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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14636-14641, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541064

RESUMO

Understanding the coordination of cell-division timing is one of the outstanding questions in the field of developmental biology. One active control parameter of the cell-cycle duration is temperature, as it can accelerate or decelerate the rate of biochemical reactions. However, controlled experiments at the cellular scale are challenging, due to the limited availability of biocompatible temperature sensors, as well as the lack of practical methods to systematically control local temperatures and cellular dynamics. Here, we demonstrate a method to probe and control the cell-division timing in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos using a combination of local laser heating and nanoscale thermometry. Local infrared laser illumination produces a temperature gradient across the embryo, which is precisely measured by in vivo nanoscale thermometry using quantum defects in nanodiamonds. These techniques enable selective, controlled acceleration of the cell divisions, even enabling an inversion of division order at the two-cell stage. Our data suggest that the cell-cycle timing asynchrony of the early embryonic development in C. elegans is determined independently by individual cells rather than via cell-to-cell communication. Our method can be used to control the development of multicellular organisms and to provide insights into the regulation of cell-division timings as a consequence of local perturbations.

2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(5): 420-425, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833691

RESUMO

Electron microscopy has been instrumental in our understanding of complex biological systems. Although electron microscopy reveals cellular morphology with nanoscale resolution, it does not provide information on the location of different types of proteins. An electron-microscopy-based bioimaging technology capable of localizing individual proteins and resolving protein-protein interactions with respect to cellular ultrastructure would provide important insights into the molecular biology of a cell. Here, we synthesize small lanthanide-doped nanoparticles and measure the absolute photon emission rate of individual nanoparticles resulting from a given electron excitation flux (cathodoluminescence). Our results suggest that the optimization of nanoparticle composition, synthesis protocols and electron imaging conditions can lead to sub-20-nm nanolabels that would enable high signal-to-noise localization of individual biomolecules within a cellular context. In ensemble measurements, these labels exhibit narrow spectra of nine distinct colours, so the imaging of biomolecules in a multicolour electron microscopy modality may be possible.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/química
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(9): 093601, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306313

RESUMO

We study the depolarization dynamics of a dense ensemble of dipolar interacting spins, associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We observe anomalously fast, density-dependent, and nonexponential spin relaxation. To explain these observations, we propose a microscopic model where an interplay of long-range interactions, disorder, and dissipation leads to predictions that are in quantitative agreement with both current and prior experimental results. Our results pave the way for controlled many-body experiments with long-lived and strongly interacting ensembles of solid-state spins.

4.
J Endovasc Ther ; 10(2): 275-84, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12877610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the influence of stent size and location on flow patterns in a physiological carotid model. METHODS: Wallstents were positioned in silicon models of the carotid artery at various locations: 2 stents appropriately sized to the anatomy were placed in (1) the internal carotid artery (ICA) and (2) the ICA extending completely into the common carotid artery so as to cover the external carotid artery (ECA) orifice. Another 2 stents were placed in the ICA extending (1) partially and (2) completely into the bulb to simulate stent displacement and disproportion between stent size and the original vessel geometry. Measurements were performed with laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) using pulsatile flow conditions (Reynolds number=250; flow 0.431 L/min; ICA:ECA flow rate ratio 70:30) in hemodynamically relevant cross sections. The hemodynamic changes were analyzed with 1-dimensional flow profiles. RESULTS: With the stent in the ICA, no changes of the normal flow profile were seen. For stents positioned in the ICA and extending partially or completely into the carotid bulb, the flow behavior was affected by the resistance of the stent to flow in the ECA. Hemodynamically relevant disturbances were seen in the ICA and ECA, especially in the separation zones (regions along the walls just after a bifurcation, bend, or curve). The ICA:ECA flow rate ratios shifted from 70:30 to 71.3:28.7 and from 70:30 to 75.1:24.9, respectively, in the 2 malpositioned stent models. With the stent placed in the ICA extending completely into the CCA, the ICA:ECA flow rate ratio shifted from 70:30 to 72.4:27.6. In this configuration, there were no notable flow changes in the ICA, but a clear diminishing of the separation zones in the ECA separation zones. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomically correct positioning of appropriately sized stents does not lead to relevant flow disturbances in the ICA. In the ECA, depending on the position, size, and interstices of the stent, the physiological flow was considerably disturbed when any part of the stent covered the inflow of the vessel. Disturbances were seen when the stent was positioned into the bulb. For clinical application, stent location and size must be carefully determined so that the stent covers the bifurcation completely or is in the ICA only.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Artéria Carótida Externa/fisiologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiologia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Fluxo Pulsátil/fisiologia , Stents , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Artéria Carótida Externa/cirurgia , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
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