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FASEB J ; 35(9): e21810, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390520

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient required for the activity of redox-active enzymes involved in critical metabolic reactions, signaling pathways, and biological functions. Transporters and chaperones control Cu ion levels and bioavailability to ensure proper subcellular and systemic Cu distribution. Intensive research has focused on understanding how mammalian cells maintain Cu homeostasis, and how molecular signals coordinate Cu acquisition and storage within organs. In humans, mutations of genes that regulate Cu homeostasis or facilitate interactions with Cu ions lead to numerous pathologic conditions. Malfunctions of the Cu+ -transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B cause Menkes disease and Wilson disease, respectively. Additionally, defects in the mitochondrial and cellular distributions and homeostasis of Cu lead to severe neurodegenerative conditions, mitochondrial myopathies, and metabolic diseases. Cu has a dual nature in carcinogenesis as a promotor of tumor growth and an inducer of redox stress in cancer cells. Cu also plays role in cancer treatment as a component of drugs and a regulator of drug sensitivity and uptake. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of Cu metabolism and transport and its relation to various human pathologies.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo
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