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1.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(4): 287-295, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033865

RESUMO

Chronic-diabetes-related complications simultaneously compromise both the micro- and macrovascular trees, with target organs considered as the paradigm of large vessel injury also entailing microangiopathic changes. However, complications independent or partially independent from vascular damage are often overlooked. This includes neuronal dysfunction (e.g., retinal neurodegeneration), interstitial injury (e.g., tubulointerstitial disease), metabolic damage (e.g., in the heart and liver), and nonclassical conditions such as cognitive decline, impaired pulmonary function, or increased risk of cancer. In this scenario, researchers, endocrinologists and primary care physicians should have a holistic view of the disease and pay further attention to all organs and all potential clinical repercussions, which would certainly contribute to a more rational and integrated patient health care.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093385

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary pattern (i.e., Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and healthy eating) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with those without diabetes. In addition, we explored clinical factors associated with the dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of 476 participants (238 with T2D and 238 participants without diabetes, matched for age and sex). The alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score and the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) were calculated. Statistical analysis included comparison between groups and multivariable models. Participants with T2D showed higher aMED and aHEI scores (mean (SD): 4.3 (1.5) and 43.9 (6.5), respectively) in comparison with the control group (3.5 (1.8) and 39.4 (7.4), respectively; p < 0.001). In addition, a higher proportion of participants with T2D in higher tertiles of aMED (21.8%) and aHEI (39.9%) was observed compared with participants without diabetes (11.3% for the aMED, and 19.3% for the aHEI; p < 0.001). The adjusted multivariable analysis revealed that T2D (p < 0.001), increasing age (p = 0.006 and p = 0.030, respectively), and physical activity (p = 0.009) were positively associated with higher aMED and aHEI scores. Dyslipidemia and female gender were positively associated with aMED and aHEI (p = 0.031 and p < 0.001, respectively). The specific multivariable analysis for the group with T2D yielded a positive association of age (p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.021) with aMED. Regarding the aHEI, only female gender was positively related with this score in diabetes participants (p = 0.025). Participants with T2D showed a higher adherence to the MedDiet and a healthier eating pattern.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 751-758, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in health care costs according to glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on health care resource utilization from 100,391 people with type 2 diabetes were extracted from the electronic database used at the Catalan Health Institute. Multivariate regression models were carried out to test the impact of glycemic control (HbA1c) on total health care, hospital admission, and medication costs; model 1 adjusted for a variety of covariates, and model 2 also included micro- and macrovascular complications. Glycemic control was classified as good for HbA1c <7%, fair for ≥7% to <8%, poor for ≥8% to <10%, and very poor for ≥10%. RESULTS: Mean per patient annual direct medical costs were €3,039 ± SD €6,581. Worse glycemic control was associated with higher total health care costs: compared with good glycemic control, health care costs increased by 18% (€509.82) and 23% (€661.35) in patients with very poor and poor glycemic control, respectively, when unadjusted and by €428.3 and €395.1, respectively, in model 2. Medication costs increased by 12% in patients with fair control and by 28% in those with very poor control (model 2). Patients with poor control had a higher probability of hospitalization than those with good control (5% in model 2) and a greater average cost when hospitalization occurred (€811). CONCLUSIONS: Poor glycemic control was directly related to higher total health care, hospitalization, and medication costs. Preventive strategies and good glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes could reduce the economic impact associated with this disease.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(3): 177-179, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032539
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033332, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in the healthy population in the Mollerussa cohort. As a secondary objective, to identify the variables associated with these conditions and to describe the changes in glycaemic status after 1 year of follow-up in subjects with pre-diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: General population from a semi-rural area. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 583 participants without a diagnosis of diabetes recruited between March 2011 and July 2014. RESULTS: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 20, 3.4% (95% CI 2.6 to 4.2) and that of pre-diabetes was 229, 39.3% (37.3 to 41.3). Among those with pre-diabetes, 18.3% had isolated impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (FPG: 100 to <126 mg/dL), 58.1% had isolated impaired glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (HbA1c 5.7 to <6.5) and 23.6% fulfilled both criteria. Follow-up data were available for 166 subjects; 41.6%(37.8 to 45.4) returned to normoglycaemia, 57.6% (57.8 to 61.4) persisted in pre-diabetes and 0.6% (0 to 1.2) progressed to diabetes. Individuals with pre-diabetes had worse cardiometabolic risk profiles and sociodemographic features than normoglycaemic subjects. In the logistic regression model, variables significantly associated with pre-diabetes were older age (OR; 95% CI) (1.033; 1.011 to 1.056), higher physical activity (0.546; 0.360 to 0.827), body mass index (1.121; 1.029 to 1.222) and a family history of diabetes (1.543; 1.025 to 2.323). The variables significantly associated with glycaemic normalisation were older age (0.948; 0.916 to 0.982) and body mass index (0.779; 0.651 to 0.931). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults in our region, the estimated prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3.4% and that of pre-diabetes was 39.3%. After a 1-year follow-up, a small proportion of subjects (0.6%) with pre-diabetes progressed to diabetes, while a high proportion (41.6%) returned to normoglycaemia. Individuals with pre-diabetes who returned to normoglycaemia were younger and had a lower body mass index.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906543

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the potential association between dietary patterns (i.e., the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) and healthy eating) and patient-reported quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction (TS) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A food frequency questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL-19), and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire-status version (DTSQ-s) were administered via personal interviews to 258 participants with T1D. Multivariable analysis showed that a moderate or high adherence to the MedDiet was associated with greater diabetes-specific QoL (ß = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.61; p = 0.029). None of the dietary quality indexes (i.e., the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI)) were associated with the overall TS. However, the aHEI was positively associated with the specific items of TS "convenience" and "flexibility" (ß = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.00; 0.06; p = 0.042 and ß = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.01; 0.06; p = 0.011, respectively). On the other hand, the aHEI was negatively associated with the dimension "recommend to others" (ß = -0.5, 95% CI = -0.99; -0.02; p = 0.042). In conclusion, a moderate and high adherence to the MedDiet was associated with greater QoL. Although neither aMED nor aHEI were associated with the overall TS, some specific items were positively (i.e., "convenience", "flexibility") or negatively ("recommend to others") related to the aHEI. Further research is needed to assess how to improve medical nutrition therapy and its impact on patient-reported outcomes in people with T1D.

7.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865758

RESUMO

Objective: To compare real-world outcomes with newer (insulin glargine 300 U/mL; Gla-300) versus standard of care (SoC) basal insulins (BIs) in the REACH (insulin-naïve; NCT02967224) and REGAIN (basal insulin-treated; NCT02967211) studies in participants with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Europe and Brazil.Methods: In these open-label, parallel-group, pragmatic studies, patients (HbA1c > 7.0%) were randomized to Gla-300 or SoC BI for a 6-month treatment period (to demonstrate non-inferiority of Gla-300 vs SoC BIs for HbA1c change [non-inferiority margin 0.3%]) and a 6-month extension period (continuing with their assigned treatment). Insulin titration/other medication changes were at investigator/patient discretion post-randomization.Results: Overall, 703 patients were randomized to treatment in REACH (Gla-300, n = 352; SoC, n = 351) and 609 (Gla-300, n = 305, SoC, n = 304) in REGAIN. The primary outcome, non-inferiority of Gla-300 versus SoC for HbA1c change from baseline to month 6, was met in REACH (least squares [LS] mean difference 0.12% [95% CI -0.046 to 0.281]) but not REGAIN (LS mean difference 0.17% [0.015-0.329]); no between-treatment difference in HbA1c change was shown after 12 months in either study. BI dose increased minimally from baseline to 12 months in REACH (Gla-300, +0.17 U/kg; SoC, +0.15 U/kg) and REGAIN (Gla-300, +0.11 U/kg; SoC, +0.07 U/kg). Hypoglycemia incidence was low and similar between treatment arms in both studies.Conclusions: In both REACH and REGAIN, no differences in glycemic control or hypoglycemia outcomes with Gla-300 versus SoC BIs were seen over 12 months. However, the suboptimal insulin titration in REACH and REGAIN limits comparisons of outcomes between treatment arms and suggests that more titration instruction/support may be required for patients to fully derive the benefits from newer basal insulin formulations.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 418-425, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MHC region harbors the strongest loci for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the strength of association is likely attenuated compared with that for childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this study, we recapitulate independent effects in the MHC class I region in a population with type 1 diabetes and then determine whether such conditioning in LADA yields potential genetic discriminators between the two subtypes within this region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Chromosome 6 was imputed using SNP2HLA, with conditional analysis performed in type 1 diabetes case subjects (n = 1,985) and control subjects (n = 2,219). The same approach was applied to a LADA cohort (n = 1,428) using population-based control subjects (n = 2,850) and in a separate replication cohort (656 type 1 diabetes case, 823 LADA case, and 3,218 control subjects). RESULTS: The strongest associations in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.44 [0.05]), as well as the independent effect of MHC class I genes, on type 1 diabetes risk, particularly HLA-B*39 (ß [SE] = 1.36 [0.17]), were confirmed. The conditional analysis in LADA versus control subjects showed significant association in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.14 [0.06]); however, we did not observe significant independent effects of MHC class I alleles in LADA. CONCLUSIONS: In LADA, the independent effects of MHC class I observed in type 1 diabetes were not observed after conditioning on the leading MHC class II associations, suggesting that the MHC class I association may be a genetic discriminator between LADA and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

9.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 2018374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815146

RESUMO

Objective: Regulatory agencies require the assessment of cardiovascular (CV) safety for new type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapies through CV outcome trials (CVOTs). However, patients included in CVOTs assessing sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) might not be representative of those seen in clinical practice. This study examined the proportion of patients that would have been enrolled into three main SGLT2i CVOTs to determine whether these trials' eligibility criteria can be applied to a real-world Mediterranean T2D population. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective, cohort study of T2D patients registered in primary care centres of the Catalan Institute of Health using medical records from a population database (SIDIAP) that includes approximately 74% of the population in Catalonia (Spain). Eligibility criteria were according to those of three SGLT2i CVOTs: EMPA-REG OUTCOME (empagliflozin), CANVAS (canagliflozin), and DECLARE-TIMI 58 (dapagliflozin). Results: By the end of 2016, the database included 373,185 patients with T2D with a mean age of 70 ± 12 years, 54.9% male, with a mean duration of T2D of 9 ± 6 years, and a mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.12% ± 1.32 (59% with HbA1c < 7%). Of these, 86,534 (23%) had established CV disease and 28% chronic renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration < 60 ml/min/1.73m2). Among all included patients, only 8.2% would have qualified for enrolment into the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, 29.6% into the CANVAS program, and 38% into the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial. The main limiting factors for inclusion would have been a previous history of CV disease and the baseline HbA1c value. Conclusion: The external validity of the analysed CVOTs is clearly limited when applying the same eligibility criteria to a T2D Mediterranean population.

10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865632

RESUMO

Achieving target glycaemic control is essential in people with diabetes to minimize the risk of long-term complications, and many people with type 2 diabetes will ultimately require basal insulin (BI) therapy to achieve their individualized glycaemic targets. Usually, the first 12 weeks following initiation of BI therapy represents the period when the greatest dose increases and glycaemic reductions occur. Effective glycaemic control combined with minimizing the risk of hypoglycaemia is important to enable the achievement of glycaemic control in the longer term. However, substantial therapeutic inertia exists in clinical practice, both in initiation and up-titration of BI, owing to patient-, physician- and healthcare system-related barriers, including fear of hypoglycaemia and the perception of a burdensome regimen. The more prolonged duration of action, reduced glycaemic variability and lower risk of hypoglycaemia seen with second-generation versus first-generation BI analogues may help alleviate patients' and physicians' concerns and facilitate titration. In turn, optimal BI titration and subsequent metabolic benefits may help improve therapy adherence and self-management. This review details the clinical implications of prompt titration of BI to achieve early glycaemic control, and the importance of minimizing hypoglycaemia risk within the initial titration period. Facilitation of patients' self-management of BI is also addressed.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031281, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and coprevalence of several chronic conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean region. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two hundred and eighty-six primary care teams of the Catalonian Health Institute (Catalonia, Spain). PARTICIPANTS: We included patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by 31 December, 2016, who were registered in the Information System for the Development of Research in primary care (SIDIAP) database. We excluded patients with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus and any other type of diabetes. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We collected data on diabetes-related comorbidities (ie, chronic complications, associated cardiovascular risk factors and treatment complications). Diagnoses were based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes recorded in the database or, for some entities, on the cut-off points for a particular test result or a specific treatment indicated for that entity. The presence and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) were based on the glomerular filtration rate, the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: A total of 373 185 patients were analysed. 82% of patients exhibited ≥2 comorbidities and 31% exhibited ≥4 comorbidities. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (72%), hyperlipidaemia (60%), obesity (45%), CKD (33%), chronic renal failure (CRF)(28%) and cardiovascular disease (23%). The most frequently coprevalent pairs of chronic conditions were the combination of hypertension with hyperlipidaemia (45%), obesity (35%), CKD (28%), CRF (25%) or cardiovascular disease (19%), as well as the combination of hyperlipidaemia with obesity (28%), CKD (21%), CRF (18%) or cardiovascular disease (15%); other common pairs of comorbidities were obesity/CKD, obesity/CRF, hypertension/retinopathy, hypertension/albuminuria, hypertension/urinary tract infection, CVD/CRF and CVD/CKD, which were each present in more than 10% of patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high frequency of coprevalence of metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease and CKD and thus require an integrated management approach.

12.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500371

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that retinal neurodegeneration may precede visible vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR). In addition, the relationship of choroidal thickness (CT) with DR stage is not well defined. To assess the inner retinal and choroidal structural changes in type 1 diabetic subjects (T1D), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 242 T1D patients and in 69 age-matched, non-diabetic individuals. The nasal retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness was lower in T1D patients without DR (p < 0.001), with mild DR (p < 0.001), and with advanced DR (p < 0.001) compared to control subjects. The ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness was lower in T1D patients with advanced DR compared to those with mild DR (p = 0.003) and without DR (p < 0.001) and compared to the control subjects (p < 0.001). T1D subjects with no DR and mild DR had higher CT than the control subjects, but the CT in T1D patients with advanced DR was lower (p = 0.038) than that in T1D subjects with mild DR and was not significantly different from that of the control subjects. In conclusion, T1D subjects showed a significant thinning of the nasal RNFL in the early stages of the disease, even before any vascular changes in the retina. A decrease in the GCL thickness during advanced DR stages was observed. Choroidal thickness was higher in T1D subjects without DR and in early DR stages but decreased in advanced stages.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491916

RESUMO

To assess the clinical characteristics, the prescription pattern of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) users, and HbA1c and weight change, we retrospectively assessed patients with type 2 diabetes by initiating GLP-1RA as an add-on to the standard of care in Catalonia. The mean change from the baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight at 6 and 12 months of therapy was calculated, and we assessed the predictors of the HbA1c reduction of ≥1% and/or the weight reduction of ≥3% as recommended by the Catalan Health Service. In 2854 patients who initiated a GLP-1RA during 2014 and 2015, the overall mean HbA1c values were reduced from the baseline by -0.84% (SD = 1.66) (-9.2 mmol/mol) and lost on average 2.73 kg (SD = 6.2). About 44% percent of patients decreased their HbA1c by ≥1%; 44% decreased their weight by ≥3%; and only 22% met both of them together. The odds of achieving a reduction of ≥1% in initial HbA1c were two-fold higher for patients with higher baseline levels, and the likelihood of a reduction of ≥3% in the initial weight was associated with a higher BMI at the baseline, but they were independent of each other. The composite outcome (target 1% HbA1c reduction and 3% weight loss) to evaluate both the GLP-1RA clinical benefit and treatment withdrawal should be judged from a patient-centered approach.

14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 93, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes have remarkably high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the incremental cardiovascular risk in diabetes is heterogeneous and has often been related to renal involvement. The purpose of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of subclinical atherosclerosis in determining the incidence of first cardiovascular events (CVEs) in individuals with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to CKD individuals without diabetes. METHODS: We included data from individuals with CKD with and without diabetes, free from pre-existing cardiovascular disease, from the NEFRONA cohort. Participants underwent baseline carotid and femoral ultrasound and were followed up for 4 years. All CVEs during follow-up were registered. Bivariate analysis and Fine-Gray competing risk models were used to perform the statistical analysis. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up time of 48 months, a total of 203 CVE was registered. 107 CVE occurred among participants without diabetes (19.58 per 1000 person-years) and 96 CVE occurred among participants with diabetes (44.44 per 1000 person-years). Following the competing risk analysis, the variables predicting CVEs in CKD individuals without diabetes were the number of territories with plaque at baseline (HR 1.862, 95% CI [1.432;2.240]), age (HR 1.026, 95% CI [1.003;1.049]) and serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D (HR 0.963, 95% CI [0.933;0.094]). The only variable predicting CVEs among CKD participants with diabetes was the number of territories with plaque at baseline (HR 1.782, 95% CI [1.393, 2.278]). For both models, concordance (C) index yielded was over 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis is the strongest predictor of future CVEs in diabetic individuals with CKD. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerotic burden by multiterritorial vascular ultrasound could improve CVE prediction in this population.

15.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 35(10): 1735-1744, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081693

RESUMO

Aims: To assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). Methods: Retrospective cohort study in patients with T2DM who initiated GLP-1RAs between 2007 and 2014 in primary health care centers in Catalonia (Spain). We evaluated changes in HbA1c and body weight at 6-12 months, and factors independently associated with achieving ≥1% HbA1c target reduction. Results: Overall, 4242 patients (47.9% male; mean BMI 37.5 kg/m2) initiated a GLP-1RA. At 6-12 months, the mean HbA1c level decreased from the baseline 8.8% to 7.7% (-1.0%; SD = 1.6). A 1% reduction in HbA1c was observed in 47.2% of patients. Patients lost a mean of 3.6 kg (SD = 6.2). Sixty percent of patients reduced both HbA1c and body weight, and 17% achieved only one of these targets. Independent determinants of a 1% HbA1c reduction were baseline HbA1c, age, diabetes duration and being on insulin treatment. Reduction in weight or HbA1c and the proportion of patients achieving a HbA1c reduction of ≥1% was significantly larger among subjects prescribed liraglutide than exenatide and lixisenatide. Conclusions: In this real-world, retrospective study, the magnitude of HbA1c and body weight reductions after addition of a GLP-1RA were similar to those observed in randomized controlled trials. Approximately 60% of patients attained reductions in both HbA1c and body weight, and there were significant differences among different drugs from this therapeutic group.

16.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109109

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of sCD36 (soluble CD36) are associated with the presence of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of sCD36 were analysed in 1023 subjects (225 type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, 276 type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, and 522 non-diabetic control subjects) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multinomial and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations with sCD36 and its association with diabetes types. There were no significant differences in sCD36 (p = 0.144) among study groups, neither in head-to-head comparisons: non-diabetic versus T1D subjects (p = 0.180), non-diabetic versus T2D subjects (p = 0.583), and T1D versus T2D patients (p = 0.151). In the multinomial model, lower sCD36 concentrations were associated with older age (p < 0.001), tobacco exposure (p = 0.006), T2D (p = 0.020), and a higher-platelets count (p = 0.004). However, in logistic regression models of diabetes, sCD36 showed only a weak association with T2D. The current findings show a weak association of circulating sCD36 with type 2 diabetes and no association with T1D.

17.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 23(7): 619-630, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100024

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. We hypothesized that CKD promotes a proatherogenic lipid profile modifying lipoprotein composition and particle number. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 395 non-diabetic individuals (209 CKD patients and 186 controls) without statin therapy. Conventional lipid determinations were combined with advanced lipoprotein profiling by nuclear magnetic resonance, and their discrimination ability was assessed by machine learning. Results: CKD patients showed an increase of very-low-density (VLDL) particles and a reduction of LDL particle size. Cholesterol and triglyceride content of VLDLs and intermediate-density (IDL) particles increased. However, low-density (LDL) and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins gained triglycerides and lost cholesterol. Total-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, non-HDL-Cholesterol and Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type (PCSK9) were negatively associated with CKD stages, whereas triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), remnant cholesterol, and the PCSK9/LDL-Cholesterol ratio were positively associated. PCSK9 was positively associated with total-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, LDL-triglycerides, LDL particle number, IDL-Cholesterol, and remnant cholesterol. Machine learning analysis by random forest revealed that new parameters have a higher discrimination ability to classify patients into the CKD group, compared to traditional parameters alone: area under the ROC curve (95% CI), .789 (.711, .853) vs .687 (.611, .755). Conclusions: non-diabetic CKD patients have a hidden proatherogenic lipoprotein profile.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889868

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) may potentially cause vision loss and affect the patient's quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction (TS). Using specific tools, we aimed to assess the impact of DR and clinical factors on the QoL and TS in patients with type 1 diabetes. This was a cross-sectional, two-centre study. A sample of 102 patients with DR and 140 non-DR patients were compared. The Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL-19) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ-s) were administered. Data analysis included bivariate and multivariable analysis. Patients with DR showed a poorer perception of present QoL (p = 0.039), work life (p = 0.037), dependence (p = 0.010), and had a lower average weighted impact (AWI) score (p = 0.045). The multivariable analysis showed that DR was associated with a lower present QoL (p = 0.040), work life (p = 0.036) and dependence (p = 0.016). With regards to TS, DR was associated with a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia (p = 0.019). In patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of DR is associated with a poorer perception of their QoL. With regard to TS, these subjects also show a higher perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia.

19.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925670

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound tissue characterization of carotid plaques in subjects with and without diabetes type 1 (T1D). B-mode carotid ultrasound was performed to assess the presence and type of plaque in a group of 340 subjects with and 304 without T1D, all of them without cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seven patients with T1D (49.5% women; age 54 ± 9.8 years) and 67 control subjects without diabetes who had at least one carotid plaque were included in the study. The proportion of subjects who had only echolucent plaques was reduced in the group of patients with T1D (48.6% vs. 73.1%). In contrast, the proportion with only echogenic (25.2% vs. 7.5%) and calcified plaques (9.4% vs. 1.5%) was increased compared with subjects without diabetes. Moreover, having at least one echogenic plaque was more frequent in T1D patients compared with subjects without diabetes (49.5% vs. 26.9% p = 0.005). In addition to diabetes (OR 2.28; p = 0.026), age (OR 1.06, p = 0.002) was the other variable associated with echogenic plaque existence in multiple regression analysis. Patients with T1D exhibit a differential pattern of carotid plaque type compared with subjects without diabetes, with an increased frequency of echogenic and extensively calcified plaques.

20.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 25, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may reduce diabetes-related complications. The strategy to broaden the knowledge base of primary care professionals to improve health care has mainly been prompted by the current reality of limited resources and access to specialized care. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of comprehensive interventions focused on treatment intensification, decrease clinical inertia and reduce possible barriers to treatment adherence in patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care setting. METHODS: This is a two-phase mixed method study, whose aims are the development of complex interventions and the assessment of their effectiveness. The main study outcome is a change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. The INTEGRA study is divided into two phases. Phase 1: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach using semi-structured interviews with the objective of determining the factors related to the participants and health care professionals that influence the development and implementation of a specific intervention strategy aimed at patients with poor glycaemic control of T2DM in primary care. Phase 2: Exploratory intervention study to be conducted in Primary Health Care Centres in Catalonia (Spain), including 3 specific health care areas. The intervention study has two arms: Intervention Group 1 and 2. Each intervention group will recruit 216 participants (the same as in the control group) between the ages of 30 and 80 years with deficient glycaemic control (HbA1c > 9%). The control group will be established based on a randomized selection from the large SIDIAP (Sistema d'Informació per al desenvolupament de la Investigació en Atenció Primària) database of patients with comparable socio-demographic and clinical characteristics from the three provinces. DISCUSSION: This study is a comprehensive, pragmatic intervention based on glycaemic treatment intensification and the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. It is also aimed at improving treatment adherence and reducing clinical inertia, which could lead to improved glycaemic control and could likewise be feasible for implementation in the actual clinical practice of primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov . registration number. NCT02663245; January 25, 2016.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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