Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Poult Sci ; 99(7): 3301-3311, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616223

RESUMO

Stress and leg weakness are detrimental to broiler production, health, and welfare. Traditional methods to evaluate stress may be stressful to the bird because they are invasive and require handling and restraint. Two studies examined the effects of light intensity and flooring on the following in broilers: 1) traditional methods for assessing stress using heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, 2) noninvasive measures of stress from infrared thermography (IRT) eye and beak surface temperatures, and 3) latency-to-lie (LTL) test times of birds tested individually and in groups of 5. Day-of-hatch male broiler chicks were placed into 6 pens (N = 120 chicks/pen). At 1 wk, pens were allocated to 3 light intensity treatments (2, 5, or 10 lux). At 4 wk, half of the birds from each pen were moved to a pen with wire flooring and the same light intensity. At 1, 4, 5, and 8 wk, blood samples were collected and IRT images of the heads of 5 clinically healthy broilers from each pen were captured. In study 2, IRT images of the heads of birds that became lame in the wire flooring pens were taken. There were no treatment effects on the LTL times of birds tested in groups or individually (P > 0.05). On day 56 in study 1, birds on wire flooring had elevated heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and CORT concentrations (P ≤ 0.002) and depressed IRT eye and beak temperatures (P < 0.0001). In both studies, there were negative correlations between CORT concentrations and IRT beak surface temperatures (P < 0.05). Lame birds had lower IRT eye and beak surface temperatures than sound birds (P ≤ 0.004), and the IRT beak surface temperatures of lame birds were lower than their eye surface temperatures (P = 0.004) in study 2. These studies indicate that the IRT surface temperatures of the eye, and more distinctly of the beak, can be used as sensitive noninvasive indicators of stress.

2.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While daily hydration is best assessed in 24-h urine sample, spot sample is often used by health care professionals and researchers due to its practicality. However, urine output is subject to circadian variation, with urine being more concentrated in the morning. It has been demonstrated that afternoon spot urine samples are most likely to provide equivalent urine concentration to 24-h urine samples in adults. The aim of the present study was to examine whether urine osmolality (UOsm) assessed from a spot urine sample in specific time-windows was equivalent to 24-h UOsm in free-living healthy children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 541 healthy children (age: 3-13 years, female: 45%, 77% non-Hispanic white, BMI:17.7 ± 4.0 kg m-2), UOsm at specific time-windows [morning (0600-1159), early afternoon (1200-1559), late afternoon (1600-1959), evening (2000-2359), overnight (2400-0559), and first morning] was compared with UOsm from the corresponding pooled 24-h urine sample using an equivalence test. RESULTS: Late afternoon (1600-1959) spot urine sample UOsm value was equivalent to the 24-h UOsm value in children (P < 0.05; mean difference: 62 mmol kg-1; 95% CI: 45-78 mmol kg-1). The overall diagnostic ability of urine osmolality assessed at late afternoon (1600-1959) to diagnose elevated urine osmolality on the 24-h sample was good for both cutoffs of 800 mmol kg-1 [area under the curve (AUC): 87.4%; sensitivity: 72.6%; specificity: 90.5%; threshold: 814 mmol kg-1] and 500 mmol kg-1 (AUC: 83.5%; sensitivity: 75.0%; specificity: 80.0%; threshold: 633 mmol kg-1). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in free-living healthy children, 24-h urine concentration may be approximated from a late afternoon spot urine sample. This data will have practical implication for health care professionals and researchers.

3.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7091-7102, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617532

RESUMO

Cranberry volatiles have received little attention for health-promoting properties. In this study, we compared the inhibitory effects of cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and volatile standards on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Polyphenols were analyzed by HPLC/HPLC-MS and volatiles were analyzed by GC/GC-MS. The inhibition of NO production of the fresh cranberry polyphenol and volatile extracts and α-terpineol, linalool, linalool oxide, and eucalyptol standards at 2, 4, and 8-fold dilutions of their original concentrations in fresh cranberries was evaluated by treating these extracts/standards for 1 h before or after LPS application for 24 h. After inducing inflammation with LPS, the polyphenol treatments (317.8 and 635.7 µg g-1) and 1.8 µg g-1 volatile treatment lowered NO levels 46-62% compared to the positive control (P < 0.05). When the cells were treated with polyphenol and volatile extracts before inducing inflammation, the 635.7 µg g-1 and 317.8 µg g-1 polyphenol treatments and 1.8 µg g-1 and 0.9 µg g-1 volatile treatments lowered NO levels (13-52%) compared to the positive control (P < 0.05). Polyphenol and volatile extracts from cranberry were effective in reducing NO production whether applied before or after the application of LPS. α-Terpineol at a concentration found in fresh cranberries (1.16 µg mL-1) was also found to be effective in reducing NO production whether cells were treated before or after application of LPS. Future studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms by which volatile compounds, especially α-terpineol act to mitigate inflammation and to determine the bioavailability of terpenes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2785-2794, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539460

RESUMO

The germination process activates amylolytic enzymes that can produce rice syrup through mashing, however the factors affecting enzyme activities and soluble saccharides have not been investigated. This study characterized amylolytic enzymes activities, including α-amylase, ß-amylase, and α-glucosidase, and soluble saccharides from germinated rice cultivars of four rice cultivars, including waxy, short grain, medium grain, and long grain, under aerobic and anaerobic germination conditions over 4 days and then mashed at 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C. The results showed that the long-grain rice had higher activities of all three enzymes, whereas the waxy rice exhibited lower activities. Glucose and maltose were the predominant saccharides at low mashing temperatures of 55 °C and 65 °C; saccharides of degree of polymerization 3 to 7 became significant at mashing temperatures of 75 °C and 85 °C. The amount and composition of saccharides were strongly influenced by rice cultivar, and germination and mashing conditions. The findings highlight the importance of rice components and starch structure on the amount and composition of soluble saccharides from germinated brown rice. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Rice syrup is commercially produced by the addition of external bacterial enzymes to brown or milled rice. Germinated brown rice is naturally rich in nutrients and amylases, both are produced during the germination process. Because of the presence of naturally activated amylases, germinated brown rice could be used to produce rice syrup without the addition of external enzymes while preserving the nutrients from germination of brown rice.


Assuntos
Amilases/química , Carboidratos/química , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Germinação , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
5.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): 506-508, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic ability of urine reagent strips to identify hypohydration based on urine specific gravity (USG). DESIGN: This study examined the agreement of USG between strips and refractometry with Bland-Altman, whereas the diagnostic ability of the strips to assess hypohydration was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. SETTING: Arkansas high school football preseason practice. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fourteen fresh urine samples were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine specific gravity was assessed by both reagent strips and refractometry. Cutoffs of >1.020 and >1.025 were used for identifying hypohydration. RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the 2 methods. Overall diagnostic ability of the urine strip to identify hypohydration was fair (area under the curve 72%-78%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify hypohydration was poor (63%-71%), and the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration was poor to fair (68%-83%). CONCLUSION: The urine strip method is not valid for assessing hypohydration.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Fitas Reagentes/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Refratometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravidade Específica , Luta Romana/fisiologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 98(4): 1575-1588, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508160

RESUMO

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) is a leading cause of lameness in broilers. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a noninvasive technique for measuring infrared radiation from an object and can be used to evaluate clinical health. Two replicated studies compared the effect of light intensity on broilers grown on a wire flooring model that experimentally increased their susceptibility to and incidence of BCO lameness. Day-of-hatch male broiler chickens were placed into 6 pens on wood shavings litter, and at 1 wk one of 3 light intensity treatments (2, 5, or 10 lux) was allotted. At 4 wk half of the population from each pen was moved to a pen with wire flooring and the same light intensity. At 1, 4, 5, and 8 wk, an IRT image of the legs of 5 clinically healthy broilers from each pen was taken. The right and left proximal femora and tibiae of sound and lame broilers were scored for femoral head necrosis (FHN) and tibial head necrosis (THN) lesion severity. There were minimal effects of light intensity and flooring. In Study 1, but not Study 2, broilers on wire flooring weighed less on day 38 (P = 0.007) and days 57 to 58 (P = 0.003) compared to those on litter. The proportion of broilers that became lame on wire flooring was 52% in Study 1 and 14% in Study 2. The proportion of sound broilers from litter and wire flooring pens with subclinical signs of BCO in their right or left proximal growth plates was over 45% for FHN and 92% for THN, and lame broilers had more severe (P < 0.0001) FHN and THN compared to sound broilers. IRT surface temperatures of the hock joint, shank, and foot were consistently lower (P < 0.0001) in broilers that became lame when compared to sound. Therefore, IRT surface temperatures of broiler leg regions may be useful for detecting lesions attributed to BCO.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Necrose/veterinária , Osteomielite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Termografia/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Coxeadura Animal/microbiologia , Masculino , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Temperatura , Termografia/métodos
7.
Poult Sci ; 97(10): 3381-3389, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901761

RESUMO

There are potential advantages for using noninvasive methods instead of conventional approaches for measuring corticosterone (CORT) as a metric of stress. Two studies compared blood heterophil: lymphocyte (H:L) ratios, serum CORT, cecal content CORT (Study 1), colon content CORT (Study 2), and feather CORT concentrations for broiler chicks receiving drinking water with or without added CORT. On day 28, male broilers (N = 140) were provided tap water (Control group) or water containing 20 mg/L of CORT (CORT group) for up to 72 h. Body weight (BW), blood, feather, cecal, and colon content samples were collected from 10 birds from each treatment group at 0, 6, 12, 24, 30, 48, and 72 h. Data were analyzed with a JMP Pro ANOVA. Mean comparisons were analyzed on significant treatment effects using post hoc t-tests to compare control and CORT measures within each sampling time point. Pearson's pairwise correlations for all data were performed. A treatment by time interaction affected all measures in both studies. In both studies, CORT treatment reduced body weight and increased H:L ratios at later time points. In study 1 cecal content CORT concentrations were elevated with CORT treatment after 24 h, whereas in study 2 colon content CORT concentrations were elevated after 6 h. CORT treatment increased body and primary feather CORT and primary feather CORT increased with time in control groups in both studies. Serum CORT exhibited the lowest variability compared with all other sample sources used for determining CORT. Estimates of CORT by different methods were positively correlated. These results indicate that serum CORT concentrations most reliably reflect the CORT status of broilers, and that feather CORT concentrations demonstrated potential for estimating stress in broilers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/química , Colo/química , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Poult Sci ; 97(8): 2845-2853, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688556

RESUMO

Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC. Means were separated by Tukey-Honest Significant difference (HSD). HP increased with age (d) in 0.152 kcal/d, VO2 and VCO2 were 0.031 and 0.024 L/d per each increase in age (d), respectively. In the light period, hens consumed +17.4 L/d VO2 and produced +18.9 L/d VCO2 (P < 0.01). HP during the dark period was 84 kcal/kg0.75 and during the light period was 115 kcal/kg0.75. RER decreased with age until 43 wk and remained the same until 59 wk suggesting more fat and/or protein being oxidized at later periods of production. Lean body mass ranged from 642 to 783 g/kg during the whole study reaching the lowest at 37 and 50 wk and the highest at 26 to 33 wk (P < 0.01). Body fat ranged from 168 to 261 g/kg with the lowest at 26 to 33 wk and the highest at 50 wk of age (P < 0.01). Broiler breeder females may be catabolizing fat energy reserves from 50 wk onwards when the egg production is reduced, and HP increased at 54 and 59 wk (P < 0.01) due to higher energy required for maintenance of a higher lean mass structure. Broiler breeders change nutrient fuel use during egg production. Indirect calorimetry and DEXA can be used to pursue further feed strategies to maximize egg production and maintain a healthy breeder.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Reprodução , Termogênese , Tecido Adiposo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Calorimetria , Feminino
9.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
10.
Food Funct ; 8(10): 3459-3468, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876355

RESUMO

Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L-1. Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Frutas/química , Glutationa/química , Rubus/química , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura
11.
J Food Prot ; 80(10): 1613-1622, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853629

RESUMO

In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , América do Norte
12.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 27(1): 18-24, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616716

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22 °C, 7 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). UOsm was stable at 22 °C, for 1 day (+5-9 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05) and at 7 °C, UOsm up to 7 days (+8-8 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05). At -20 and -80 °C, UOsm decreased after 1, 2, and 7 days (9-61 mmol∙kg-1, p < .05). Vortexing the sample before analysis further decreased only UOsm in the -20 °C and -80 °C storage. USG remained stable up to 7 days when samples were stored in 22 °C or 7 °C (p > .05) but declined significantly when stored in -20 °C, and -80 °C (p < .001). UC was not stable in any of the storing conditions for 1, 2, and 7 days. In conclusion, these data indicate that urine specimens analyzed for UOsm or USG remained stable in refrigerated (7 °C) environment for up to 7 days, and in room temperature for 1 day. However, freezing (-20 and -80 °C) samples significantly decreased the values of hydration markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Desidratação/urina , Manejo de Espécimes , Urinálise , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Análise de Regressão , Gravidade Específica , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483318

RESUMO

We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Água Potável , Ingestão de Energia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desidratação/etnologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/urina , Dieta/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Espanha
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(3): 693-9, 2013 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23282318

RESUMO

Chokeberry anthocyanins are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage of processed products. This study determined the effects of three pH levels (2.8, 3.2, and 3.6) and four ß-cyclodextrin (BCD) concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 3%) alone and in combination on the stability of chokeberry juice anthocyanins before and after pasteurization and over 8 months of storage at 4 and 25 °C. Lowering the pH from 3.6 to 2.8 in the absence of BCD provided marginal protection against anthocyanin losses during processing and storage. Addition of 3% BCD at the natural chokeberry pH of 3.6 resulted in excellent protection of anthocyanins, with 81 and 95% retentions after 8 months of storage at 25 and 4 °C, respectively. The protective effect of BCD was lessened with concentrations <3% and reduction in pH, indicating changes in anthocyanin structure play an important role in BCD stabilization of anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Refrigeração
15.
J Food Prot ; 75(9): 1660-72, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22947475

RESUMO

International attention has been focused on minimizing costs that may unnecessarily raise food prices. One important aspect to consider is the redundant and overlapping costs of food safety audits. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) has devised benchmarked schemes based on existing international food safety standards for use as a unifying standard accepted by many retailers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the decision made by Walmart Stores (Bentonville, AR) to require their suppliers to become GFSI compliant. An online survey of 174 retail suppliers was conducted to assess food suppliers' opinions of this requirement and the benefits suppliers realized when they transitioned from their previous food safety systems. The most common reason for becoming GFSI compliant was to meet customers' requirements; thus, supplier implementation of the GFSI standards was not entirely voluntary. Other reasons given for compliance were enhancing food safety and remaining competitive. About 54 % of food processing plants using GFSI benchmarked schemes followed the guidelines of Safe Quality Food 2000 and 37 % followed those of the British Retail Consortium. At the supplier level, 58 % followed Safe Quality Food 2000 and 31 % followed the British Retail Consortium. Respondents reported that the certification process took about 10 months. The most common reason for selecting a certain GFSI benchmarked scheme was because it was widely accepted by customers (retailers). Four other common reasons were (i) the standard has a good reputation in the industry, (ii) the standard was recommended by others, (iii) the standard is most often used in the industry, and (iv) the standard was required by one of their customers. Most suppliers agreed that increased safety of their products was required to comply with GFSI benchmarked schemes. They also agreed that the GFSI required a more carefully documented food safety management system, which often required improved company food safety practices and increased employee training. Adoption of a GFSI benchmarked scheme resulted in fewer audits, i.e., one less per year. An educational opportunity exists to acquaint retailers and suppliers worldwide with the benefits of having an internationally recognized certification program such as that recognized by the GFSI.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/normas , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Controle de Qualidade
16.
J Food Prot ; 74(8): 1261-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21819652

RESUMO

Contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat poultry products poses potential risk of listeriosis to the public. To control the level of Listeria contamination, attention has been focused on the postpackage pasteurization of fully cooked poultry products. In this study, we sought to develop a model to predict the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes in chicken drumettes during postpackage hot water pasteurization. Fully cooked chicken drumettes were inoculated with Listeria innocua as a surrogate microorganism for Listeria monocytogenes, vacuum packaged, and treated in hot water baths at 60, 70, 80, and 90°C for different heating times. Experimental results showed that a 7-log CFU/g reduction of L. innocua occurred at 54, 28, 18, and 10 min at 60, 70, 80, and 90°C, respectively. The Weibull model was used to fit the survival curves of L. innocua at each heating temperature. The root mean square errors and residual plots indicated good agreements between the predicted and observed values. The predictive model was further validated by predicting a new data set generated in the pilot-plant tests. Model performance was evaluated by the acceptable prediction zone method, and the results indicated that the percentages of acceptable prediction errors were 100, 100, 82.4, and 87.5% at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C, respectively, which were all greater than the threshold acceptable value of 70% , indicating good performance of the model. The developed predictive model can be used as a tool to predict thermal inactivation behaviors of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat chicken drumettes products.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Listeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(5): 2862-8, 2010 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20148515

RESUMO

Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was used to optimize and determine the effectiveness of an alternative, environmentally friendly extraction procedure using subcritical solvents to recover anthocyanins from freeze-dried, ground Sunbelt red grape pomace. Anthocyanins were extracted from pomace using the following ASE variables: pressure (6.8 MPa), one extraction cycle, and temperature (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 degrees C). Conventional solvent extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (60:37:3 v/v/v) was compared to four hydroethanolic solvents (10, 30, 50, and 70% ethanol in water, v/v). Anthocyanins in the extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC-MS and HPLC. There was an insignificant interaction between solvent and temperature (p = 0.0663). Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted more total anthocyanins (463 and 455 mg/100 g of DW, respectively) than other solvents. The total amounts of anthocyanins extracted at 100 degrees C (450 mg/100 g of DW), 80 degrees C (436 mg/100 g of DW), and 120 degrees C (411 mg/100 g of DW) were higher than at the other temperatures. Solvents containing 70 and 50% ethanol in water extracted similar amounts of anthocyanins as conventional extraction solvent.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Solventes
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(7): 4022-9, 2010 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20055410

RESUMO

Fresh blueberries were processed into sugar and sugar-free jams and stored for 6 months at 4 and 25 degrees C. The jams were analyzed immediately after processing and over 6 months of storage for polyphenolic content, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity. Processing resulted in losses of anthocyanins, procyanidins, chlorogenic acid, and ORAC in both jam types, but flavonols were well retained. Marked losses of anthocyanins and procyanidins occurred over 6 months of storage and were accompanied by increased polymeric color values. Chlorogenic acid levels also declined during storage, but flavonols and ORAC changed little. Jams stored at 4 degrees C retained higher levels of anthocyanins, procyanidins, and ORAC and had lower polymeric color values than jams stored at 25 degrees C. Sugar-free jams retained higher levels of anthocyanins and had lower polymeric color values than sugar jams late during storage. Blueberry jams should be refrigerated to better retain polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Flavonoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(7): 4014-21, 2010 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20020688

RESUMO

Procyanidins in dried Sunbelt ( Vitis labrusca L.) red grape pomace were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with pressure (6.8 MPa), one extraction cycle, and temperature (40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 degrees C). Six ethanol/water solvents (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%, v/v) were compared to conventional extraction with acetone/water/acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5, v/v/v). Procyanidins in the extracts were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and contained degrees of polymerization (DP) of 1-5 (monomers through pentamers) and polymers (DP > 10). Generally, 50% ethanol/water (v/v) extracted more total procyanidins than other ethanol/water compositions, and contained up to 115% of total procyanidins extracted by the acetone-based conventional solvent. Additionally, 50% ethanol/water (v/v) extracted 205, 221, and 113% more epicatechin, catechin, and dimers, respectively, than conventional extraction. Results indicated greater extraction of low oligomeric procyanidins using 50% ethanol/water (v/v) solvent between 80 and 140 degrees C.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Vitis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 47(5): 416-25, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19249223

RESUMO

Virtually all plants are able to recognize attack by herbivorous insects and release volatile organic compounds (VOC) in response. Terpenes are the most abundant and varied class of insect-induced VOC from plants. Four genes encoding putative terpene synthases (MtTps1, MtTps2, MtTps3 and MtTps4) were shown to accumulate in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. in response to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) feeding and methyl jasmonate treatment in a previous study [S.K. Gomez, M.M. Cox, J.C. Bede, K.K. Inoue, H.T. Alborn, J.H. Tumlinson, K.L. Korth, Lepidopteran herbivory and oral factors induce transcripts encoding novel terpene synthases in Medicago truncatula, Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 58 (2005) 114-127.] The focus of the current study is the functional characterization of one (MtTps4) of these four genes. Using an M. truncatula cDNA clone, the insect-inducible putative terpene synthase was expressed in Escherichiacoli and shown to convert geranyl diphosphate (GPP) into the monoterpene (E)-beta-ocimene as the major product. The clone was therefore designated M. truncatula (E)-beta-ocimene synthase (MtEBOS). Transcripts encoding this enzyme accumulate in M. truncatula leaves in response to exogenous jasmonic acid treatments, lepidopteran herbivory, and lepidopteran oral secretions. Treatment with the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) did not cause an increase in MtEBOS transcripts. The volatile (E)-beta-ocimene was released from leaves of both undamaged and insect-damaged plants, but at levels two-fold higher in insect-damaged M. truncatula. Although leaves have low constitutive levels of MtEBOS transcripts, RNA blot analysis indicates no constitutive expression in flowers, stems or roots. The strong insect-induced expression of this gene, and its correspondence with release of volatile ocimene, suggest that it plays an active role in indirect insect defenses in M. truncatula.


Assuntos
Alcenos/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alquil e Aril Transferases/classificação , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , DNA Complementar/genética , Difosfatos/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA