88) in identifying ADHF (P < 0.01). In contrast, use of CXR/NT-proBNP did not significantly increase the accuracy of clinical evaluation alone (AUC 0.87 and 0.85, respectively; P > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of the LUS-integrated approach was higher then that of the CXR/Nt-proBNP-integrated approach (AUC 0.95 vs. 0.87, p < 0.01). Combining LUS with the clinical evaluation reduced diagnostic errors by 7.98 cases/100 patients, as compared to 2.42 cases/100 patients in the CXR/Nt-proBNP group. CONCLUSION: Integration of LUS with clinical assessment for the diagnosis of ADHF in the emergency department seems to be more accurate than the current diagnostic approach based on CXR and NT-proBNP.

3.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

4.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 44(6): 1212-1216, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29598962

RESUMO

Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a largely employed diagnostic tool but an operational protocol for implementation has never been proposed. The lack of standardization clearly introduces variability in LUS results. We enrolled adult patients presenting for acute dyspnea with a clinical suspect of etiology related to heart failure. We calculated agreement among four providers in assessing B-lines. We varied probes, depth, evaluation time and scanning areas and we estimated the importance of each factors on B-lines assessment. Overall agreement among raters varied from a kappa of 0.70 to 0.81. The mean number of B-lines was 5.44 (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.1-6.8). This estimate did not suffer variation by the depth used (0.03, 95% CI -0.2-0.2, more B-lines, using 19 cm versus 10 cm). The use of a convex probe and expertise in LUS reduced the number of artifacts by 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) and 1.1 in comparison with a phased array probe and naive operators. Evaluation time increased estimates by 1.2 (95% CI 1-1.5) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.7-3.9) B-lines for 4" and 7" clips (reference was 2" clips). This study suggests that the probe, the evaluation time and the level of expertise might affect the results of quantitative assessment of B-lines.

6.
Chest ; 148(1): 202-210, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25654562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasonography (LUS) has emerged as a noninvasive tool for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. However, its use for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) still raises some concerns. We tested the hypothesis that an integrated approach implementing LUS with clinical assessment would have higher diagnostic accuracy than a standard workup in differentiating ADHF from noncardiogenic dyspnea in the ED. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study in seven Italian EDs. For patients presenting with acute dyspnea, the emergency physician was asked to categorize the diagnosis as ADHF or noncardiogenic dyspnea after (1) the initial clinical assessment and (2) after performing LUS ("LUS-implemented" diagnosis). All patients also underwent chest radiography. After discharge, the cause of each patient's dyspnea was determined by independent review of the entire medical record. The diagnostic accuracy of the different approaches was then compared. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1,005 patients. The LUS-implemented approach had a significantly higher accuracy (sensitivity, 97% [95% CI, 95%-98.3%]; specificity, 97.4% [95% CI, 95.7%-98.6%]) in differentiating ADHF from noncardiac causes of acute dyspnea than the initial clinical workup (sensitivity, 85.3% [95% CI, 81.8%-88.4%]; specificity, 90% [95% CI, 87.2%-92.4%]), chest radiography alone (sensitivity, 69.5% [95% CI, 65.1%-73.7%]; specificity, 82.1% [95% CI, 78.6%-85.2%]), and natriuretic peptides (sensitivity, 85% [95% CI, 80.3%-89%]; specificity, 61.7% [95% CI, 54.6%-68.3%]; n = 486). Net reclassification index of the LUS-implemented approach compared with standard workup was 19.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of LUS with the clinical evaluation may improve accuracy of ADHF diagnosis in patients presenting to the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinicaltrials.gov; No.: NCT01287429; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Dispneia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dispneia/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pneumopatias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ultrassonografia
7.
Haematologica ; 96(5): 744-51, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21228031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of marriage and parenthood in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors included in the Off-Therapy Registry maintained by the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 6,044 patients diagnosed with cancer between 1960 and 1998, while aged 0 to 14 years and who were 18 years old or older by December 2003. They were followed up through the regional vital statistics registers until death or the end of follow up (October 30, 2006), whichever occurred first, and their marital status and date of birth of their children were recorded. The cumulative probabilities of being married and having a first child were computed by gender and compared by tumor type within the cohort. Marriage and fertility rates (the latter defined as the number of live births per woman-year) were compared with those of the Italian population of the same age, gender, area of residence and calendar period by means of the observed to expected (O/E) ratios. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 4,633 (77%) subjects had not married. The marriage O/E ratios were 0.56 (95% CI: 0.51-0.61) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.65-0.76) among men and women, respectively. Overall, 263 men had 367 liveborn children, and 473 women had 697 liveborn children. The female fertility O/E ratio was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.53-0.62) overall, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99-1.17) when analyses were restricted to married/cohabiting women CONCLUSIONS: Childhood cancer survivors are less likely to marry and to have children than the general population, confirming the life-long impact of their previous disease on their social behavior and choices. The inclusion of counseling in the strategies of management and long-term surveillance of childhood cancer patients could be beneficial to survivors as they approach adulthood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 18(6): 425-30, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19734794

RESUMO

The majority of childhood cancer cases survive to adulthood. We describe the experience of marriage and reproduction as indicators of quality of life, in a population-based cohort of adult long-term survivors after early cancer reported to the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont. The study included 1237 survivors with a malignant neoplasm diagnosed during 1967-2000 when aged 0-14 years, who attained age 18 years. Vital and marital status and number of offspring were assessed through the Vital Statistics Offices. Marriage and fertility deficits were estimated by comparison with the Piedmont population. Among the individuals included in this study, 919 (74.3%) never married and never lived as married. The marriage deficit was 32% [observed/expected 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.83] in men and 18% (observed/expected 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.98) in women. A total of 179 children were born to 120 women, with a fertility deficit of 41% (observed/expected 0.59; 95% CI: 0.51-0.69). In conclusion, the observed decrements in marriage in men and women and fertility in women suggest that efforts should be made to improve the recovery from physical and psychological traumas related to diagnosis and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Reprodução , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
9.
Geospat Health ; 2(2): 263-71, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18686274

RESUMO

The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant) and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy) in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Geografia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Asbestos , Teorema de Bayes , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
10.
BJU Int ; 102(11): 1566-72, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18549428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of circulating prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-expressing cells in patients with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to determine their diagnostic usefulness using a highly sensitive quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from 175 patients with prostate cancer (12 metastatic and 163 not metastatic), 49 with BPH, and 50 healthy volunteers. To improve the specificity and sensitivity of the qRT-PCR three innovative features were combined; a primer overlapping two adjacent exons to inhibit nonspecific amplification; a no-end-point first round amplification to increase the sensitivity; and a target-specific primer for the RT phase to increase the specificity. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the method was 1 cell/mL of blood and the interassay coefficient of variation was 10.5%. None of the healthy subjects tested positively, while 9% of those with prostatic cancer and 14% with BPH had PSA-positive cells in the blood. There was a positive association between a positive test and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification in the patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (P = 0.022). There were no additional statistically significant associations. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly indicate that although there were no false-positive results and the sensitivity of the method was increased to maximal levels, a low frequency of positive results in patients with prostatic cancer and a high frequency of positive results in those with BPH seems to discourage the use of PSA-positive circulating cells in the search for a clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 16(2): 347-51, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17301270

RESUMO

Several studies report increasing trends in the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because ALL may generate in utero, this study investigated if maternal age and birth cohort influence ALL temporal trends. Data on 252 ALL cases in children ages 1 to 5 years were extracted from the population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont, Italy. Information on cases' maternal age and year of birth was obtained from the registry, whereas population data were obtained for children born in 1980 to 1997. Incidence rates were analyzed using an age-period-cohort approach, in which the period effect was represented by the child year of birth, the age effect by the maternal age at the time of delivery, and the cohort effect by the maternal birth cohort. ALL incidence increased over the study period [annual percentage change 2.49%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.09-4.93]. A linear effect of the maternal time variables (P = 0.012) was found, which was equally described by maternal age (direct association) and maternal birth cohort (inverse association). The annual percentage change was 1.83% (95% CI, -0.59-4.31), when maternal age was included in the model, and 5.72% (95% CI, 2.29-9.27), when maternal year of birth was included. In conclusion, maternal characteristics substantially affect temporal trends in childhood ALL incidence.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Ordem de Nascimento , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Idade Materna , Distribuição de Poisson , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
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